September 11 attacks
The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda on the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11,2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers, respectively, of the World Trade Center complex in New York City. A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia and it was the deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed respectively. Suspicion for the attack fell on al-Qaeda. The United States responded to the attacks by launching the War on Terror and invading Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks.
Although al-Qaedas leader, Osama bin Laden, initially denied any involvement, al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U. S. support of Israel, the presence of U. S. troops in Saudi Arabia, and sanctions against Iraq as motives. Having evaded capture for almost a decade, bin Laden was located and killed by SEAL Team Six of the U. S. Navy in May 2011. S. many closings and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, on November 18,2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site. The building was opened on November 3,2014. The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to 1979 when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, Osama bin Laden traveled to Afghanistan and helped organize Arab mujahideen to resist the Soviets. Under the guidance of Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden became more radical, in 1996, bin Laden issued his first fatwā, calling for American soldiers to leave Saudi Arabia. Bin Laden used Islamic texts to exhort Muslims to attack Americans until the stated grievances are reversed, Muslim legal scholars have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries, according to bin Laden.
Bin Laden, who orchestrated the attacks, initially denied but admitted involvement, in November 2001, U. S. forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Jalalabad, Afghanistan. In the video, bin Laden is seen talking to Khaled al-Harbi, on December 27,2001, a second bin Laden video was released. In the video, he said, It has become clear that the West in general and it is the hatred of crusaders. Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, the transcript refers several times to the United States specifically targeting Muslims. He said that the attacks were carried out because, we are free, and want to regain freedom for our nation. As you undermine our security we undermine yours, Bin Laden said he had personally directed his followers to attack the World Trade Center and the Pentagon
New York City Fire Department
The New York City Fire Department is the largest municipal fire department in the United States and the second largest in the world after the Tokyo Fire Department. The FDNY employs approximately 10,200 uniformed firefighters and over 3,940 uniformed EMTs, paramedics and its regulations are compiled in title 3 of the New York City Rules. The FDNYs motto is New Yorks Bravest, the FDNY serves more than 8 million residents within a 320 square mile area. The FDNY headquarters is located at 9 MetroTech Center in Downtown Brooklyn, there are Three Bureau of Fire Communications alarm offices which receive and dispatch alarms to appropriate units. One office, at 11 Metrotech Center in Brooklyn, houses Citywide, the Bronx houses Manhattan and the Bronx, and Queens houses Queens. The current Fire Commissioner is Daniel A. Nigro, who took over the position from Salvatore J. Cassano in June 2014. Staff chiefs include the seven citywide tour commanders, the Chief of Safety, the Chief of Fire Prevention and geographically, the department is nominally organized into five Borough Commands for the five traditional Boroughs of New York City.
Within those five Borough Commands exists nine firefighting Divisions, each headed by a Deputy Division Chief, within each Division are four to seven Battalions, each led by a Battalion Chief. Each Battalion consists of three to eight firehouses and consists of approximately 180–200 firefighters and officers, each firehouse consists of one to three fire companies. Each fire company is led by a captain, who commands three lieutenants and nine to twenty firefighters, there are currently four shifts of firefighters in each company. Tours can be either night tours or day tours, the FDNY faces highly multifaceted firefighting challenges in many ways unique to New York. The origins of the New York City Fire Department go back to 1648 when the first fire ordinance was adopted in what was the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam. Peter Stuyvesant, within one year of his arrival, appointed four fire wardens to wooden chimneys of thatched-roofed wooden houses, the first four fire wardens were Martin Krieger, Thomas Hall, Adrian Wyser, and George Woolsey.
