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Year 885 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. Summer – Emperor Charles the Fat summons a meeting of officials at Lobith, accuses Hugh, an illegitimate son of former king Lothair II, his vassal Godfrid, of plotting against him. Hugh is blinded, exiled to the Abbey of Saint Gall. Godfrid is killed at the connivance of Henry of Franconia; the local count, takes over the West Frisian coastline from the Danish, after the murder. Summer – Charles the Fat designates his illegitimate son Bernard as his heir, ignoring the claims of his nephew, Arnulf of Carinthia, Charles the Simple; the Frankish bishops protest, so Charles summons Pope Adrian III to an assembly in Worms, to resolve the issue. Adrian leaves Rome in the hands of Bishop John of Pavia, he dies on the way -- just after crossing the River Po. November 25 – Siege of Paris: Viking forces, under the Norse chieftains Sigfred and Sinric, sail up the River Seine for eastern France, with a fleet of 300 longships, they appear before Paris, offer to spare the city if they are allowed free passage, by paying them tribute.

Their request is denied, on November 27 the Vikings begin the siege by attacking the northeast tower with ballistae and catapults. All Viking attacks are repulsed by Count of Paris, who defends the city with a small garrison. Sigfred decides to withdraw, builds a camp on the right side of the river bank. Meanwhile he mines the city, scours the countryside for provisions. King Alfred the Great summons Asser, a relative of Bishop Nobis of St. David's, to the English court, he agrees to spend six months of the year in the king's service. Asser helps to negotiate the recognition of Alfred, as overlord of the Welsh kings. Danish Vikings embark in Kent, besiege Rochester. By improving the defences of the major towns, the city holds out long enough for Alfred the Great to organize an army, he forces the Vikings to flee back to the Continent. Kings Hyfaidd of Dyfed, Elisedd of Brycheiniog and Hywel of Glywysing, being harassed by the armies of King Anarawd, seek the protection of Alfred the Great, submit to his overlordship.

Anarawd seeks an alliance with King Guthred of York. Battle of Tawahin: Muslim forces of the Abbasid Caliphate, under Al-Mu'tadid, are defeated near Ramlah by Khumarawayh, ruler of the Tulunid Dynasty; this ends the Abbasid attempt to recover Syria from the Tulunids. A large part of the Abbasid army is captured, transported to Egypt. Khumarawayh aims for reconciliation with the caliphal government, allows the soldiers who want to return to modern-day Iraq to depart without ransom, while offering the rest the opportunity to settle in Egypt. July – Pope Adrian III dies after a 1½ reign near Modena, while en route to an Imperial Diet, summoned by Charles the Fat at Worms, he is succeeded as the 110th pope of the Catholic Church. February 6 – Daigo, emperor of Japan December 2 – Zhuang Zong, emperor of Later Tang Atto of Vercelli, Lombard bishop Eberhard III, duke of Franconia Eric I, Norwegian Viking ruler Fujiwara no Onshi, empress of Japan Gao Xingzhou, Chinese general Ibn Muqla, Muslim official and vizier Li Congke, emperor of Later Tang Reccared, Galician clergyman Zhao Ying, Chinese chancellor July 25 – Ragenold, margrave of Neustria Adrian III, pope of the Catholic Church Chen Ru, Chinese warlord and governor Gerebald, bishop of Chalon-sur-Saône Godfrid, duke of Frisia Liutgard of Saxony, Frankish queen Methodius, Byzantine missionary and bishop Mihira Bhoja, king of the Gurjara-Pratihara Dynasty Muiredach mac Brain, king of Leinster Sulayman ibn Wahb, Muslim official and vizier Zhu Jingmei, Chinese eunuch and military leader

Cox & Kings

Cox & Kings Ltd. set up in 1758, is one of the longest established travel companies. Headquartered in India and the UK, the holiday and education travel group has subsidiaries in the United States, the United Kingdom, the United Arab Emirates, Singapore and New Zealand. Cox & Kings Ltd. has operations spread across 4 continents. Cox and Kings Ltd. has been an army agent, a travel agent, a printer and publisher. It has worked as a news agent, cargo agent, ship-owner, insurance agent, dealer of several travel-related activities, its core activities now include the sale of packaged holidays. Cox was born in Yorkshire in 1718, his father had made a good living as a lawyer and had moved from his birthplace in Clent in Worcestershire to Yorkshire. He bought an estate near Quarley in Hampshire. Richard Cox came into the service of Lord Ligonier, as a clerk in the early 1740s. In 1747 he married Caroline Codrington, daughter of Sir William Codrington, an established military figure. Cox's career took off when Lord Ligonier led the Flanders campaigns of the War of the Austrian Succession.

