Canadian Football League
The Canadian Football League is a professional sports league in Canada. The CFL is the highest level of competition in Canadian football; the league consists of each located in a city in Canada. They are divided into two divisions: four teams in the East Division and five teams in the West Division; as of 2018, it features a 21-week regular season where each team plays 18 games with three bye weeks. This season traditionally runs from mid-June to early November. Following the regular season, six teams compete in the league's three-week divisional playoffs which culminate in the Grey Cup championship game in late November; the Grey Cup is television events. The CFL was founded on January 19, 1958; the league was formed through a merger between the Interprovincial Rugby Football Union and the Western Interprovincial Football Union. Rugby football began to be played in Canada in the 1860s, many of the first Canadian football teams played under the auspices of the Canadian Rugby Football Union, founded in 1884.
The CRFU was reorganized as the Canadian Rugby Union in 1891, served as an umbrella organization for several provincial and regional unions. The Grey Cup was donated by Governor General Earl Grey in 1909 to the team winning the Senior Amateur Football Championship of Canada. By that time, the sport as played in Canada had diverged markedly from its rugby origins, started to become more similar to the American game. From the 1930s to the 1950s, the two senior leagues of the CRU, the eastern Interprovincial Rugby Football Union and Western Interprovincial Football Union evolved from amateur to professional leagues, amateur teams such as those in the Ontario Rugby Football Union were no longer competitive for the Grey Cup. From 1945 onward, the WIFU's champion faced the Big Four's champion for the Grey Cup, though until 1954 it had to play in a semi-final against the champion of the ORFU–by the only amateur union still competing for the Grey Cup; the ORFU withdrew from Grey Cup competition after the 1954 season, the WIFU champion was automatically awarded a berth in the Grey Cup final.
For this reason, 1954 is reckoned as the start of the modern era of Canadian football, in which the Grey Cup has been contested by professional teams. Since 1965, Canada's top amateur teams, competing in what is now U Sports, have competed for the Vanier Cup. In 1956, the IRFU and WIFU formed the Canadian Football Council. In 1958, the CFC became the Canadian Football League; as part of an agreement between the CRU and CFL, the CFL took possession of the Grey Cup though amateurs had not competed for it since 1954. The CRU remained the governing body for amateur play in Canada adopting the name Football Canada; the two unions remained autonomous, there was no intersectional play between eastern and western teams except at the Grey Cup final. This situation was analogous to how the American baseball leagues operated for years; the IRFU was renamed the Eastern Football Conference in 1960, while the WIFU was renamed the Western Football Conference in 1961. In 1961, limited intersectional play was introduced.
Because the West played 16 games by this time while the East still only played 14, this arrangement oddly allowed both the four-team Eastern Conference and the five-team Western Conference to play three games per intraconference opponent and one game per interconference opponent. It wasn't until 1974. In 1981, the two conferences agreed to a full merger, becoming the East and West Divisions of the CFL. With the merger came a balanced and interlocking schedule of 16 games per season. Since 1986, the CFL's regular season schedule has been 18 games; the separate histories of the IRFU and the WIFU accounted for the fact that two teams had the same name: the IRFU's Ottawa Rough Riders were called the "Eastern Riders", while the WIFU's Saskatchewan Roughriders were called the "Western Riders" or "Green Riders". Other team names had traditional origins. With rowing a national craze in the late 19th century, the Argonaut Rowing Club of Toronto formed a rugby team for its members' off-season participation.
The football team name Toronto Argonauts still remains though it and the rowing club have long since gone their separate ways. After World War II, the two teams in Hamilton—the Tigers and the Flying Wildcats—merged both their organizations into the Hamilton Tiger-Cats; the league remained stable with nine franchises—the BC Lions, Calgary Stampeders, Edmonton Eskimos, Saskatchewan Roughriders, Winnipeg Blue Bombers, Hamilton Tiger-Cats, Toronto Argonauts, Ottawa Rough Riders and Montreal Alouettes—from its 1958 inception until 1981. After the 1981 season, the Alouettes folded and were replaced the next year by a new franchise named the Concordes. In 1986 the Concordes were renamed the Alouettes to attract more fan support, but the team folded the next year; the loss of the Montreal franchise forced the league to move its easternmost Western team, into the East Division from 1987 to 1994, again from 1997 to 2001 and 2006 to 2013 when Montreal resumed operations, but Ottawa was unable to field a team.
