History of ancient Egypt
The history of ancient Egypt spans the period from the early prehistoric settlements of the northern Nile valley to the Roman conquest, in 30 BC. The Pharaonic Period is dated from the 32nd century BC, when Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, until the country fell under Macedonian rule, in 332 BC. Note For alternative'revisions' to the chronology of Egypt, see Egyptian chronology. Egypt's history is split into several different periods according to the ruling dynasty of each pharaoh; the dating of events is still a subject of research. The conservative dates are not supported by any reliable absolute date for a span of about three millennia; the following is the list according to conventional Egyptian chronology. Prehistoric Egypt Naqada III Early Dynastic Period Old Kingdom First Intermediate Period Middle Kingdom Second Intermediate Period New Kingdom Third Intermediate Period Late Period The Nile has been the lifeline for Egyptian culture since nomadic hunter-gatherers began living along it during the Pleistocene.
Traces of these early people appear in the form of artefacts and rock carvings along the terraces of the Nile and in the oases. To the Egyptians the Nile meant life and the desert meant death, though the desert did provide them protection from invaders. Along the Nile in the 12th millennium, an Upper Paleolithic grain-grinding culture using the earliest type of sickle blades had replaced the culture of hunting and hunter-gatherers using stone tools. Evidence indicates human habitation and cattle herding in the southwestern corner of Egypt near the Sudan border before the 8th millennium BC. Despite this, the idea of an independent bovine domestication event in Africa must be abandoned because subsequent evidence gathered over a period of thirty years has failed to corroborate this; the oldest-known domesticated cattle remains in Africa are from the Faiyum c. 4400 BC. Geological evidence and computer climate modeling studies suggest that natural climate changes around the 8th millennium began to desiccate the extensive pastoral lands of North Africa forming the Sahara by the 25th century BC.
Continued desiccation forced the early ancestors of the Egyptians to settle around the Nile more permanently and forced them to adopt a more sedentary lifestyle. However, the period from 9th to the 6th millennium BC has left little in the way of archaeological evidence; the Nile valley of Egypt was uninhabitable until the work of clearing and irrigating the land along the banks was started. However it appears that this clearance and irrigation was under way by the 6th millennium. By that time, Nile society was engaged in organized agriculture and the construction of large buildings. At this time, Egyptians in the southwestern corner of Egypt were herding cattle and constructing large buildings. Mortar was in use by the 4th millennium; the people of the valley and the Nile Delta were self-sufficient and were raising barley and emmer, an early variety of wheat, stored it in pits lined with reed mats. They raised cattle and pigs and they wove linen and baskets. Prehistory continues through this time, variously held to begin with the Amratian culture.
Between 5500 BC and the 31st century BC, small settlements flourished along the Nile, whose delta empties into the Mediterranean Sea. The Tasian culture was the next to appear; this group is named for the burials found at Deir Tasa, a site on the east bank of the Nile between Asyut and Akhmim. The Tasian culture is notable for producing the earliest blacktop-ware, a type of red and brown pottery painted black on its top and interior; the Badari culture, named for the Badari site near Deir Tasa, followed the Tasian. The Badari culture continued to produce the kind of pottery called blacktop-ware, was assigned the sequence dating numbers between 21 and 29; the significant difference, between the Tasian and Badari, which prevents scholars from merging the two, is that Badari sites are Chalcolithic while the Tasian sites remained Neolithic and are thus considered technically part of the Stone Age. The Amratian culture is named after the site of el-Amreh, about 120 kilometres south of Badari. El-Amreh was the first site where this culture was found unmingled with the Gerzeh culture.