Hooks and buckets were financed through the collection of fines for dirty chimneys, an organization known as the prowlers but given the nickname the rattle watch patrolled the streets with buckets and hooks from nine in the evening until dawn looking for fires. Leather shoe buckets,250 in all, were manufactured by local Dutch shoemakers in 1658, in 1664 New Amsterdam became an English settlement and was renamed New York. The first New York fire brigade entered service in 1731 equipped with two hand-drawn pumpers which had transported from London, England. These two pumpers formed Engine Company 1 and Engine Company 2, the citys first firehouse was built in 1736 in front of City Hall on Broad Street. In 1865, the fire department was abolished by a state act which created the Metropolitan Fire District
American Airlines Flight 77
The Boeing 757-223 aircraft serving the flight was hijacked by five men affiliated with al-Qaeda on September 11,2001, as part of the September 11 attacks. Less than 35 minutes into the flight, the hijackers stormed the cockpit and they forced the passengers and pilots to the rear of the aircraft. Hani Hanjour, one of the hijackers who was trained as a pilot, unknown to the hijackers, passengers aboard made telephone calls to friends and family and relayed information on the hijacking. The hijackers crashed the aircraft into the side of the Pentagon at 09,37 EDT. Many people witnessed the crash, and news sources began reporting on the incident within minutes, the impact severely damaged an area of the Pentagon and caused a large fire. A portion of the building collapsed, firefighters spent days working to fully extinguish the blaze, the damaged sections of the Pentagon were rebuilt in 2002, with occupants moving back into the completed areas that August. The 184 victims of the attack are memorialized in the Pentagon Memorial adjacent to the crash site, the 1. 93-acre park contains a bench for each of the victims, arranged according to their year of birth and ranging from 1930 to 1998.
The hijackers on American Airlines Flight 77 were led by Hani Hanjour, Hanjour first came to the United States in 1990. Hanjour trained at the CRM Airline Training Center in Scottsdale, Arizona and he had wanted to be a commercial pilot for the Saudi national airline but was rejected when he applied to the civil aviation school in Jeddah in 1999. Hanjours brother explained that, frustrated at not finding a job, Hanjour increasingly turned his attention toward religious texts and cassette tapes of militant Islamic preachers. Hanjour returned to Saudi Arabia after being certified as a pilot, Hanjour likely went to Afghanistan, where Al-Qaeda recruits were screened for special skills they might have. Already having selected the Hamburg cell members, Al Qaeda leaders selected Hanjour to lead the team of hijackers. Two FBI agents inside the unit tried to alert FBI headquarters, in December 2000, Hanjour arrived in San Diego, joining muscle hijackers Nawaf al-Hazmi and Khalid al-Mihdhar, who had been there since January 2000.
Soon after arriving and Hazmi left for Mesa, Arizona, in April 2001, they relocated to Falls Church, where they awaited the arrival of the remaining muscle hijackers. One of these men, Majed Moqed, arrived on May 2,2001 and they moved into an apartment with Hazmi and Hanjour. On May 21,2001, Hanjour rented a room in Paterson, New Jersey, the last Flight 77 muscle hijacker, Salem al-Hazmi, arrived on June 29,2001, with Abdulaziz al-Omari at John F. Kennedy International Airport from the United Arab Emirates. Hanjour received ground instruction and did practice flights at Air Fleet Training Systems in Teterboro, New Jersey, Hanjour moved out of the room in Paterson and arrived at the Valencia Motel in Laurel, Maryland, on September 2,2001. While in Maryland and fellow hijackers trained at Golds Gym in Greenbelt, on September 10, he completed a certification flight, using a terrain recognition system for navigation, at Congressional Air Charters in Gaithersburg, Maryland
Lower Manhattan is defined most commonly as the area delineated on the north by 14th Street, on the west by the Hudson River, on the east by the East River, and on the south by New York Harbor. The Lower Manhattan business district forms the core of the area below Chambers Street and it includes the Financial District and the World Trade Center site. At the islands southern tip is Battery Park, City Hall is just to the north of the Financial District, south of Chambers Street are the planned community of Battery Park City and the South Street Seaport historic area. The neighborhood of TriBeCa straddles Chambers on the west side, at the streets east end is the giant Manhattan Municipal Building, North of Chambers Street and the Brooklyn Bridge and south of Canal Street lies most of New Yorks oldest Chinatown neighborhood. Many court buildings and other government offices are located in this area. The Lower East Side neighborhood straddles Canal, North of Canal Street and south of 14th Street are the neighborhoods of SoHo, the Meatpacking District, the West Village, Greenwich Village, Little Italy and the East Village.