In one letter sent back to London, Richard Cox made a demand that "suitable winter provisions and housing should be made available for the three English companies" and he became entwined with logistics and the general welfare of the troops. Ligonier made Cox his private secretary in the late 1740s, went on to become the colonel of the First Foot Guards in 1757, rewarded Cox with the post of "military agent" after the incumbent died in May 1758, thus was born Co.. There were about a dozen main agents working for the army at that time and each regimental colonel chose one to serve their troops; these agents arranged the payment of officers and men, organized the provision of clothing, acted as intermediaries for the buying and selling of officers' commissions and acted on any special requests from the regimental adjutant. Duties ranged from the shipment of personal effects to the requisition of supplies. Cox had taken on the most prestigious infantry regiment, the 63rd Regiment and the Royal Artillery soon followed.

In 1765 Cox went into partnership with Henry Drummond. Cox & Drummond moved from Cox's house in Albemarle Street to Craig's Court, just off what is now Whitehall. By the mid-1760s Cox & Drummond had blossomed to become agents for the Dragoons and eight more Infantry regiments. Success was built on the company's reputation for keen attention to the welfare of its regiments. In 1763, for instance, when Robert Clive stormed the fortress of Gheria in India, Cox negotiated with the East India Company who had "borrowed" stores from Cox's clients, the Royal Artillery, he arranged to receive repayment from the East India Company by way of plunder from Gheria. He had this converted into silver in India and shipped back to London where the funds were returned to the Royal Artillery. Back home, Cox's house on Albemarle Street was known for its parties. In addition, he was a patron of the arts, being acquainted with David Garrick and other notable actors of the time, was a founding financial investor in the rebuilding of the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane.

He was a generous benefactor to St George's Hospital on Hyde Park Corner. The records of the family estate at Quarley show that Cox spent over £3,000 per annum running it, much of it lavished on his wife. By 1768, Cox & Drummond were flourishing, with a turnover of £345,000 per annum. During the 1770s the company continued to grow, aided by war in the American Colonies and the threat of invasion from France. Cox repeated his good fortune with business partners, taking in Mr Mair upon Drummond's death in 1772, followed by his own son Richard Bethell Cox in 1779 and Mr Greenwood in 1783, it was during this time that the company expanded its banking interests, offering loans and accounts to exclusive members of London's elite. Frederick, Duke of York, introduced Cox's business partner Greenwood to his father George III, as "Mr Greenwood, the gentlemen who keep my money". Greenwood replied rather cheekily that, "I think it is rather his Royal Highness who keeps my money", to which George III burst out in laughter and said, "Do you hear that Frederick?

Do you hear that? You are the gentleman who keeps Mr Greenwood's money!" The company was thriving by the time of the outbreak of war with France in 1793, employing some 35 clerks. In 1795 they served 14 regiments of cavalry, 64 infantry regiments, 17 militia regiments, becoming the largest military agent for the army. Richard Cox died in August 1803, leaving his grandson Richard Henry Cox established, with Greenwood as a controlling partner. Cox & Co grew through the 19th centuries. Timely alliances with the great banking families such as the Hammerlseys and Greenwoods secured an established position in London, by the end of the 19th century, most regiments used Cox & Co as their agents; as the empire grew, Cox & Co met the demand for officers to be looked after. The company set up five branches in India between 1905 and 1911. At the start of World War I, Cox & Co employed some 180 staff. During the war some 250,000 men were on their books, 50,000 cheques were cleared a day and a special department was set up to deal with the influx of American soldiers in 1917.

By the end of the war, some 4,500 people worked for the firm. Cox & Co suffered a downturn in business as a result of the end of the war in 1918. After the war, Cox & Co. expanded to Egypt and Rangoon. In October 1922, Cox & Co bought Henry S. King Bank, who had a large network of branches in

Randall Robinson

Randall Robinson is an African-American lawyer and activist, noted as the founder of TransAfrica. He is known for his impassioned opposition to apartheid, for his advocacy on behalf of Haitian immigrants and Haitian president Jean-Bertrand Aristide. Robinson was born in Richmond, Virginia to Maxie Cleveland Robinson and Doris Robinson Griffin, both teachers; the late ABC News anchorman, Max Robinson, was his elder brother. Randall Robinson graduated from Virginia Union University, earned a J. D. degree at Harvard Law School. He has an older sister, actress Jewel Robinson, a younger sister, Pastor Jean Robinson. Both sisters live and work in the Washington, D. C. area. He and his former wife had a daughter, Anike Robinson, a son, Jabari Robinson, he is married to Hazel Ross-Robinson and they have one daughter, Khalea Ross Robinson. Robinson was a civil rights attorney in Boston before he worked for U. S. Congressman Bill Clay and as administrative assistant to Congressman Charles Diggs, he was a Ford fellow.