However, this period is better attested at Nagada, so is referred to as the "Naqada I" culture. Black-topped ware continued to be produced, but white cross-line ware, a type of pottery decorated with close parallel white lines crossed by another set of close parallel white lines, began to be produced during this time; the Amratian period falls between S. D. 30 and 39. Newly excavated objects indicate that trade between Lower Egypt existed at this time. A stone vase from the north was found at el-Amreh, copper, not present in Egypt, was imported from the Sinai Peninsula or Nubia. Obsidian and an small amount of gold were both definitively imported from Nubia during this time. Trade with the oases was likely; the Gerzeh culture, named after the site of el-Gerzeh, was the next stage in cultural development, it was during this time that the foundation for ancient Egypt was laid. The Gerzeh culture was an unbroken development o
10th century BC
The 10th century BC started the first day of 1000 BC and ended the last day of 901 BC. This period followed the Late Bronze Age collapse in the Near East, the century saw the Early Iron Age take hold there; the Greek Dark Ages which had come about in 1200 BC continued. The Neo-Assyrian Empire is established towards the end of the 10th century BC. In the Iron Age in India, the Vedic period is ongoing. In China, the Zhou dynasty is in power. Bronze Age Europe continued with Urnfield culture. Japan was inhabited by an evolving hunter-gatherer society during the Jōmon period. 1000 BC: India—Iron Age of India. Iron Age kingdoms rule India—Panchala, Kosala, Videha are Janapada states. 993 BC: Amenemope succeeds Psusennes I as king of Egypt. 993 BC: Archippus, Archon of Athens dies after a reign of 19 years and is succeeded by his son Thersippus. 984 BC: Osorkon the Elder succeeds Amenemope as king of Egypt. 982 BC: The end of first period by Sau Yung's concept of the I Ching and history. 978 BC: Siamun succeeds Osorkon the Elder as king of Egypt.
967 BC: Solomon becomes king of the Israelites, according to the Books of Kings. 967 BC: Tiglath-Pileser II becomes King of Assyria. 965 BC: David, king of the ancient Israelites, dies. 962 BC: Solomon becomes king of Israel, following the death of his father, King David. 959 BC: Psusennes II succeeds Siamun as king of Egypt. 957 BC: Solomon completes the construction of the First Temple in Jerusalem. C. 953 BC: Alternative date to the founding of Rome. 952 BC: Thersippus, King of Athens dies after a reign of 41 years and is succeeded by his son Phorbas. 947 BC: Death of King Mo of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 946 BC: King Gong of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 945 BC: Egypt: Psusennes III dies, the last king of the Twenty-first Dynasty. Shoshenq I succeeds him, the founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty. 935 BC: Death of King Gong of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 935 BC: Death of Tiglath-Pileser II king of Assyria. 925 BC: Solomon, king of the ancient Israelites, dies.
C. 925 BC: Partition of ancient Israel into the Kingdoms of Judah and Israel. 924 BC: Osorkon I succeeds his father Shoshenq I as king of Egypt. 922 BC: Phorbas, Archon of Athens, dies after a reign of 30 years and is succeeded by his son Megacles. 912 BC: Adad-nirari II succeeds his father Ashur-Dan II as king of Assyria. 911 BC: Abijah, king of Judah, dies. 910 BC: Kamil Xashi assassinates King Baraxow of the Gudaye dynasty bringing an end to the 2000 year old Kingdom of Punt 909 BC: Jeroboam, the first king of the northern Hebrew kingdom of Israel, dies and is succeeded by his son Nadab. 900s BC: India—Vedic India—Yajnavalkya writes the Shatapatha Brahmana, in which he describes the motions of the sun and the moon. C. 900 BC: the Villanovan culture emerges in northern Italy. C. 900 BC: Foundation of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. C. 900 BC — the [[Adichanallur relics, from Tamilnadu Culture, India is 2,900 yrs old 900 BC: Kingdom of Kush. Late 10th century BC: Centaur, from Lefkandi, Euboea is made.