Between 14th and 23rd streets are lower Chelsea, Union Square, the Flatiron District, the area that would eventually encompass modern day New York City was inhabited by the Lenape people. These groups of culturally and linguistically identical Native Americans traditionally spoke an Algonquian language now referred to as Unami, European settlement began with the founding of a Dutch fur trading post in Lower Manhattan, called New Amsterdam in 1626. The first fort was built at the Battery to protect New Netherland, soon thereafter, most likely in 1626, construction of Fort Amsterdam began. Later, the Dutch West Indies Company imported African slaves to serve as laborers, they helped to build the wall that defended the town against English, early directors included Willem Verhulst and Peter Minuit. Willem Kieft became director in 1638 but five years was embroiled in Kiefts War against the Native Americans, the Pavonia Massacre, across the Hudson River in present-day Jersey City resulted in the death of 80 natives in February 1643.
Following the massacre, Algonquian tribes joined forces and nearly defeated the Dutch, the Dutch Republic sent additional forces to the aid of Kieft, leading to the overwhelming defeat of the Native Americans and a peace treaty on August 29,1645. On May 27,1647, Peter Stuyvesant was inaugurated as director general upon his arrival, the colony was granted self-government in 1652, and New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2,1653. The first mayors of New Amsterdam, Arent van Hattem and Martin Cregier, were appointed in that year, in 1664, the English conquered the area and renamed it New York after the Duke of York. At that time, people of African descent made up 20% of the population of the city, with European settlers numbering approximately 1,500, during the mid 1600s, farms of free blacks covered 130 acres where Washington Square Park developed. The Dutch briefly regained the city in 1673, renaming the city New Orange, the new English rulers of the formerly Dutch New Amsterdam and New Netherland renamed the settlement New York.
As the colony grew and prospered, sentiment grew for greater autonomy, by 1700, the Lenape population of New York had diminished to 200. By 1703, 42% of households in New York had slaves, the 1735 libel trial of John Peter Zenger in the city was a seminal influence on freedom of the press in North America
Greenwich Street is a north-south street in the New York City borough of Manhattan. As the World Trade Center is redeveloped, the sections will be reconnected. Main east-west streets crossed include, from north to south, Christopher Street, Houston Street, Canal Street, Greenwich Street travels through the Meatpacking District, the West Village, Hudson Square, and Tribeca. North of Canal Street, traffic travels northbound on Greenwich Street, south of Canal Street, the earliest documentation of Greenwich Street came in the 1790s, when it ran parallel to the Hudson River. At that time it was called Road to Greenwich, as it was the continuous road from Lower Manhattan to Greenwich Village other than Broadway. Greenwich Street still maintained its status as an address in 1820, but by the 1850s, the wealthy residents had fled uptown. One who stayed for a time was hotel owner Amos Eno, in 1873, the Butter and Cheese Exchange opened on the street, not far from where dairy products arrived daily at the freight railroad terminals.
By 1882, a generation plant of the New York Steam Company was located at Greenwich. In 1824, painter Thomas Cole, who had arrived in the U. S. in 1818, maintained his residence in a garret on Greenwich Street, exhibiting his paintings in local shops. Also located on Greenwich Street in the mid-1800s was one of the outlets of Madame Restell, actually Ann Lohman. The Greenwich Street location doubled as a facility for women who wanted to bear their child. Restell, who got rich running her enterprises, was arrested a number of times, but was able to buy her way out of trouble, and eventually built a mansion at Fifth Avenue and 52nd Street. In 1867, engineer Charles T. Harvey managed to get permission from the New York State Legislature to build a short stretch of elevated track as an experiment, this would become the Ninth Avenue El, which was demolished in 1940. Greenwich means Green village, with the derived from Latin vicus through Saxon wick. Of the two roads, Greenwich Street was the shorter, more scenic and popular route to the village, but often flooded until the 19th century, the IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line runs under Greenwich Street from Vesey Street south to its end.