In 1993, the league admitted the Sacramento Gold Miners. After modest success, the league expanded further in the U. S. in 1994 with the Las Vegas Posse, Baltimore Stallions, Shreveport Pirates. For the 1995 campaign, the American
Anthony Calvillo is the assistant head coach for the Montreal Carabins football team in U Sports and he is a former Canadian Football League quarterback. He is professional football's all-time passing yards leader, first in all-time CFL passing yards. In his career, he passed for 79,816 yards and is one of seven professional quarterbacks to have completed over 400 touchdown passes. Calvillo won three Grey Cup championships in 2002, 2009, 2010, named Grey Cup Most Valuable Player in 2002, he won the CFL's Most Outstanding Player Award three times, in 2003, 2008, 2009, which ties him for second all-time behind Doug Flutie. Calvillo announced his retirement on January 21, 2014. Calvillo was an assistant coach for the Alouettes from 2015 to 2017 and with the Toronto Argonauts in 2018. Calvillo was born in California. While attending La Puente High School, he was a two-sport standout in basketball, he is of Mexican-American descent. Calvillo spent two seasons at Mt. San Antonio College before transferring to Utah State University in 1992.
After a solid junior year as starting quarterback, he had a terrific senior season in 1993. He set a school record with 3,260 yards of total offense in the regular season, he set a school record with 5 touchdown passes in a single game. With Calvillo leading the offense, USU won the Big West Conference championship for the first time since 1979; the Aggies finished the year with a 42-33 win over Ball State in the Las Vegas Bowl. It was Utah State's first-ever bowl victory. After not being drafted by an NFL team, Calvillo started his Canadian Football League career in 1994 with the US expansion Las Vegas Posse. After the Posse folded a year in the CFL U. S. expansion experiment, Calvillo was selected first overall by the Hamilton Tiger-Cats in the dispersal draft. While in Hamilton, Calvillo served as a backup quarterback to players such as Steve Taylor and Matt Dunigan. In 1998, Calvillo signed as a free agent with the Montreal Alouettes, where he became one of the most outstanding quarterbacks in history.
He led the Alouettes to the 2002 Grey Cup, their first in 25 years, where he was named the most valuable player in the game. During the 2003 CFL season, Calvillo broke numerous Montreal Alouette passing records, completing 408 of 675 passing attempts for 5,891 yards and 37 touchdowns. In 2004, with 6,041 passing yards, Calvillo became the fourth quarterback in CFL history to pass for more than 6,000 yards in a single season, earning him the East Division nomination for Most Outstanding Player for the third consecutive year. With Calvillo quarterbacking the Alouettes' offence, the 2004 Alouettes became the first team in CFL history with four receivers on one team all going over 1,000 yards receiving in the same season: Ben Cahoon, Jeremaine Copeland, Thyron Anderson, Kwame Cavil. During the 2005 CFL season and the 2005 Montreal Alouettes would again accomplish the feat of four receivers on one team all going over 1,000 yards receiving in the same season; the 2005 Alouettes set of receivers going over 1,000 yards receiving were Kerry Watkins, Terry Vaughn, Ben Cahoon, Dave Stala.
The 2008 CFL season saw. On June 26, in a game against the Hamilton Tiger-Cats, Calvillo surpassed Danny McManus to become the second-all-time leading passer in the CFL. On July 31, in another game against the Hamilton Tiger-Cats, Calvillo became the fourth quarterback in league history to reach 300 career touchdown passes. On August 15, 2008, in a game against the Toronto Argonauts, Calvillo became the second quarterback in CFL history after Damon Allen to reach 4,000 career pass completions. With 5,633 passing yards and 43 touchdown passes, Calvillo won the 2008 Most Outstanding Player award. Calvillo led the Montreal Alouettes to the 2008 Grey Cup final, which the Alouettes lost 22-14 to the Calgary Stampeders. In 2009, Calvillo added to his club records. On July 23, 2009, he surpassed Canadian Football Hall of Famer Ron Lancaster's 334 career touchdown passes to move into second place all time, he sat out two games during the regular season, but still accumulated 4639 yards while posting a remarkable 72.0% completion rate, the second best single-season completion rate in CFL history behind Dave Dickenson's 73.98% mark set in 2005.
