Japanese calendar types have included a range of official and unofficial systems. At present, Japan uses the Gregorian calendar together with year designations stating the year of the reign of the current Emperor; the lunisolar Chinese calendar was introduced to Japan via Korea in the middle of the sixth century. After that, Japan calculated its calendar using various Chinese calendar procedures, from 1685, using Japanese variations of the Chinese procedures, but in 1873, as part of Japan's Meiji period modernization, a calendar based on the solar Gregorian calendar was introduced. In Japan today, the old Chinese calendar is ignored. Japan has had more than one system for designating years. Including: The Chinese sexagenary cycle was introduced early into Japan, it was used together with era names, as in the 1729 Ise calendar shown above, for "the 14th year of Kyōhō, tsuchi-no-to no tori", i.e. 己酉. Now, the cycle is used except around New Year; the era name system was introduced from China, has been in continuous use since AD 701.
Since the Taishō Emperor's ascension in 1912, each emperor's reign has begun a new era. Nengō are the official means of dating years in Japan, all government business is conducted using that system, it is in general use in private and personal business. The Japanese imperial year is based on the date of the legendary founding of Japan by Emperor Jimmu in 660 BC, it was first used in the official calendar in 1873. However, it never replaced era names, since World War II has been abandoned; the Western Common Era system has come into common use since the Meiji period. Now, most people know it, as well as era names; the official dating system known as nengō, has been in use since the late 7th century. Years are numbered within eras. Beginning with Meiji, each reign has been one era, but many earlier Emperors decreed a new era upon any major event; the nengō system remains in wide use on official documents and government forms. The imperial year system was used from 1872 to the Second World War. Imperial year 1 was the year when the legendary Emperor Jimmu founded Japan – 660 BC according to the Gregorian Calendar.
Usage of kōki dating can be a nationalist signal, pointing out that the history of Japan's imperial family is longer than that of Christianity, the basis of the Anno Domini system. Kōki 2600 was a special year; the 1940 Summer Olympics and Tokyo Expo were planned as anniversary events, but were canceled due to the Second Sino-Japanese War. The Japanese naval Zero Fighter was named after this year. After the Second World War, the United States occupied Japan, stopped the use of kōki by officials. Today, kōki is used, except in some judicial contexts; the 1898 law determining the placement of leap years is based on the kōki years, using a formula, equivalent to that of the Gregorian calendar: if the kōki year number is evenly divisible by four, it is a leap year, unless the number minus 660 is evenly divisible by 100 and not by 400. Thus, for example, the year Kōki 2560 is divisible by 4; the Japanese government has announced a new period of year on 2019 April Reiwa. The Heisei Period will end on 2019 April 30 and so the new period of year is expected to start on first of May 2019.
See "Seasonal days", below. The modern Japanese names for the months translate to "first month", "second month", so on; the corresponding number is combined with the suffix 月. The table below uses traditional numerals. In addition, every month has a traditional name, still used by some in fields such as poetry; the opening paragraph of a letter or the greeting in a speech might borrow one of these names to convey a sense of the season. Some, such as Yayoi and Satsuki, do double duty as given names; these month names appear from time to time on jidaigeki, contemporary television shows and movies set in the Edo period or earlier. The old Japanese calendar was an adjusted lunar calendar based on the Chinese calendar, the year—and with it the months—started anywhere from about 3 to 7 weeks than the modern year, so in historical contexts it is not accurate to equate the first month with January. Japan uses a seven-day week, aligned with the Western calendar; the seven-day week, with names for the days corresponding to the Latin system, was brought to Japan around AD 800 with the Buddhist calendar.
The system was used for astrological purposes and little else until 1876. The names of the days come from the five visible planets, which in turn are named after the five Chinese elements, from the moon and sun. On the origin of the names of the days of the week see East Asian Seven Luminaries. Sunday and Saturday are regarded as "Western style take-a-rest days". Since the late 19th century, Sunday has been regarded as a "full-time holiday", Saturday a half-time holiday; these holidays have no religious meaning. Many Japanese retailers
The 10th century was the period from 901 to 1000 in accordance with the Julian calendar, the last century of the 1st millennium. In China the Song dynasty was established; the Muslim World experienced a cultural zenith in al-Andalus under the Caliphate of Córdoba. Additionally, it was the zenith for the Bulgarian Empires. Medievalist and historian of technology Lynn White said that "to the modern eye, it is nearly the darkest of the Dark Ages", but concluded that "... if it was dark, it was the darkness of the womb." Helen Waddell wrote that the 10th century was that which "in the textbooks disputes with the seventh the bad eminence, the nadir of the human intellect." In the 15th century, Lorenzo Valla described it as the Century of Lead and Iron and Cardinal Baronius as the Leaden Century or Iron Century. According to one estimate, the tenth century saw fewer deaths in war than any other century since 3000 BC; the beginning of the Medieval Warm Period The Byzantine empire reaches the height of its military and economic strength c. 909: The Fatimid Caliphate arises in eastern Algeria.
