Stary Oskol is a city in Belgorod Oblast, located 618 kilometers south of Moscow. Population: 221,085, it is called Stary Oskol to distinguish it from Novy Oskol 60km south. Both are on the Oskol River, it was near the Muravsky Trail used by Nogais to raid Muscovy. In 1571 a fort was built nearby, it was abandoned after 15 years. In 1593 Oskol was refounded as a fortress. In 1617 it was burned by the Poles; the surrounding area was raided by the Tatars. In 1655 it was renamed Stary Oskol to distinguish it from the new fort at Novy Oskol, it was affected by the Russian Civil War in 1919, as well as by World War II, where it was captured by Hungarian troops. After World War II, industry developed in the city and its population started to grow. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Stary Oskol serves as the administrative center of Starooskolsky District though it is not a part of it; as an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the town of oblast significance of Stary Oskol—an administrative unit with a status equal to that of the districts.
As a municipal division, the territories of the city of oblast significance of Stary Oskol and of Starooskolsky District are incorporated as Starooskolsky Urban Okrug. Stary Oskol is an important center of iron ore mining, situated at the border of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly, one of the largest deposits of iron ore worldwide. Over eight million tons of iron ore are mined here per year. For this reason there is a branch of the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys in the city. One of the oldest kids music schools in the city is located on Lenina Street. Alexander Emelianenko, mixed martial artist Fedor Emelianenko, mixed martial artist Denis Lebedev, boxer Kirill Sidelnikov, mixed martial artist Stary Oskol is twinned with: Salzgitter, Germany Asenovgrad, Bulgaria Mänttä, Finland Белгородская областная Дума. Закон №248 от 15 декабря 2008 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Белгородской области», в ред. Закона №213 от 4 июля 2013 г. «О внесении изменения в Закон Белгородской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Белгородской области"».
Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней со дня официального опубликования за исключением положений, для которых предусмотрены иные сроки вступления в силу. Опубликован: "Белгородские известия", №219-220, 19 декабря 2008 г.. Белгородская областная Дума. Закон №159 от 20 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения, городского округа, муниципального района», в ред. Закона №244 от 4 декабря 2013 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 12 Закона Белгородской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения, городского округа, муниципального района"». Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Белгородские известия", №218–220, 24 декабря 2004 г.. Совет депутатов Старооскольского городского округа. Решение №24 от 21 февраля 2008 г. «Устав Старооскольского городского округа Белгородской области», в ред. Решения №533 от 25 февраля 2011 г «О внесении изменений в Устав Старооскольского городского округа Белгородской области».
Вступил в силу с 6 марта 2008 г. за исключением положений, для которых главой XIV установлен иной порядок вступления их в силу. Опубликован: "Оскольский край", №28, 6 марта 2008 г
Nestor Dmitryevich Kozin was a Soviet Army major general. After being drafted into the Red Army in 1924, Kozin became an officer and from 1939 was a battalion commander in the 107th Rifle Division. Kozin fought in the Yelnya Offensive after the 107th was moved west and became a regimental commander in the 100th Rifle Division in August 1941. After the end of the Yelnya Offensive in early September, Kozin was awarded the Order of Lenin for his leadership and the 100th Rifle Division became the 1st Guards Rifle Division, he fought in the Battle of Moscow and in April 1942 was appointed commander of the 8th Motor Rifle Division NKVD. The division fought in Operation Uranus. Kozin received the Order of Suvorov 2nd class and the division became the 52nd Guards Rifle Division for its actions in the offensive; the division continued to fight at Stalingrad and Kozin was wounded in January 1943. After recovery, he was sent to study at the Military Academy of the General Staff, where he remained until given command of the 13th Guards Airborne Division in April 1944.
During August and September, Kozin led the 189th Rifle Division during the Tartu Offensive. In September, he returned to command of the 52nd Guards Rifle Division and led it during the Baltic Offensive, Vistula–Oder Offensive, East Pomeranian Offensive and Berlin Offensive. For his leadership of the division, Kozin was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union on 29 May. After the war, he continued to serve in the army and retired in 1954, he lived in Barnaul and died in 1992. Kozin was born on 28 October 1902 in the village of Burkovo-Pokrovskoye in Tomsk Governorate, his father died when Kozin was still a child and Kozin became a farmworker. He worked as a laborer at the Tatarsky railway station. Kozin received his only education during the Bolshevik Likbez literacy campaign. In 1924, Kozin was drafted into the Red Army, he graduated from a regimental school for junior commander in 1927, after which he became a squad leader. He was sent to the Omsk Infantry School, from which he graduated in 1929.