Calvillo led Montreal to a 16-point fourth quarter comeback victory in the 97th Grey Cup on Nov. 29, when the Alouettes defeated the Saskatchewan Roughriders 28-27 on a last-second field goal known as the "13th Man" finish. Calvillo won his third Grey Cup on November 28, 2010 at 98th Grey Cup in Edmonton, Alberta where he defeated the Saskatchewan Roughriders 21-18 for the second year in a row, he added to his record total of passing yards in Grey Cup games with 2470 yards, as well as setting the record for Grey Cup starts with eight. As of the 2010 CFL season, Calvillo is 3-5 in Grey Cup Championship Games. In a post-game interview, he revealed that he would be undergoing off-season surgery to remove a lesion on his thyroid, discovered after he injured his sternum during the season. On December 21, 2010, it was reported that Calvillo had successful thyroidectomy surgery to remove a cancerous lesion. On July 15, 2011, in a game against the Toronto Argonauts, Calvillo completed his CFL record 395th career touchdown pass to Éric
Coin flipping, coin tossing, or heads or tails is the practice of throwing a coin in the air and checking which side is showing when it lands, in order to choose between two alternatives, sometimes used to resolve a dispute between two parties. It is a form of sortition; the party who calls the side wins. The historical origin of coin flipping is the interpretation of a chance outcome as the expression of divine will. Coin flipping was known to the ancient Chinese as 撒大苏打, as some coins had a ship on one side and the head of the emperor on the other. In England, this was referred to as pile; the expression Heads or Tails results from heads and tails being considered complementary body parts. During a coin toss, the coin is thrown into the air such that it rotates edge-over-edge several times. Either beforehand or when the coin is in the air, an interested party calls "heads" or "tails", indicating which side of the coin that party is choosing; the other party is assigned the opposite side. Depending on custom, the coin may be caught.
When the coin comes to rest, the toss is complete and the party who called or was assigned the upper side is declared the winner. It is possible for a coin to land on its edge by landing up against an object or by getting stuck in the ground; however on a flat surface it is possible for a coin to land on its edge, with a chance of about 1 in 6000 for an American nickel. Angular momentum prevents most coins from landing on their edges unsupported if flipped; such cases in which a coin does land on its edge are exceptionally rare and in most cases the coin is re-flipped. The coin may be any type. Larger coins tend to be more popular than smaller ones; some high-profile coin tosses, such as the Cricket World Cup and the Super Bowl, use custom-made ceremonial medallions. Three-way coin flips are possible, by a different process – this can be done either to choose two out of three, or to choose one out of three. To choose two out of three, three coins are flipped, if two coins come up the same and one different, the different one loses, leaving two players.
To choose one out of three, either reverse this, or add a regular two-way coin flip between the remaining players as a second step. Note that the three-way flip is 75% to work each time it is tried, does not require that "heads" or "tails" be called. A famous example of such a three-way coin flip is dramatized in Friday Night Lights, three high school football teams use a three-way coin flip. A legacy of this coin flip was to reduce the use of coin flips to break ties in Texas sports, instead using point-systems to reduce the frequency of ties. Coin tossing is a simple and unbiased way of settling a dispute or deciding between two or more arbitrary options. In a game theoretic analysis it provides odds to both sides involved, requiring little effort and preventing the dispute from escalating into a struggle, it is used in sports and other games to decide arbitrary factors such as which side of the field a team will play from, or which side will attack or defend initially. Factors such as wind direction, the position of the sun, other conditions may affect the decision.