It is now at the Archaeological Museum of Eretria in Greece. Foundation of Sparta; the kingdom of Ethiopia is founded by Menelik I, who according to legend was the son of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. First extant evidence of written Aramaic language; the earliest known settlement in Plymouth, England dates back to this era. Creation of ceremonial golden hats in Central Europe. David, king of the ancient Israelites Snake Spine Ajaw of Palenque, semi legendary (967 BC-? Solomon, king of the ancient Israelites Zoroaster, ancient Iranian prophet Kamil Xashi, ancestor of the Hashiyah clan See: List of sovereign states in the 10th century BC
Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt
The Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt is classified as the first Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian Third Intermediate Period, lasting from 1069 BC to 945 BC. After the reign of Ramesses III, a long, slow decline of royal power in Egypt followed; the pharaohs of the Twenty-first Dynasty ruled from Tanis, but were active only in Lower Egypt, which they controlled. This dynasty is described as ` Tanite'. Meanwhile, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes ruled Middle and Upper Egypt in all but name; the Egyptian Priest Manetho of Sebennytos states in his Epitome on Egyptian royal history that "the 21st Dynasty of Egypt lasted for 130 years". Jaroslav Černý, Studies in the Chronology of the Twenty-First Dynasty, JEA 32, 24-30 Family tree of the Twenty-first, Twenty-second, Twenty-third Dynasties of Egypt Theban High Priests of Amun
9th century BC
The 9th century BC started the first day of 900 BC and ended the last day of 801 BC. It was a period of great change for several civilizations. In Africa, Carthage is founded by the Phoenicians. In Egypt, a severe flood covers the floor of Luxor temple, years a civil war starts, it is the beginning of the Iron Age in Central Europe, with the spread of the Proto-Celtic Hallstatt culture, the Proto-Celtic language. 895 BC: Death of King Xiao of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 894 BC: King Yi of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 892 BC: Megacles, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 30 years and is succeeded by his son Diognetus. 891 BC: Tukulti-Ninurta II succeeds his father Adad-nirari II as king of Assyria. 890 BC: Napoli some reports and excavations about the foundation of the city 889 BC: Takelot I succeeds his father Osorkon I as king of Egypt. 884 BC: Ashurnasirpal II succeeds his father Tukulti-Ninurta II as king of Assyria. 879 BC: Death of King Yi of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China.
878 BC: King Li of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 874 BC: Osorkon II succeeds Takelot I as king of the Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt. 874 BC: Ahab becomes king of Kingdom of Israel. 872 BC: Parshvanatha, 23rd Tirthankara of Jainism was born. 872 BC: An exceptionally high flood from the Nile covers the floors of the Temple of Luxor. 865 BC: Kar Kalmaneser was conquered by the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III. 864 BC: Diognetus, Archon of Athens, dies after a reign of 28 years and is succeeded by his son Pherecles. 860 BC: The kingdom of Urartu is unified. 858 BC: Aramu becomes king of Urartu. 858 BC: Shalmaneser III succeeds Ashurnasirpal II as king of Assyria. 854/3 BC: Battle of Karkar—An indecisive engagement between Assyrian king Shalmaneser III and a military alliance of the king of Damascus and lesser powers including the prince of Tyre. 850 BC: Takelot II succeeds Osorkon II as King of Egypt. 850 BC: The Middle Mumun Pottery Period begins in the Korean peninsula. 845 BC: Pherecles, Archon of Athens, dies after a reign of 19 years and is succeeded by his son Ariphron.
842 BC: Shalmaneser III devastates the territory of Damascus. 841 BC: Death of King Li of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 841 BC: Records of the Grand Historian regards this year as the first year of consecutive annual dating of Chinese history. 840 BC: Gopala Dynasty started in Nepal, first dynasty to rule in a country named Nepal despite its present geographical boundaries. 836 BC: Shalmaneser III of Assyria leads an expedition against the Tabareni. 836 BC: Civil war breaks out in Egypt. 827 BC: King Xuan of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 825 BC: Takelot II, king of Egypt, dies. Crown Prince Osorkon III and Shoshenq III, sons of Takelot, battle for the throne. C. 825 BC: Ariphron, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 20 years and is succeeded by his son Thespieus. 823 BC: Death of Shalmaneser III, king of Assyria. He is succeeded by his son Shamshi-Adad V. 820 BC: Pygmalion ascends the throne of Tyre. 817 BC: Pedubastis I declares himself king of Egypt, founding the Twenty-third Dynasty.