Kozin became a machine gun platoon commander and intelligence officer of a rifle division. In 1939, he became a battalion commander in the 107th Rifle Division's 586th Rifle Regiment at Biysk. After Operation Barbarossa, the 107th Rifle Division was transferred to the front and engaged in combat on 16 July near Yelnya. During the Battle of Smolensk, Kozin was reported to have shown leadership skills. In one action, he sent only one company in frontal attack against superior German troops and outflanked the German positions using his two other companies; this attack caused the defeat of the German troops and led to a breakthrough. In August, Kozin became commander of the 100th Rifle Division's 85th Rifle Regiment, he fought in the Yelnya Offensive at the beginning of September. The division became the 1st Guards Rifle Division, the regiment became the 2nd Guards Rifle Regiment, Kozin was awarded the Order of Lenin for his leadership during the offensive, he led the regiment in defensive battles east of Belgorod and in December fought in the counteroffensive at Moscow.
During the Yelnya and Livny Offensives, the regiment advanced 150 kilometers. In April 1942, Kozin became the commander of the 8th Motor Rifle Division NKVD in the Voronezh area. In June, the division was converted into the 63rd Rifle Division; the division fought in the Battle of Voronezh during the summer. In late November, the division fought in Operation Uranus; the 63rd was part of the 21st Army's main attack and broke through the Romanian-German defenses, advancing southwards. In the area of Raspopinskaya village, the division helped encircle two corps of the Romanian Third Army between 21 and 22 November; the 63rd's attacks split the pocket in half and simulated a mechanized attack using the division's motor transport battalion. On the evening of 23 November, Romanian 14th Infantry Division commander General Stanescu surrendered the 27,000 troops in the pocket. For his actions, Kozin was awarded the Order of Suvorov 2nd class and the division became the 52nd Guards Rifle Division on 27 November.
The division fought in the Soviet attacks to shrink the Stalingrad Pocket. On 21 January 1943, Kozin was promoted to major general, he was sent to the hospital. After his recovery, Kozin was sent to study at the Military Academy of the General Staff. In April 1944, Kozin graduated from the academy and became commander of the 13th Guards Airborne Division, part of the Reserve of the Supreme High Command. In August, he was transferred to command the 189th Rifle Division and led it during the Tartu Offensive. In September, Kozin returned to command the 52nd Guards Rifle Division, he led the division during the Baltic Offensive, where the division became one of the first to reach Riga. In January 1945, the division fought in the Vistula–Oder Offensive. From February to April, the division fought in the East Pomeranian Offensive. From 19 April, the division fought in the Berlin Offensive. During the next three days, the division overran three German defensive lines and on 21 April the division was among the first to reach Berlin itself.
During attacks on the northern outskirts of the city, the division captured 120 quarters in fighting from 22 April to 2 May. On 29 May, Kozin was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union and the Order of Lenin for his leadership, he participated in the Moscow Victory Parade of 1945 on 24 June. After the end of the war, Kozin continued to serve in the army. In 1954, he retired due to health issues caused by his war wounds, he lived in Saratov but moved to Barnaul in 1955. He became an honorary citizen of the ci
Oboyan is a town and the administrative center of Oboyansky District in Kursk Oblast, located on the right bank of the Psyol River at its confluence with the Oboyanka River, 60 kilometers south of Kursk, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 13,565 , it was founded in 1639 as a fortress on the southern borders of the Russian state. It was granted town status in 1779. During World War I, Oboyan was occupied by German troops on April 17–19, 1918. During the Russian Civil War, Oboyan was controlled by the troops of General Denikin on August 17–30, 1918 and from September 13, 1918 to November 26, 1919. During World War II, Oboyan was occupied by German troops from November 16, 1941 to February 18, 1943. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Oboyan serves as the administrative center of Oboyansky District; as an administrative division, it is incorporated within Oboyansky District as the town of district significance of Oboyan. As a municipal division, the town of district significance of Oboyan is incorporated within Oboyansky Municipal District as Oboyan Urban Settlement.