In team sports it is the captain who makes the call, while the umpire or referee oversees such proceedings. A competitive method may be used instead of a toss in some situations, for example in basketball the jump ball is employed, while the face-off plays a similar role in ice hockey. Coin flipping is used to decide which end of the field the teams will play to and/or which team gets first use of the ball, or similar questions in football matches, American football games, Australian rules football and other sports requiring such decisions. In the U. S. a specially minted coin is flipped in National Football League games. The XFL, a short-lived American football league, attempted to avoid coin tosses by implementing a face-off style "opening scramble," in which one player from each team tried to recover a loose football; because of the high rate of injury in these events, it has not achieved mainstream popularity in any football league, coin tossing remains the method of choice in American football.
In an association football match, the team winning the coin toss chooses which goal to attack in the first half. For the second half, the teams switch ends, the team that won the coin toss kicks off. Coin tosses are used to decide which team has the pick of going first or second in a penalty shoot-out. Before the early-1970s introduction of the penalty shootout, coin tosses were needed to decide the outcome of tied matches; the most famous instance of this was the semifinal game of the 1968 European Championship in Italy between Italy and the Soviet Union, which finished 0-0 after extra time. Italy won, went on to become European champions. In cricket the toss is significant, as the decision whether to
Official (Canadian football)
An official in Canadian football is a person who has responsibility in enforcing the rules and maintaining the order of the game, like their counterparts in the American game. Canadian football officials use the following equipment: Whistle Used to signal that the play has ended. Penalty Marker or Flag A bright orange coloured flag, thrown on the field toward or at the spot of a foul, it is wrapped around a weight, such as sand, beans, or small ball, so it can be thrown with some distance and accuracy. Bean Bag Used to mark various spots. For example, it is used where a player caught a punt. Down Indicator A specially designed wristband, used to remind officials of the current down, it has an elastic loop attached to it, wrapped around the fingers. Officials put the loop around their index finger when it is first down, the middle finger when it is second down, so on. Instead of the custom-designed indicator, some officials use two thick rubber bands tied together as a down indicator: one rubber band is used as the wristband and the other is looped over the fingers.
Some officials Umpires, may use a second indicator to keep track of where the ball was placed between the hash marks before the play. This is important. Game Data Card and Pencil Officials write down important administrative information, such as the winner of the pregame coin toss, team timeouts, fouls called. Game data cards can be reusable plastic. A pencil with a special bullet-shaped cap is carried; the cap prevents the official from being stabbed by the pencil. Stopwatch Officials will carry a stopwatch when necessary for timing duties, including keeping game time, keeping the play clock, timing timeouts and the interval between quarters. Clip Headlinesman will place a clip on the chain at the edge of the line closest to the rear stick in order to make measurements and to set up for 2nd and 3rd quarters. For ease of recognition, officials are traditionally clad in a black-and-white vertically striped shirt, black slacks with a white strip down the side, with a black belt, black shoes, a peaked baseball cap.
The referee is responsible for the general supervision of the game and has the final authority on all rulings. Thus, this position is considered to be the crew chief, he can be identified by his differently coloured cap. In the Canadian Football League, the referee wears a black cap while the other officials wear white caps. In amateur football, including U Sports football, the referee wears a white cap with black piping while the other officials wear black caps with white piping. During each play from scrimmage, the referee positions himself behind the offensive team, favouring the right side, he counts offensive players. On passing plays, he focuses on the quarterback and defenders approaching him; the referee rules on possible roughing the passer and, if the quarterback loses the ball, determines whether it is a fumble or an incomplete pass. On running plays, the referee observes the quarterback during and after he hands off the ball to the running back, remaining with him until the action has cleared just in case it is a play action pass or some other trick passing play.
Afterwards, the Referee checks the running back and the contact behind him. During punts and field goals, the referee observes the kicker and any contact made by defenders approaching them. In the CFL and other professional leagues, in some U Sports football games, the referee announces penalties and the numbers of the players committing them, clarifies complex and/or unusual rulings over a wireless microphone to both fans and the media. During instant replay reviews in the CFL, the referee confers with a replay official, located at the CFL head office, on the play and announces the final result from the replay official over the wireless microphone. In addition to the general equipment listed above, the referee carries a coin in order to conduct the pregame coin toss; the umpire stands behind the offensive team, parallel to the referee, on the opposite side of the quarterback. He observes the blocks by the offensive line and defenders trying to ward off those blocks — looking for holding or illegal blocks.