C. 948: The Nri Kingdom in what is now Southeastern Nigeria starts. C. 980: Al-Azhar University is established in Cairo by the Fatimid dynasty. The Christian Nubian kingdom reaches its peak of prosperity and military power Collapse of the central lowland Maya civilization. Post-Classic Maya period begins. Chichen Itza becomes a regional capital on the Yucatán Peninsula Rise of the Toltecs in Mexico Golden age of the Ancestral Puebloans The Mississippian culture begins in present-day Southern United States In 987 Ah Mekat Tutul Xiu unified Uxmal and Chichen Itza founding The League of Mayapan. Khazar kingdom is attacked and defeated by Kievan Rus Buddhist temple construction commences at Bagan, Burma In 907, Zhu Quanzhong deposes Emperor Ai of Tang and establishes a new Later Liang dynasty. In 907, Sumbing volcano erupts, according to Rukam inscription. In 907, King Balitung creates the Mantyasih inscription containing the list of Medang kings, moves the capital from Mamrati to Poh Pitu, expands Prambanan temple.
In 910, Parantaka I of the Chola Dynasty drives out the Pandyan from southern India into Lanka, which he eventually conquers. In 914, The Warmadewa dynasty rules Bali. In 919, the first use of gunpowder in battle occurs with the Chinese Battle of Langshan Jiang, where the Wuyue naval fleet under Qian Yuanguan defeats the Wu fleet. Qian had used flamethrowers ignited by gunpowder fuses to burn the Wu fleet. In 928, Ziyarid dynasty is established in northern Iran. In 928, During the reign of King Wawa, the capital of Medang Kingdom in Mataram is devastated by the massive eruption of Mount Merapi. In 929, Mpu Sindok moves the seat of power of the Medang Kingdom from Mataram in Central Java to Tamwlang in East Java and establishes Isyana Dynasty; the shift is as a result of the eruption of Mount Merapi and/or invasion from Srivijaya. In 930s, Persian Shia Buyid dynasty establishes and controls central and western part of Iran as well as most of Iraq. In 936, Goryeo Dynasty unifies Later Three Kingdoms of Korea.
In 937, Mpu Sindok moves the capital again from Tamwlang to Watugaluh, both near bank of Brantas River in modern Jombang in East Java. In 960, Zhao Kuangyin establishes Song dynasty. In 960 Seljuks convert to Islam. In 975, Ghaznavids dynasty, as the first Turk Sultanate, was established in Central Asia. In 979, Song dynasty reunites China. In 980's, Dynastic marriage between princess Mahendradatta of Javanese Isyanas and king Udayana of Balinese Warmadewas. Coastal cities on the Malay Peninsula are the seed for the first recorded Malay kingdoms In 990, King Dharmawangsa of Medang kingdom launches a naval invasion on Palembang in an unsuccessful attempt to conquer Srivijaya. In 990, son of King Udayana and Queen Mahendradatta was born in Bali. In 996, Dharmawangsa commissioned the translation of the Mahabharata into Old Javanese. In 999, Samanid dynasty was conquered by Ghaznavids. Viking groups settle in northern France 907: Loire Vikings overrun Brittany; the Norse become Normans The Hungarian army destroys the Bavarian forces under duke Liutpold and king Louis the Child in the Battle of Pressburg.
All the German force is annihilated. 911: Rollo granted County of Rouen by France: official foundation of Normandy. Foundation of Cluny, first federated monastic order Emperor Simeon the Great solidifies the First Bulgarian Empire as one of the most powerful states in Europe In 917 the Bulgarians destroyed the Byzantine army in the Battle of Anchialus, one of the bloodiest battles in the Middle Ages 927: official recognition of the first independent national Church in Europe, the Bulgarian Patriarchate 927: Kingdom of England becomes a unified state. C. 936: Gorm the Old becomes the first recognized king of Denmark, thus the Danish Monarchy is founded. 936: Alan II, with support from Æthelstan, commences the reconquest of Brittany. 955 The Battle of Lechfeld sees a decisive victory for Otto I the Great, King of the Germans, over the Hungarian harka Bulcsú and the chieftains Lél and Súr. Incursions of Magyar cavalry throughout Western Europe Mieszko I, first duke of Poland, baptised a Christian in 966 Collapse of Great Moravia The medieval Croatian state becomes a unified kingdom under King Tomislav Swedish influence extends to the Black Sea Volodymyr I, Prince of Kievan Rus', baptised a Christian in 988 Reindeer and bears become extinct in Britain Lions become extinct in Europe
Vikram Samvat. It uses solar sidereal years; the Vikram Samvat is notable because many medieval era inscriptions use it. It is said to be named after the legendary king Vikramaditya, but the term "Vikrama Samvat" does not appear in the historical records before the 9th century, rather the same calendaring system is found by other names such as Krita and Malava. In the colonial era scholarship, the era was believed to be based on the commemoration of King Vikramaditya expelling the Sakas from Ujjain; however epigraphical evidence and scholarship suggest that this theory has no historical basis and likely was an error. Starting in the 9th century and thereafter, epigraphical artwork uses Vikrama-Samvat, suggesting that sometime around the 9th-century, the Hindu calendar era, in use became popular as Vikram Samvat, while Buddhist and Jain epigraphy continued to use an era based on the Buddha or the Mahavira. According to popular tradition, the legendary king Vikramaditya of Ujjain established the Vikrama Samvat era after defeating the Śakas.