Губернатор Курской области. Постановление №489 от 6 ноября 2008 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц населённых пунктов Курской области», в ред. Постановления №26-пг от 29 января 2013 г. «О внесении изменений и дополнений в Постановление Губернатора Курской области от 06.11.2008 №489 "Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц населённых пунктов Курской области"». Вступил в силу 6 ноября 2008 г.. Курская областная Дума. Закон №60-ЗКО от 1 декабря 2004 г. «О границах муниципальных образований Курской области», в ред. Закона №127-ЗКО от 17 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении дополнения в статью 1 Закона Курской области "О границах муниципальных образований Курской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Курская правда", №248, 18 декабря 2004 г
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Battle of Stalingrad
The Battle of Stalingrad was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad in Southern Russia. Marked by fierce close quarters combat and direct assaults on civilians in air raids, it was the largest and bloodiest battle in the history of warfare. After their defeat at Stalingrad, the German High Command had to withdraw vast military forces from the Western Front to replace their losses; the German offensive to capture Stalingrad began in August 1942, using the 6th Army and elements of the 4th Panzer Army. The attack was supported by intensive Luftwaffe bombing; the fighting degenerated into house-to-house fighting. By mid-November 1942, the Germans had pushed the Soviet defenders back at great cost into narrow zones along the west bank of the Volga River. On 19 November 1942, the Red Army launched Operation Uranus, a two-pronged attack targeting the weaker Romanian and Hungarian armies protecting the German 6th Army's flanks.
The Axis forces on the flanks were overrun and the 6th Army was cut off and surrounded in the Stalingrad area. Adolf Hitler ordered that the army make no attempt to break out. Heavy fighting continued for another two months. By the beginning of February 1943, the Axis forces in Stalingrad had exhausted their ammunition and food; the remaining units of the 6th Army surrendered. The battle lasted one week and three days. By the spring of 1942, despite the failure of Operation Barbarossa to decisively defeat the Soviet Union in a single campaign, the Wehrmacht had captured vast expanses of territory, including Ukraine and the Baltic republics. Elsewhere, the war had been progressing well: the U-boat offensive in the Atlantic had been successful and Erwin Rommel had just captured Tobruk. In the east, they had stabilized their front in a line running from Leningrad in the north to Rostov in the south. There were a number of salients, but these were not threatening. Hitler was confident that he could master the Red Army after the winter of 1942, because though Army Group Centre had suffered heavy losses west of Moscow the previous winter, 65% of its infantry had not been engaged and had been rested and re-equipped.
Neither Army Group North nor Army Group South had been hard pressed over the winter. Stalin was expecting the main thrust of the German summer attacks to be directed against Moscow again. With the initial operations being successful, the Germans decided that their summer campaign in 1942 would be directed at the southern parts of the Soviet Union; the initial objectives in the region around Stalingrad were the destruction of the industrial capacity of the city and the deployment of forces to block the Volga River. The river was the Caspian Sea to central Russia, its capture would disrupt commercial river traffic. The Germans cut the pipeline from the oilfields; the capture of Stalingrad would make the delivery of Lend Lease supplies via the Persian Corridor much more difficult. On 23 July 1942, Hitler rewrote the operational objectives for the 1942 campaign expanding them to include the occupation of the city of Stalingrad. Both sides began to attach propaganda value to the city, based on it bearing the name of the leader of the Soviet Union.
Hitler proclaimed that after Stalingrad's capture, its male citizens were to be killed and all women and children were to be deported because its population was "thoroughly communistic" and "especially dangerous". It was assumed that the fall of the city would firmly secure the northern and western flanks of the German armies as they advanced on Baku, with the aim of securing these strategic petroleum resources for Germany; the expansion of objectives was a significant factor in Germany's failure at Stalingrad, caused by German overconfidence and an underestimation of Soviet reserves. The Soviets realized, they ordered that anyone strong enough to hold a rifle be sent to fight. If I do not get the oil of Maikop and Grozny I must finish this war. Army Group South was selected for a sprint forward through the southern Russian steppes into the Caucasus to capture the vital Soviet oil fields there; the planned summer offensive, code-named Fall Blau, was to include the German 6th, 17th, 4th Panzer and 1st Panzer Armies.