814 BC: Carthage is founded by Dido. 811 BC: Adad-nirari III succeeds his father Shamshi-Adad V as king of Assyria. 804 BC: Adad-nirari III of Assyria conquers Damascus. 804 BC: Death of Pedubastis I, pharaoh. C. 800 BC: Etruscan civilization. Beginning of the Iron Age in Central Europe, spread of the Proto-Celtic Hallstatt culture, the Proto-Celtic language. Adena culture appears in present-day Northeastern United States. Elijah, a 9th-century BC prophet found in the Old Testament of the Bible. 872 BC: Parshvanatha, 23rd Tirthankara of Jainism was born. Shalmaneser III, king of Assyria First inscriptions in Epigraphic South Arabian found in Akkele Guzay 9th century BC—Olmecs build pyramids. Emergence of the Brahmana period of Vedic Sanskrit, probable composition of the Shatapatha Brahmana, the first beginning of the Upanishadic and Vedantic traditions of Hinduism. In Highlander, the immortal Juan Sánchez Villa-Lobos Ramírez was born in Egypt in 896 BC. In True Blood, the vampire known as Russell Edgington was born around 850 BC, was turned about 800 BC.
See: List of sovereign states in the 9th century BC. Zimmer, Joseph Campbell, ed. Philosophy of India, London, E. C. 4: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, Not in copyright
According to the Hebrew Bible, Solomon's Temple known as the First Temple, was the Holy Temple in ancient Jerusalem before its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BCE and its subsequent replacement with the Second Temple in the 6th century BCE. The period in which the First Temple or stood in Jerusalem, is known in academic literature as the First Temple period; the Hebrew Bible states that the temple was constructed under Solomon, king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah and that during the Kingdom of Judah, the temple was dedicated to Yahweh, is said to have housed the Ark of the Covenant. Jewish historian Josephus says that "the temple was burnt four hundred and seventy years, six months, ten days after it was built"; because of the religious sensitivities involved, the politically volatile situation in Jerusalem, only limited archaeological surveys of the Temple Mount have been conducted. No archaeological excavations have been allowed on the Temple Mount during modern times.
Therefore, there are few pieces of archaeological evidence for the existence of Solomon's Temple. An ivory pomegranate which mentions priests in the house "of ---h", an inscription recording the Temple's restoration under Jehoash have both appeared on the antiquities market, but their authenticity has been challenged and they are the subject of controversy; the noun hekhal means "a large building". This can be either the main building of the Temple in Jerusalem, or a palace such as the "palace" of Ahab, king of Samaria, or the "palace" of the King of Babylon. Hekhal is used 80 times in the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible. Of these, 70 refer to the House of the LORD, the other 10 are references to palaces. There is no reference to any part of the tabernacle using this term in the Hebrew Bible. In the year that king Uzziah died. I saw the LORD sitting upon a throne high and lifted up, His train filled the hekhal. In older English versions of the Bible, including the King James Version, the term temple is used to translate hekhal.
In modern versions more reflective of archaeological research, the distinction is made of different sections of the whole Temple. Scholars and archaeologists agree on the structure of Solomon's Temple as described in 1 Kings 6:3–5, with three main elements: the porch. Schmid and Rupprecht are of the view that the site of the temple used to be a Jebusite shrine which Solomon chose in an attempt to unify the Jebusites and Israelites. Rabbinic sources state that the First Temple stood for 410 years and, based on the 2nd-century work Seder Olam Rabbah, place construction in 832 BCE and destruction in 422 BCE, 165 years than secular estimates; the exact location of the Temple is unknown: it is believed to have been situated upon the hill which forms the site of the 1st century Second Temple and present-day Temple Mount, where the Dome of the Rock is situated. The only source of information on the First Temple is the Tanakh. According to the biblical sources, the temple was constructed under Solomon, during the united monarchy of Israel and Judah.
The Bible describes Hiram I of Tyre who furnished architects and cedar timbers for the temple of his ally Solomon at Jerusalem. He co-operated with Solomon in mounting an expedition on the Red Sea. 1 Kings 6:1 puts the date of the beginning of building the temple "in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel". The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE; this puts the date of its construction in the mid-10th century BCE. 1 Kings 9:10 says that it took Solomon 20 years altogether to build his royal palace. The Temple itself finished being built after 7 years. 1 Kings 8:10-66 and 2 Chronicles 6:1-42 recount the events of the temple's dedication. When the priests emerged from the holy of holies after placing the Ark there, the Temple was filled with an overpowering cloud which interrupted the dedication ceremony, "for the glory of the Lord had filled the house of the Lord". Solomon interpreted the cloud as " that his pious work was accepted": The Lord has said that he would dwell in thick darkness.