The Cortlandt Street and Rector Street stations serve it directly, other subway stations serve Greenwich Street from nearby. The Christopher Street PATH train station is located on Christopher Street just east of Greenwich Street, the World Trade Center PATH station is located at Vesey and Greenwich Streets. The World Trade Center Transportation Hub is being built between Greenwich and Church Streets, to connect the five stations at the World Trade Center site, the combined station will connect via the Dey Street Passageway with the Fulton Center
1993 World Trade Center bombing
The 1,336 pounds urea nitrate–hydrogen gas enhanced device was intended to send the North Tower crashing into the South Tower, bringing both towers down and killing tens of thousands of people. It failed to do so but killed six people and injured over a thousand, the attack was planned by a group of terrorists including Ramzi Yousef, Mahmud Abouhalima, Mohammad Salameh, Nidal A. Ayyad, Abdul Rahman Yasin, and Ahmed Ajaj. They received financing from Khaled Sheikh Mohammed, Yousefs uncle, in March 1994, four men were convicted of carrying out the bombing, Ajaj and Salameh. The charges included conspiracy, explosive destruction of property, and interstate transportation of explosives, in November 1997, two more were convicted, Ramzi Yousef, the mastermind behind the bombings, and Eyad Ismoil, who drove the truck carrying the bomb. Yousef arrived illegally in the United States on September 1,1992, traveling with Ahmed Ajaj from Pakistan, Ajaj tried to enter with a forged Swedish passport, though it had been altered and thus raised suspicions among INS officials at John F.
Kennedy International Airport. When officials put Ajaj through secondary inspection, they discovered bomb-making instructions and other materials in his luggage, the name Abu Barra, an alias of Mohammed Jamal Khalifa, appeared in the manuals. Yousef tried to enter with a false Iraqi passport, claiming political asylum, Yousef was allowed into the United States, and was given a hearing date. Yousef set up residence in Jersey City, New Jersey, traveled around New York and New Jersey and called Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman, a controversial blind Muslim cleric, via cell phone. He ordered chemicals from his room when injured in a car crash – one of three accidents caused by Salameh in late 1992 and early in 1993. El Sayyid Nosair, one of the blind men, was arrested in 1991 for the murder of Rabbi Meir Kahane. According to prosecutors, the Red Mahmud Abouhalima, convicted in the bombing, in the initial court case in NYS Criminal Court Nosair was acquitted of murder but convicted of gun charges. According to the journalist Steve Coll, Yousef mailed letters to various New York newspapers just before the attack, in which he claimed he belonged to Liberation Army, Fifth Battalion.
He stated that the attack on the World Trade Center would be merely the first of such attacks if his demands were not met. In his letters, Yousef admitted that the World Trade Center bombing was an act of terrorism and they parked on the underground B-2 level. Yousef ignited the 20-foot fuse, and fled, twelve minutes later, at 12,17,37 p. m. the bomb exploded in the underground garage, generating an estimated pressure of 150,000 psi. The bomb opened a 30-m wide hole through four sublevels of concrete, the detonation velocity of this bomb was about 15,000 ft/s. Initial news reports indicated a main transformer may have blown, before it became clear that a bomb had exploded in the basement, the bomb instantly cut off the World Trade Centers main electrical power line, knocking out the emergency lighting system. With thick smoke filling the stairwells, evacuation was difficult for building occupants, telephone service for much of Lower Manhattan was disrupted
Timeline for the day of the September 11 attacks
As a result, most of the events listed below were known by a large portion of the planets population as they occurred. All times given are in Eastern Daylight Time, or UTC−04,00, American Airlines Flight 11, a Boeing 767 carrying 81 passengers and 11 crew members, departs 14 minutes late from Logan International Airport in Boston, bound for Los Angeles International Airport. 8,14, Flight 11 is hijacked over central Massachusetts,8,20, American Airlines Flight 77, a Boeing 757 with 58 passengers and six crew members, departs 10 minutes late from Washington Dulles International Airport, for Los Angeles International Airport. 8,42, United Airlines Flight 93, a Boeing 757 with 37 passengers and seven members, departs 42 minutes late from Newark International Airport. 8, 42–8,46, Flight 175 is hijacked above Albany, New York, about 140 miles north of New York City, turning south. 8,46,40, Flight 11 crashes into the face of the North Tower of the World Trade Center. The aircraft enters the tower intact,8, 50–8,54, Flight 77 is hijacked above southern Ohio, turning to the southeast.