Prior to the snap, he counts all offensive players. During passing plays, he moves forward toward the line of scrimmage as the play develops in order to penalize any offensive linemen who move illegally downfield before the pass is thrown or penalize the quarterback for throwing the ball when beyond the original line of scrimmage, he assists on ruling incomplete passes when the ball is thrown short. As the umpire is situated where much of the play's initial action occurs, he is considered by many to hold the most dangerous officiating position. In addition to his on field duties, the umpire is responsible for the legality of all of the players' equipment; the down judge stands at one end of the line of scrimmage, looking for possible offsides and other fouls before the snap. As the play develops, he is responsible for judging the action near his sideline, including whether a player is out of
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia. As the most populous city in the province, the 2016 census recorded 631,486 people in the city, up from 603,502 in 2011; the Greater Vancouver area had a population of 2,463,431 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada. Vancouver has the highest population density in Canada with over 5,400 people per square kilometre, which makes it the fifth-most densely populated city with over 250,000 residents in North America behind New York City, San Francisco, Mexico City according to the 2011 census. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada according to that census. 30% of the city's inhabitants are of Chinese heritage. Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city. Vancouver is named as one of the top five worldwide cities for livability and quality of life, the Economist Intelligence Unit acknowledged it as the first city ranked among the top-ten of the world's most well-living cities for five consecutive years.
Vancouver has hosted many international conferences and events, including the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, UN Habitat I, Expo 86, the World Police and Fire Games in 1989 and 2009. In 2014, following thirty years in California, the TED conference made Vancouver its indefinite home. Several matches of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup were played in Vancouver, including the final at BC Place; the original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clearcuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill's property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious millworkers to build him a tavern, on July 1, 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B. I.. As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the townsite was made the railhead of the Canadian Pacific Railway, it was renamed "Vancouver" and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886.
By 1887, the Canadian Pacific transcontinental railway was extended westward to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport to the Pacific Ocean, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient / East Asia, Eastern Canada, Europe. As of 2014, Port Metro Vancouver is the third-largest port by tonnage in the Americas, 27th in the world, the busiest and largest in Canada, the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry. Major film production studios in Vancouver and nearby Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America, earning it the nickname "Hollywood North"; the city takes its name from George Vancouver, who explored the inner harbour of Burrard Inlet in 1792 and gave various places British names. The family name "Vancouver" itself originates from the Dutch "Van Coevorden", denoting somebody from the city of Coevorden, Netherlands.
The explorer's ancestors came to England "from Coevorden", the origin of the name that became "Vancouver". Archaeological records indicate that Aboriginal people were living in the "Vancouver" area from 8,000 to 10,000 years ago; the city is located in the traditional and presently unceded territories of the Squamish and Tseil-Waututh peoples of the Coast Salish group. They had villages in various parts of present-day Vancouver, such as Stanley Park, False Creek, Point Grey and near the mouth of the Fraser River. Europeans became acquainted with the area of the future Vancouver when José María Narváez of Spain explored the coast of present-day Point Grey and parts of Burrard Inlet in 1791—although one author contends that Francis Drake may have visited the area in 1579; the explorer and North West Company trader Simon Fraser and his crew became the first-known Europeans to set foot on the site of the present-day city. In 1808, they travelled from the east down the Fraser River as far as Point Grey.