I have built you a place for you to dwell in forever. The allusion is to Leviticus 16:2: The Lord said to Moses: Tell your brother Aaron not to come just at any time into the sanctuary inside the curtain before the mercy seat, upon the ark, or he will die. Solomon led the whole assembly of Israel in prayer, noting that the construction on the temple represented a fulfilment of God's promise to David, dedicating the temple as a place of prayer and reconciliation for the people of Israel and for foreigners living in Israel, highlighting the paradox that God who lives in the heavens cannot be contained within a single building; the dedication was concluded with sacrifices said to have included "twenty-two thousand bulls and one hundred and twenty thousand sheep". During the United Monarchy the Temple was dedicated to the God of Israel. From the reign of King Manasseh until King Josiah, Baal and "the host of heaven" were worshipped; until the reforms of King Josiah, there was a statue for the goddess Asherah and priestesses wove ritual textiles for her.
Next to the temple was a house for the temple prostitutes (2 Kings
1st millennium BC
The 1st millennium BC is the period of time between from the year 1000 BC to 1 BC. It encompasses the Iron Age in the Old World and sees the transition from the Ancient Near East to classical antiquity. World population doubled over the course of the millennium, from about 100 million to about 200–250 million; the Neo-Assyrian Empire dominates the Near East in the early centuries of the millennium, supplanted by the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century. Ancient Egypt is in decline, falls to the Achaemenids in 525 BC. In Greece, Classical Antiquity begins with the colonization of Magna Graecia and peaks with the conquest of the Achaemenids and the subsequent flourishing of Hellenistic civilization; the Roman Republic supplants the Etruscans and the Carthaginians. The close of the millennium sees the rise of the Roman Empire; the early Celts dominate Central Europe. In East Africa, the Nubian Empire and Aksum arise. In South Asia, the Vedic civilization blends into the Maurya Empire; the Scythians dominate Central Asia.
In China, the Spring and Autumn period sees the rise of Confucianism. Towards the close of the millennium, the Han Dynasty extends Chinese power towards Central Asia, where it borders on Indo-Greek and Iranian states. Japan is in the Yayoi period; the Maya civilization rises in Mesoamerica. The first millennium BC is the formative period of the classical world religions, with the development of early Judaism Zoroastrianism in the Near East, Vedic religion and Vedanta and Buddhism in India. Early literature develops in Greek, Hebrew, Sanskrit and Chinese; the term Axial Age, coined by Karl Jaspers, is intended to express the crucial importance of the period of c. the 8th to 2nd centuries BC in world history. World population more than doubled over the course of the millennium, from about an estimated 50–100 million to an estimated 170–300 million. Close to 90% of world population at the end of the first millennium BC lived in the Iron Age civilizations of the Old World; the population of the Americas was below 20 million, concentrated in Mesoamerica.
The population of Oceania was less than one million people. 10th century BC Near East: Neo-Assyrian Empire Near East: Shoshenq I invades Canaan Aegean: Helladic period ends 9th century BC Egypt: 872 BC: Nile floods the Temple of Luxor Egypt: 836 BC: Civil war in Egypt North Africa: 814 BC: Carthage founded China: 841 BCndash. Greece: Archaic Greece, Greek alphabet Greece: Homer 776 BC: Greece: First Olympiad 753 BC: Europe: foundation of Rome 7th century BC 671 BC: Assyrian conquest of Egypt Near East: 631 BC: Death of Ashurbanipal, decline of the Assyrian Empire 6th century BC Egypt: 592 BC: Psamtik II sacks Napata Sudan: Aspelta moves the Kushite capital to Meroe Near East: 539 BC: Achaemenid conquest of Babylon under Cyrus the Great South Asia: Śramaṇa movement and "second urbanisation" South Asia: Early Buddhism Europe: 509 BC: Roman Republic 5th century BC China: 479 BC: death of Confucius China: 476 BC: Warring States period China: 486 BC: Grand Canal construction begins Near East: Second Temple Judaism, redaction of the Hebrew Bible Greece: beginning of the classical period.