Robinson founded the TransAfrica Forum in 1977, which-according to its mission statement-serves as a "major research and organizing institution for the African-American community, offering constructive analysis concerning U. S. policy as it affects Africa and the African Diaspora in the Caribbean and Latin America." He served in the capacity as TransAfrica's president until 2001. During that period he gained visibility for his political activism, organizing sit-ins at the South African embassy in order to protest the Afrikaner government's racial policy of discrimination against black South Africans, a personal hunger strike aimed at pressuring the United States government into restoring Jean-Bertrand Aristide to power after the short-lived coup by General Raoul Cédras, dumping crates filled with bananas onto the steps of the United States Trade Representative in order to protest what he views as discriminatory trade policies aimed at Caribbean nations, such as protective tariffs and import quotas.

In 2001, he authored a book "The Debt: What America Owes To Blacks", which presented an in-depth outline regarding his belief that wide-scale reparations should be offered to African-Americans as a means of redressing what he perceives as centuries of discrimination and oppression directed at the group. The book argues for the enactment of race-based reparation programs as restitution for the continued social and economic issues in the African-American community, such as a high proportion of incarcerated black citizens and the differential in cumulative wealth between white and black Americans. Although some reviewers praised Robinson for delving into a controversial topic that had not been addressed in the mainstream media, others criticized him for reverse racism, asserted that his own personal success contradicted the dire portrait he portrayed of the conditions faced by African-Americans living in the United States. In 2003 Robinson turned down an honorary degree from Georgetown University Law Center.

Robinson began teaching at The Pennsylvania State UniversityDickinson School of Law in the fall of 2008. In 2001, Robinson quit his position as head of TransAfrica and decided to emigrate to St. Kitts - where his wife, a member of a prominent Kittitian family, was born - a decision chronicled in his book, "Quitting America: The Departure of a Black Man from his Native Land." Robinson's self-imposed exile was caused by what he describes as his antipathy towards America's domestic policies and foreign policy, both of which he believes exploit minorities and the poor. Robinson is serving as Distinguished Scholar in Residence at the Pennsylvania State University Dickinson School of Law. Robinson, Randall; the emancipation of Wakefield Clay: a novel. London: Bogle-L'Ouverture Publications. ISBN 0904521125. LCCN 81451366. Robinson, Randall. Makeda. New York: Akashic Books/Open Lens. ISBN 9781617750229. LCCN 2011923178. An Unbroken Agony: Haiti, From Revolution to the Kidnapping of a President, Perseus Books Group, 2007.

ISBN 0-465-07050-7 Quitting America: The Departure of a Black Man From His Native Land, Plume Books, 2004. ISBN 0-452-28630-1 The Reckoning: What Blacks Owe to Each Other, Plume, 2002. ISBN 0-452-28314-0 The Debt: What America Owes to Blacks, Plume, 2001. ISBN 0-452-28210-1 Defending the Spirit, Plume. ISBN 0-452-27968-2 Official website Randall Robinson interviewed on Conversations from Penn State Randall Robinson on Democracy Now Huffington Post biography African American Registry biography Randall Robinson Interview in The Progressive Magazine Randall Robinson: Aristide Says'Tell the World It Is a Coup' Interview by Amy Goodman on "Democracy Now!." Appearances on C-SPAN Booknotes interview with Robinson on Defending the Spirit: A Black Life in America, March 15, 1998. C-SPAN Q&A interview with Robinson, July 22, 2007 In Depth interview with Robinson, February 3, 2013 Review of Randall Robinson, Alex Dupuy, Peter Hallward books on Haiti NACLA, 2008

Sounds Unheard Of!