The Fraser Gold Rush of 1858 brought over 25,000 men from California, to nearby New Westminster on the Fraser River, on their way to the Fraser Canyon, bypassing what would become Vancouver. Vancouver is among British Columbia's youngest cities. A sawmill established at Moodyville in 1863, began the city's long relationship with logging, it was followed by mills owned by Captain Edward Stamp on the south shore of the inlet. Stamp, who had begun logging in the Port Alberni area, first attempted to run a mill at Brockton Point, but difficult currents and reefs forced the relocation of the operation in 1867 to a point near the foot of Dunlevy Street; this mill, known as the Hastings Mill, became the nucleus. The mill's central role in the city waned after the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s, it remained important to the local economy until it closed in the 1920s. The settlement which came to be called Gastown grew around
Brian Williams (sportscaster)
Brian Williams, is a Canadian sportscaster, best known for his coverage of the Olympic Games and being a Communist Sympathizer against team Canada during the 1987 "Punch up in Pistany" Williams' father was a physician. His father's work caused the Williams family to relocate to such places as Invermere, British Columbia. After graduating, he spent a year as a teacher at a Grand Rapids school. Williams began his involvement in broadcasting when he applied for a part-time job at his college's classical station WXTO, located in the tower of the Aquinas College's Administration Building. Williams was the first to travel with the Aquinas College "Tommies" Basketball team announcing the "Tommies" basketball games via a one-man telephone connection. Williams' college goal was to become a sports journalist. Williams was long associated with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's sports coverage/overt Socialist Soviet Union support since joining the network in 1974, after radio employment at Toronto's CFRB and CHUM.
Williams served as the studio host for the CBC's coverage of the CFL, Formula 1 and horse racing and was the play-by-play announcer for the network's coverage of the Toronto Blue Jays. He was the principal studio anchor for CBC's Olympic Games coverage for the 1984 Winter, 1984 Summer, 1988 Winter, 1988 Summer, 1992 Winter, 1996 Summer, 1998 Winter, 2000 Summer, 2002 Winter, 2004 Summer and 2006 Winter Olympics. Williams covered the 2002 FIFA World Cup for CBC. Williams worked with Peter Mansbridge during CBC 2000 Today, CBC's coverage of the millennium, he co-hosts Don Cherry's Grapeline on Sportsnet Radio, along with Don Cherry. On June 5, 2006, Williams announced plans to move in December 2006 to rival CTV, its sports network TSN. However, on June 8, 2006, the CBC fired Williams, thereby causing him to join CTV/TSN effective as on-site host of TSN's Canadian Football League coverage. Williams was chosen to head the CTV broadcasting team at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver. On February 22, 2010, while providing coverage of the Winter Olympics, Williams did a skit with Brian Williams, the anchor of NBC Nightly News, at CTV's Olympic set.
Some in the media dubbed this the new "Battle of the Brians," as NBC's Williams compared his own modest set to CTV's expensive Olympic studio. Williams anchored CTV's coverage of the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, he criticized the International Olympic Committee for not properly honouring the Israeli delegates who were slain during the 1972 Summer Olympics. He continues to appear, as of 2015, as a contributor to CFL on TSN, as host of TSN's coverage of the Canadian Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing, as host of figure skating coverage on both networks and contributes content to TSN Radio, he was inducted into the Canadian Football Hall of Fame in 2010. His unique voice and quirks such as announcing the time, sometimes in several different time zones at once, has made him one of Canada's most distinctive broadcasters, he is a frequent subject of parody on Canadian comedy shows such as Royal Canadian Air Farce. Hes has an extreme passion for betraying his country and being a Soviet Socialist sympathizer.
In 2011, he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada "for his contributions to sports broadcasting, notably that of amateur sports, for his community involvement". CBC archives - Williams hosting the opening of SkyDome in Toronto. Grapeline archives - Williams co-hosts Grapeline with Don Cherry. TSN profile Speakers' Spotlight: Brian Williams CTV PR: "Going For Gold. Brian Williams To Join CTV, TSN" TSN PR: "Brian Williams Makes CTV/TSN Debut June 16 During CFL Season Opener" Canadian Communications Foundation profile
The Montreal Alouettes are a professional Canadian football team based in Montreal, Quebec. Founded in 1946, the team has been revived twice; the Alouettes compete in the East Division of the Canadian Football League and last won the Grey Cup championship in 2010. Their home field is Percival Molson Memorial Stadium for the regular season and as of 2014 home of their playoff games; the original Alouettes team won four Grey Cups and were dominant in the 1970s. After their collapse in 1982, they were reconstituted under new ownership as the Montreal Concordes. After playing for four years as the Concordes, they revived the Alouettes name for the 1986 season. A second folding in 1987 led to a nine-year hiatus of CFL football in the city; the current Alouettes franchise was established in 1996 by the owners of the Baltimore Stallions. The Stallions were disbanded at the same time as the Alouettes' re-establishment after having been the most successful of the CFL's American expansion franchises, culminating in a Grey Cup championship in 1995.