Greece: Greco-Persian Wars Greece: 440 BC: Herodotus' Histories Greece: 431 BC: Peloponnesian War Oceania: Austronesian expansion reaches Western Polynesia 4th century BC Greece: 395 BC: Corinthian War Egypt: 343 BC: Achaemenid conquest Greece/Asia/Egypt: 330s BC: conquests of Alexander the Great, end of the Achaemenid Empire, Macedonian Empire, beginning of the Hellenistic period South Asia: Mauryan Empire 3rd century BC China: Qin Unified China China: 206 BC: Han Dynasty South Asia: 261 BC: Kalinga war Rome: Roman expansion in Italy Rome/Carthage: Punic Wars 264 BC: First Punic War 218 BC Second Punic War 2nd century BC Rome/Carthage: 149 BC Third Punic War, Roman province of Africa Rome/Greece: 146 BC Battle of Corinth, beginning of the Roman era South Asia: 185 BC: Fall of the Maurya Empire China: Confucianism became the state ideology of China 1st century BC China: 91 BC: Records of the Grand Historian finished Rome/Europe: 58-50 BC Gallic Wars Rome: 32/30 BC: Final War of the Roman Republic Rome/Egypt: 31 BC: Roman conquest of Egypt Rome/Europe/West Asia/Africa: 27 BC: Roman Empire Some of the central figures of the Axial Age are legendary or semi-legendary, with no contemporary written records available RulersChina: Dynasties in Chinese history, List of Chinese monarchs Egypt: Third Intermediate Period of Egypt Carthage: List of monarchs of Carthage Assyrian Empire: List of Assyrian kings Babylonia: Neo-Babylonian_dynasty Canaan / Biblical Levant: Kings of Israel and Judah Achaemenid Persia: List of monarchs of Persia Kingdom of Kush: List of monarchs of Kush Classical Greece: Monarchs: List of kings of Sparta, Thirty Tyrants Athenian democracy: Pericles Macedon: List of ancient Macedonians, Argead dynasty Hellenistic period: Ptolemaic Dynasty, Antigonid dynasty, Hasmonean dynasty Rome: kings of Rome, List of Roman consuls Parthian Empire: List of Parthian kings India: List of Indian monarchsReligion, p
11th century BC
The 11th century BC comprises all years from 1100 BC to 1001 BC. Although many human societies were literate in this period, some of the individuals mentioned below may be apocryphal rather than accurate. 1089 BC: Melanthus, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 37 years and is succeeded by his son Codrus. 1069 BC: Ramses XI dies, ending the Twentieth Dynasty. He is succeeded by Smendes I. 1068 BC: Codrus, legendary King of Athens, dies in battle against Dorian invaders after a reign of 21 years. Athenian tradition considers him the last King to have held absolute power. Modern historians consider him the last King, he is succeeded by his son Medon. 1050 BC: Philistines capture the Ark of the Covenant from Israel in battle. 1048 BC: Medon, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 20 years and is succeeded by his son Acastus. 1046 BC: King Wu of Zhou overthrows the last Shang Dynasty King Di Xin and becomes first king of the Zhou Dynasty founded by his father King Wen of Zhou. 1044 BC: On the death of Smendes I, king of Egypt, he is succeeded by two co-regents, Psusennes I and Neferkare Amenemnisu.
1042 BC: King Cheng of Zhou succeeds King Wu as ruler of the Zhou Dynasty in China. C. 1040 BC: David, King of Israel, is born. 1039 BC: Neferkare Amenemnisu, king of Egypt, dies. 1026 BC: Saul the King becomes the first king of the Israelites, according to the Books of Samuel. C. 1020 BC: Destruction of Troy VIIb2. 1020 BC: King Kang of Zhou succeeds King Cheng as ruler of the Zhou Dynasty in China. 1012 BC: Acastus, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 36 years and is succeeded by his son Archippus. 1000s BC: Earliest evidence of farming in the Kenya highlands. 1000s BC: Phoenician alphabet invented. 1003 BC: David succeeds Saul the King. C. 1000 BC: Latins arrive in Italy. See: List of sovereign states in the 11th century BC