Army Group South had overrun the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1941. Poised in Eastern Ukraine, it was to spearhead the offensive. Hitler intervened, ordering the Army Group to split in two. Army Group South, under the command of Wilhelm List, was to continue advancing south towards the Caucasus as planned with the 17th Army and First Panzer Army. Army Group South, including Friedrich Paulus's 6th Army and Hermann Hoth's 4th Panzer Army, was to move east towards the Volga and Stalingrad. Army Group B was commanded by Field Marshal Fedor von Bock and by General Maximilian von Weichs; the start of Case Blue had been planned for late May 1942. However, a number of German and Romanian units that were to take part in Blau were besieging Sevastopol on the Crimean Peninsula. Delays in ending the siege pushed back the start date for Blau several times, the city did not fall until early July. Operation Fridericus I by the Germans against the "Isium bulge", pinched off the Soviet
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs, abbreviated NKVD, was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union. Established in 1917 as NKVD of Russian SFSR, the agency was tasked with conducting regular police work and overseeing the country's prisons and labor camps, it was disbanded in 1930, with its functions being dispersed among other agencies, only to be reinstated as an all-union ministry in 1934. The functions of the OGPU were transferred to the NKVD in 1934, giving it a monopoly over law enforcement activities that lasted until the end of World War II. During this period, the NKVD included both ordinary public order activities, as well as secret police activities; the NKVD is known for its role in political repression and for carrying out the Great Purge under Joseph Stalin. It was led by Nikolai Yezhov and Lavrentiy Beria; the NKVD undertook mass extrajudicial executions of untold numbers of citizens, conceived and administered the Gulag system of forced labour camps. Their agents were responsible for the repression of the wealthier peasantry, as well as the mass deportations of entire nationalities to uninhabited regions of the country.
They oversaw the protection of Soviet borders and espionage, enforced Soviet policy in communist movements and puppet governments in other countries, most notably the repression and massacres in Poland. In March 1946 all People's Commissariats were renamed to Ministries, the NKVD became the Ministry of Internal Affairs. After the Russian February Revolution of 1917, the Provisional Government dissolved the Tsarist police and set up the People's Militsiya; the subsequent Russian October Revolution of 1917 saw a seizure of state power led by Lenin and the Bolsheviks, who established a new Bolshevik regime, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. The Provisional Government's Ministry of Internal Affairs under Georgy Lvov and under Nikolai Avksentiev and Alexei Nikitin, turned into NKVD under a People's Commissar. However, the NKVD apparatus was overwhelmed by duties inherited from MVD, such as the supervision of the local governments and firefighting, the Workers' and Peasants' Militsiya staffed by proletarians was inexperienced and unqualified.
Realizing that it was left with no capable security force, the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR established a secret political police, the Cheka, led by Felix Dzerzhinsky. It gained the right to undertake quick non-judicial trials and executions, if, deemed necessary in order to "protect the Russian Socialist-Communist revolution"; the Cheka was reorganized in 1922 as the State Political Directorate, or GPU, of the NKVD of the RSFSR. In 1922 the USSR formed, with the RSFSR as its largest member; the GPU became the OGPU, under the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR. The NKVD of the RSFSR retained control of the militsiya, various other responsibilities. In 1934 the NKVD of the RSFSR was transformed into an all-union security force, the NKVD, the OGPU was incorporated into the NKVD as the Main Directorate for State Security; as a result, the NKVD took over control of all detention facilities as well as the regular police. At various times, the NKVD had the following Chief Directorates, abbreviated as "ГУ"– Главное управление, Glavnoye upravleniye.
ГУГБ – государственной безопасности, of State Security ГУРКМ– рабоче-крестьянской милиции, of Workers and Peasants Militsiya ГУПВО– пограничной и внутренней охраны, of Border and Internal Guards ГУПО– пожарной охраны, of Firefighting Services ГУШосДор– шоссейных дорог, of Highways ГУЖД– железных дорог, of Railways ГУЛаг– Главное управление исправительно-трудовых лагерей и колоний, ГЭУ – экономическое, of Economics ГТУ – транспортное, of Transport ГУВПИ – военнопленных и интернированных, of POWs and interned persons Until the reorganization begun by Nikolai Yezhov with a purge of the regional political police in the autumn of 1936 and formalized by a May 1939 directive of the All-Union NKVD by which all appointments to the local political police were controlled from the center, there was frequent tension between centralized control of local units and the collusion of those units with local and regional party elements resulting in the thwarting of Moscow's plans. Following its establishment in 1934, the NKVD underwent many organizational changes.