Sounds Unheard Of! is an album by drummer Shelly Manne and guitarist Jack Marshall recorded in early 1962 and released on the Contemporary label. The album was produced as a stereo test and demonstration record to be used by hi-fi enthusiasts to test the performance of their audio systems; the duo followed this with another release in 1966 on the Capitol label titled Sounds!. The Allmusic review by Scott Yanow states "On a dozen standards, Marshall's playing serves as interludes between the percussion displays of Manne; the music is routine if the sound is excellent for the period". "Poinciana" - 3:10 "My Funny Valentine" - 3:05 "The Continental" - 3:26 "By Myself" - 2:19 "Stormy Weather" - 2:54 "Begin the Beguine" - 3:35 "Night and Day" - 3:09 "Makin' Whoopee" - 2:39 "The Piccolino" - 3:11 "I'll Remember April" - 3:17 "The Boy Next Door" - 2:42 "Temptation" - 3:12 Shelly Manne - percussion Jack Marshall - classical guitar

Ken Wu

Chao Feng Wu, most known by his English name Ken Wu is a Taiwanese American community leader based in Los Angeles area and proponent of Taiwan Independence movement. He is the chapter president of Formosan Association for Public Affairs Los Angeles Chapter and chipo head of World United Formosans for Independence or WUFI, an organization promoting Taiwan independence. Wu is the Secretary-General of Taiwan Center Foundation of Greater Los Angeles, who serves as the foundation's Board Member, he is best known as the chairman of Taiwanese American Heritage Week Committee of Greater Los Angeles for the years 2017 and 2018. Wu serves as an executive committee member of the Democratic Progressive Party US West Chapter and due to his many involvements in the overseas Taiwanese community, he serves as an Overseas Community Affairs Council advisor for the Los Angeles area. Ken Wu was born in Monga District of Taipei and attended Taipei Dong Yuan Elementary School in Taipei until he emigrated to Seattle, Washington, USA at age ten.

Wu attended Eckstein Middle School and Roosevelt High School in Seattle and finished his high school studies at Monta Vista High School in Cupertino, California. He graduated from UCLA in 2003 where he completed his studies in Economics and Public Policy, he directed and produced a stage play Typhoon Night when he served as the director of Taiwanese American Union's Taiwanese Culture Night. Wu decided to pursue a professional career in banking and investments for a major American bank after college before he became more involved in Taiwanese American community works. Wu believes the independent" generation are more supportive of Taiwan independence and are more willing to sacrifice for their nation for they just want to have a Taiwanese nation for the people of Taiwan. Wu sees the greatest challenge of Taiwan independence movement is its lack of consensus among different generations of Taiwan independence advocates. On US-Taiwan relations, Wu suggests; as FAPA Los Angeles chapter president, Wu organized genocide prevention events that aimed to commemorate February 28 Incident and further mutual understandings of various ethnic groups victimized by government oppression.

Wu in the 2017 event stood with featured keynote speaker Rebiya Kadeer and support the independence movement for Taiwan and East Turkestan, against Chinese government. In 2018, Wu addressed the ongoing human rights violations in Hong Kong and states that Taiwanese people can help Hong Kong with their experience in democratization process

Brown-winged whistling thrush

The brown-winged whistling thrush known as the Sumatran whistling thrush or chestnut-winged whistling thrush, is a passerine bird belonging to the whistling thrush genus Myophonus in the family Muscicapidae. It is endemic to the island of Sumatra in Indonesia. In the past, it has been lumped together with the Javan whistling thrush and Bornean whistling thrush as the "Sunda whistling thrush" but it is now regarded as a separate species based on differences in plumage and measurements, it is about 25 centimetres long. The black bill has an average depth of 7.3 millimetres, slenderer than the bills of the Bornean and Javan whistling thrushes. The legs and feet are dark brown; the adult male has a dark blue head and shoulders with the rest of the plumage being chestnut. The adult female and immature are dull chestnut-brown with a blue patch on the shoulder; the Bornean and Javan whistling thrushes lack any chestnut coloration. It has a harsh grating call, it occurs in montane forest from 400 to 1500 metres above sea-level.

It is found near streams and keeps to the middle and subcanopy layers of the forest. It is believed to be declining as a result of deforestation. BirdLife International Species factsheet: Myophonus castaneus. Downloaded from on 2/10/2007. Collar, N. J. Species limits in some Indonesian thrushes, Forktail, 20: 71–87. MacKinnon, John & Phillipps, Karen A Field Guide to the Birds of Borneo, Sumatra and Bali, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Oriental Bird Images: Chestnut-winged Whistling-thrush