9,03,00, Flight 175 crashes into the face of the South Tower of the World Trade Center. Parts of the plane, including the engine, leave the building from its east and north sides. 9,28, Flight 93 is hijacked above northern Ohio,9,37,46, Flight 77 crashes into the western side of The Pentagon and starts a violent fire. 9,59,00, The South Tower of the World Trade Center collapses,56 minutes after the impact of Flight 175. 10,03,11, Flight 93 is crashed by its hijackers and passengers, due to fighting in the cockpit 80 miles southeast of Pittsburgh in Somerset County, reports indicate that passengers had learned about the World Trade Center and Pentagon crashes and were resisting the hijackers. The 9/11 Commission believed that Flight 93s target was either the United States Capitol building or the White House in Washington,10,28,22, The North Tower of the World Trade Center collapses,1 hour,42 minutes after the impact of Flight 11. The Marriott Hotel, located at the base of the two towers, is destroyed,10,50,19, Five stories of part of the Pentagon collapse due to the fire. 5,20,33 p.
m.7 World Trade Center,6,00, Mohamed Atta and Abdulaziz al-Omari travel Colgan Air Flight 5930 from Portland International Jetport in Portland, Maine, to Logan International Airport in Boston, Massachusetts. 6,45, Atta and al-Omari arrive at Logan International Airport,6,52, Marwan al-Shehhi calls Atta from another terminal at Logan to confirm that the plans for the attack are set. 7,35, Atta and al-Omari board American Airlines Flight 11,7,40, The rest of the Flight 11 hijackers board the airplane. 8,13, Flight 11 has its last routine communication with the Federal Aviation Administrations Boston Center,8,14, Flight 11 is hijacked when hijackers Waleed and Wail al-Shehri rise from seats 2A and 2B and stab two flight attendants
United Airlines Flight 175
United Airlines Flight 175 was a scheduled domestic passenger flight from Logan International Airport, in Boston, Massachusetts, to Los Angeles International Airport, in Los Angeles, California. They made several attempts to contact the cockpit. Unknown to the hijackers, several passengers and crew made phone calls from the plane to loved ones and provided information about the hijackers and injuries to passengers. The aircraft crashed into Tower Two of the World Trade Center at 09,03, the Flight 175 hijacking was coordinated with that of American Airlines Flight 11, which struck the top of Tower One 17 minutes earlier. The crash of Flight 175 into the South Tower was the only impact seen live on television around the world as it happened, the impact and subsequent fire caused the South Tower to collapse 56 minutes after the crash, resulting in hundreds of additional casualties. During the recovery effort at the World Trade Center site, workers recovered and identified remains from Flight 175 victims, the team of hijackers on United Airlines Flight 175 was led by Marwan al-Shehhi, from the United Arab Emirates.