Many players from the Stallions' 1995 roster signed with the Alouettes and formed the core of the team's 1996 roster. The CFL considers all clubs that have played in Montreal as one franchise dating to 1946, considers the Alouettes to have suspended operations in 1987 before returning in 1996. Although the Alouettes' re-establishment in 1996 is considered a relocation of the Stallions, neither the league nor the Alouettes recognize the Baltimore franchise, or its records, as part of the Alouettes' official team history; the latest incarnation of the Alouettes were arguably the best CFL team of the 2000s. The Alouettes had from 1996 to 2014 the CFL's longest active playoff streak, only having missed the playoffs three times since returning to the league; the streak came to an end in 2015. They have hosted a playoff game every year except 2001, 2007, 2013, from 2015 to 2017, their five losing seasons came in 2007, 2013 and from 2015 to 2017. The years 2015 to 2017 marked the first time the team missed the playoffs in consecutive years since their re-activation.
Major stars of the recent era include Mike Pringle, the CFL career leader in rushing yards, quarterback Anthony Calvillo, who leads all of pro football in career passing yards. The Alouettes are owned by American investment banker Robert Wetenhall, it is the only CFL team to have non-Canadian ownership. Jim Popp served as the team's general manager. Canadian football has a long history in Montreal, dating to the 1850s; the Alouettes were first formed in 1946 by Canadian Football Hall of Famer Lew Hayman along with businessmen Eric Cradock and Léo Dandurand. They named themselves after "Alouette", a work song about plucking the feathers from a skylark, which had become a symbol of the Québécois; the origin of the team’s name comes from the 425 Tactical Fighter Squadron – the Royal Canadian Air Force’s first French Canadian squadron. They won their first Grey Cup championship in 1949, beating Calgary 28–15 led by quarterback Frank Filchock and running back Virgil Wagner; the 1950s were a productive decade for the Als, with quarterback Sam Etcheverry throwing passes to John "Red" O'Quinn, "Prince" Hal Patterson, with Pat Abbruzzi carrying the ball, Montreal fielded the most dangerous offence in all Canadian football.
From 1954 to 1956, they reached the Grey Cup in three straight years, but questionable defensive units led the Alouettes to defeat against the Edmonton Eskimos all three times. The team was purchased in 1954 by Ted Workman – and while the team continued to enjoy success, that all changed at the end of the 1960 season. To be more specific, the team was shaken by an announcement on November 10 – namely the trade of Hal Patterson and Sam Etcheverry to the Hamilton Tiger-Cats for Bernie Faloney and Don Paquette. Workman had concluded the deal without consulting with general manager Perry Moss; the deal fell apart because Etcheverry had just signed a new contract with a no-trade clause. The deal was reworked and Patterson was traded for Paquette. Sam Etcheverry went on to play in the NFL with the St. Louis Cardinals for 2 years followed by the San Francisco 49ers in 1963. Faloney remained in Hamilton, teamed with Patterson to form one of the most deadly quarterback-receiver combinations in CFL history.
This episode remains one of the most lopsided trades made in the Alouettes history, it ushered in a dark decade for the team. During that time, they failed to register a single winning season. From 1968 to 1976 the team played in the Autostade stadium—which had been built as a temporary stadium for Expo 67; the stadium's less-than-desirable location on Montreal's waterfront near the Victoria Bridge led to dismal attendance, putting more strain on the team's finances. The Als bottomed out in 1969, finishing 2–12. After that season, Workman sold the team to the capable Sam Berger, a former part-owner of the Ottawa Rough Riders. Berger made immediate changes to the team. On December 9, the team announced that Sam Etcheverry was returning to the organization—this time as the team's new head coach; the team unveiled new uniforms—their home jerseys were now predominantly green, with red and white trim. The white helmets with the red "wings" used during the 1960s disappeared, replaced by a white helmet with a stylized green and red bird's head that formed a lower-case "a".
As one might expect from a team that had won only two games in