Kalakacharya Kathanaka by the Jain sage Mahesarasuri gives the following account: Gandharvasena, the then-powerful king of Ujjain, abducted a nun called Sarasvati, the sister of the monk. The enraged monk sought the help of the Śaka ruler King Sahi in Sistan. Despite heavy odds but aided by miracles, the Śaka king defeated Gandharvasena and made him a captive. Sarasvati was repatriated; the defeated king retired to the forest. His son, being brought up in the forest, had to rule from Pratishthana. On, Vikramaditya invaded Ujjain and drove away from the Śakas. To commemorate this event, he started a new era called the "Vikrama era"; the Ujjain calendar started around 58–56 BCE, the subsequent Shaka era calendar was started in 78 CE at Pratishthana. The association of the era beginning in 57 BCE with Vikramaditya is not found in any source before the 9th century CE; the earlier sources call this era by various names, including Kṛṭa, the era of the Malava tribe, or Samvat. The earliest known inscription that calls the era "Vikrama" is from 842 CE.
This inscription of Chauhana ruler Chandamahasena was found at Dholpur, is dated Vikrama Samvat 898, Vaishakha Shukla 2, Chanda. The earliest known inscription that associates this era with a king called Vikramaditya is dated 971 CE; the earliest literary work that connects the era to Vikramaditya is Subhashita-Ratna-Sandoha by the Jain author Amitagati. For this reason, multiple authors believe that the Vikram Samvat was not started by Vikramaditya, who might be a purely legendary king or the title adopted by a king who renamed the era after himself. V. A. Smith and D. R. Bhandarkar believed that Chandragupta II adopted the title Vikramaditya, changed the name of the era to "Vikrama Samvat". According to Rudolf Hoernlé, the king responsible for this change was Yashodharman: Hoernlé believed that he conquered Kashmir, is the same person as the "Harsha Vikramaditya" mentioned in Kalhana's Rajatarangini. Earlier, some scholars believed that the Vikrama Samavat corresponded to the Azes era of the Indo-Scythian king King Azes.
However, this was disputed by Robert Bracey following the discovery of an inscription of Vijayamitra, dated in two eras. The theory seems to be now discredited by Falk and Bennett, who place the inception of the Azes era in 47–46 BCE; the traditional New Year of Vikram Samvat is one of the many festivals of Nepal, marked by parties, family gatherings, the exchange of good wishes, participation in rituals to ensure good fortune in the coming year. It occurs in mid-April each year, coincides with the traditional new year in Assam, Burma, Kerala, Manipur, Punjab, Sri Lanka, Tamil Nadu and Thailand. In addition to Nepal, the Vikram Samvat calendar is recognized in North and East India, in Gujarat among Hindus. Hindu religious festivals are based on a Luni-Solar calendar, not Solar calendar, based on Vikram Samvat. In North India, the new year in Vikram Samvat starts from the first day of Chaitra Skukla paksha. In Buddhist communities, the month of Baishakh is associated with Buddha's Birthday, it commemorates the birth and passing of Gautama Buddha on the first full moon day in May, except in a leap year when the festival is held in June.
Although this festival is not held on the same day as Pahela Baishakh, the holidays fall in the same month of the Bengali and Theravada Buddhist calendars, are related through the spread of Hinduism and Buddhism in the Indian subcontinent. In Gujarat, the day after Diwali is celebrated as the first day of the Vikram Samvat calendar, the first day of the month Kartik; the Vikrami era is an ancient calendar and has been used by Hindus and Sikhs. It is one of the several regional Hindu calendars that have been in use on the Indian subcontinent, it is based on twelve synodical lunar months and 365 solar days; the lunar new year starts on the new moon in the month of Chaitra. This day, known as Chaitra Sukhladi, is a restricted holiday in India; the Vikrami Samvat has been in use in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times, remains in use by the Hindus in north, w