Shehhi obtained a pilots license while training in south Florida, along with Flight 11 hijacker and plot coordinator. The muscle hijackers on Flight 175 included Fayez Banihammad, from the UAE, in early September 2001, the Flight 175 group of hijackers arrived in Boston from Florida. Hamza al-Ghamdi and Ahmed al-Ghamdi arrived together on September 7 and checked into the Charles Hotel in Cambridge, the next day, they relocated to the Days Inn in Boston. Fayez Banihammad flew from Florida to Boston, along with Mohand al-Shehri, on September 8, Marwan al-Shehhi arrived in Boston on September 9 and stayed at the Milner Hotel, where he shared a room with Flight 11 hijacker Mohamed Atta. The flight was operated with a Boeing 767-200, registration number N612UA, built and delivered in 1983, Hamza al-Ghamdi and Ahmed al-Ghamdi checked out of their hotel and called a taxi to take them to Logan International Airport. They arrived at the United Airlines counter in Terminal C at 06,20 Eastern Time, both hijackers indicated they wanted to purchase tickets, though they already had paper tickets.
They had trouble answering the standard security questions, so the counter agent repeated the questions very slowly until the men gave the correct answers. Hijacker pilot Marwan al-Shehhi checked in a bag at 06,45. None of the hijackers were selected for scrutiny by the Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System. Shehhi and the other hijackers boarded Flight 175 between 07,23 and 07,28, Banihammad boarded first and sat in first class seat 2A, while Mohand al-Shehri was in seat 2B. At 07,27, Shehhi and Ahmed al-Ghamdi boarded, and sat in business class seats 6C, a minute later, Hamza al-Ghamdi boarded, and sat in 9C. The flight was scheduled to depart at 08,00 for Los Angeles, fifty-one passengers and the five hijackers boarded the 767 through Terminal Cs Gate 19
Aftermath of the September 11 attacks
The September 11 attacks transformed the first term of President George W. Bush and led to what he has called the Global War on Terrorism. The accuracy of describing it as a war and the political motivations, the US government increased military operations, economic measures and political pressure on groups it accused of being terrorists, as well as on governments and countries accused of sheltering them. October 2001 saw the first military action initiated by the US, under this policy, the NATO invaded Afghanistan in order to remove the Taliban regime and to capture al-Qaeda forces. The war, however, is ongoing and has not been won, the US government has asserted that the US invasion of Iraq is connected to 9/11. The September 11 attacks precipitated a focus on security issues and the creation of a new cabinet-level federal agency. The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 was passed soon after the attacks, giving law enforcement agencies sweeping search and this led to the creation in 2002 of the Information Awareness Office, led by John Poindexter.
Critics of the IAO believe it too far in the sacrifice of civil liberties and privacy. Many major events the United States has hosted since September 11,2001 have been designated National Special Security Events, because of concerns of terrorism. In the immediate aftermath of the September 11 attacks, the United States, other countries imposed similar security restrictions. In the United Kingdom, for instance, civilian aircraft were forbidden to fly over London for several days after the attack, the attacks had major worldwide political effects. Many other countries introduced tough anti-terrorism legislation and took action to cut off terrorist finances, law enforcement and intelligence agencies stepped up cooperation to arrest terrorist suspects and break up suspected terrorist cells around the world. The attack prompted numerous memorials and services all over the world many countries, along with the United States. In Berlin,200,000 Germans marched to show their solidarity with America, the French newspaper of record, Le Monde, ran a front-page headline reading Nous sommes tous Américains, or We are all Americans.
In London, the US national anthem was played at the Changing of the Guard at Buckingham Palace, in the immediate aftermath, support for the United States right to defend itself was expressed across the world, and by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1368. Australian Prime Minister John Howard was in Washington D. C at the time of the attacks, Reaction to the attacks in the Muslim world was mixed. Less publicized were public displays of sympathy, including candlelight vigils in countries like Iran, an increase in racial tensions was seen in countries such as England, with a number of violent crimes linked to the September 11th attacks. The most severe example was seen in Peterborough, where teenager Ross Parker was murdered by a gang of up to ten Muslims of Pakistani background who had sought a male to attack. Following the September 11,2001 attacks, George W. Bushs job approval rating soared to 86%, in the speech, he characterized the speech itself as being akin to the Presidents customary State of the Union address