During Yezhov's time in office, the Great Purge reached its height from the years 1937 and 1938 alone, at least 1.3 million were arrested and 681,692 were executed for'crimes against the state'. The Gulag population swelled by 685,201 under Yezhov, nearly tripling in size in just two years, with
In the military, a political commissar or political officer, is a supervisory officer responsible for the political education and organization of the unit they are assigned to, intended to ensure civilian control of the military. The function first appeared as commissaire politique or représentant en mission in the French Revolutionary Army during the Revolution, it existed, with interruptions, in the Soviet Red Army from 1918 to 1942, as well as in the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1943 to 1945. The function remains in use in China's People's Liberation Army; the political commissar is associated with the Soviet Union, where the Cheka introduced them to the military forces to ensure the government’s political control. The chief reason was because the newly created Red revolutionary military units were associated with different conflicting political parties, there were so many leftist political parties and movements at that time, who despite differing doctrines supported the bolshevik seizure of power.
They all had party members and sympathizers among the military, tried to use that to benefit their viewpoint. The Left SRs and the Anarchists were among such hard-nosed competitors, who were popular among the lower ranks no less than bolsheviks, contesting them quite frequently; the Bolsheviks saw this as a matter of life and death during the ongoing civil war against the White movement. To gain permanent control over the entire military, they introduced the commissarship. After the SRs were left behind, the forces loyal to them split off from the Red Army to create the Green armies, guerrilla war soon erupted in the countryside along with civil war; the commissars' task was to prevent the warfighters, both commanding officers and troops, from tending towards the rivalrious political authorities. There were many examples of defiance and outspoken disobedience, when the troops killed or banished their commissars and switched sides, going Green. After the bolsheviks eliminated all their rivals and became the one and only political entity in the country, creating a one-party dictatorship.
An early kind of political commissars arose during the February Revolution 1917 as the Ispolkom issued the controversial Order no 1. As the Bolsheviks came to power through the October Revolution 1917, as the Russian Civil War began, Trotsky who gradually established the Red Army, imposed the formal political officers; these were invariably tasked to make sure the Communist Party of the respective country could count on the loyalty of the Army. Although there was a huge difference between the February Revolution and the October Revolution, their leaders both feared a counter-revolution, both regarded the military officers as the most counter-revolutionary threat. In the Red Army and the Soviet Army, the political commissar existed, by name, only during the 1918–24, 1937–40, 1941–42 periods; the political commissar held military rank equaling that of the unit commander to whom he was attached. In the periods of the Red Army's history when political officers were militarily subordinate to unit commanders, the position of political commissar did not exist.
The political supervision of the Russian military was effected by the political commissar, introduced to every unit and formation, from company- to division-level, including the navy. Revolutionary Military Councils were established at army-, front-, fleet-, flotilla-level, comprising at least three members—commander and two political workers; the political workers were denominated "members of the RVS", not "commissars", despite being official political commissars. In 1919, the title politruk was assigned to political officers at company level. Despite being official political commissars, they were not addressed as "commissar". Beginning in 1925, the politico-military doctrinal course towards edinonachalie was established, the political commissar, as a military institution, was abolished; the introduction of edinonachalie was twofold, either the military commander joined the Communist Party and became his unit’s political officer, or a pompolit officer was commissioned sub-ordinate to him. Earlier, in 1924, the RVSs were renamed as Military Councils, such high-level political officers were known as ChVS, they were abolished in 1934.
On 10 May 1937 the political commissar was reinstated to the Red Army, Military Councils were created. These events derived from the political purges. Again, in August 1940, the political commissars was abolished, yet the Military Councils continued throughout the German-Soviet War, afterwards. Below army level, the edinonachalie system was restored. In July 1941, consequent to the Red Army’s defeats at war’s start, the position of political commissar reappeared; the commissar had an influential role as a "second commander" within the military units during this time. Their ranks and insignia paralleled those of officers; when this proved less-than-effective, General Konev asked Stalin to subordinate the political officer to commanding officers: the commissars' work was refocused to morale-related functions. The term