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Year 947 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. Summer – A Hungarian army led by Grand Prince Taksony campaigns in Italy, heading southwards on the eastern shore of the peninsula, it reaches Otranto, plundering Apulia for three months. Berengar of Ivrea offers them a massive tribute. Winter – King Otto I cedes the Duchy of Bavaria to his brother Henry I. To secure his rule, Henry is married to Judith, a daughter of Arnulf I, appoints a series of counts palatine. Horsham, a market town on the upper reaches of the Aran River in West Sussex, is first mentioned in'King Eadred's land charter'. August 19 – Abu Yazid, a Kharijite Berber leader who has led a rebellion against the Fatimid Caliphate in Ifriqiya, is defeated in the Hodna Mountains. Caliph Al-Mansur Billah sets about restoring the Fatimid dominion over North Sicily. January 11 – Emperor Tai Zong of the Khitan-led Liao Dynasty invades the Later Jin, resulting in the destruction of the Later Jin. Khitan forces head southwards to the Yellow River, but must return to their base in present-day Beijing in May after Tai Zong dies of an illness.

March 10 – The Later Han is founded by Liu Zhiyuan, the military governor of Bingzhou. He declares himself establishes the capital in Bian, present-day Kaifeng. Al-Masudi, an Arab historian and geographer, completes his large-scale work The Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems, a historical book about the beginning of the world, starting with Adam and Eve. Al-Qadir, Abbasid caliph of Baghdad Fujiwara no Koshi, Japanese empress Raja Raja Chola I, king of Chola Kingdom January 12 – Sang Weihan, Chinese chief of staff January 27 – Zhang Yanze, Chinese general and governor January 28 – Jing Yanguang, Chinese general May 18 – Tai Zong, emperor of the Liao Dynasty May 30 – Ma Xifan, king of Chu June 21 – Zhang Li, official of the Liao Dynasty June 22 – Qian Hongzuo, king of Wuyue June 23 Li Congyi, prince of Later Tang Wang, imperial consort of Later Tang August 19 – Abu Yazid, Kharijite Berber leader November 23 – Berthold, duke of Bavaria Ce Acatl Topiltzin, Toltec ruler Hugh of Arles, king of Italy and Lower Burgundy Jordi, bishop of Vic Li Renda, Chinese warlord and governor Liu Xu, chancellor of Later Tang and Later Jin Wulfgar, bishop of Lichfield

Rebecca Piekkari

Rebecca Marschan-Piekkari is a Finnish organizational theorist and Professor of International Business at the Aalto University, Vice Dean of its Department of Management Studies, known for her work on "international business research." And on multinational corporations. Piekkari obtained her MSc in International Business in 1990 at the Helsinki School of Economics, where she obtained her PhD in International Business in 1990 with the thesis, entitled "New Structural Forms and Inter-unit Communication in Multinationals: The Case of Kone Elevators."After her graduation she started her academic career as Visiting researcher at the University of Groningen in 1997 and as Visiting researcher at INSEAD and as Visiting lecturer at the Copenhagen Business School in 1998. In 1999 she was appointed Research Associate at the Sheffield University, Management School, the next year was Lecturer at the University of Bath, School of Management. From 2002 to 2004 she was Research Fellow at the Hanken School of Economics.

In 2004 she was appointed Professor of International Business at the Aalto University, Department of Management and International Business. Piekkari's research interests are in the field of "international business. Marschan-Piekkari and Catherine Welch, eds. Handbook of qualitative research methods for international business. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2004. Marschan-Piekkari and Catherine Welch, eds. Rethinking the case study in international business and management research. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011. Articles, a selection: Marschan-Piekkari, Denice Welch, Lawrence Welch. "In the shadow: The impact of language on structure and communication in the multinational." International Business Review 8.4: 421-440. Vaara, E. Tienari, J. Piekkari, R. & Säntti, R.. "Language and the circuits of power in a merging multinational corporation." Journal of Management Studies, 42, 595-623. Piekkari, Catherine Welch, Eriikka Paavilainen. "The case study as disciplinary convention: Evidence from international business journals."

Organizational research methods. Welch, C. Piekkari, R. Plakoyiannaki, E. & Paavilainen-Mäntymäki, E.. "Theorising from case studies: Towards a pluralist future for international business research." Journal of International Business Studies, 42, 740-762. Rebecca Piekkari, at Aalto University

Bassam Tariq

Bassam Tariq is an American film director and screenwriter born in Karachi, Pakistan. He co-directed and produced the Sundance-funded documentary These Birds Walk with Omar Mullick, he was named in Filmmaker's "25 New Faces of Independent Film" in 2012. Tariq's works aim to uncover the diversity of Muslim experience. In addition to filmmaking, his diverse projects include blogging and writing, co-founding a halal butcher shop, being a TED fellow. Tariq lives in New York City with his son. Tariq was born in Pakistan and moved to the U. S. with his family at a young age. He grew up in New York's Astoria neighborhood and moved to Houston at age 11. Tariq was the first person in his family to attend college, he received a Bachelor of Science in advertising from the University of Texas at Austin in 2008. While in college, Tariq took a class called “Creativity in American Culture” that inspired him to start making films, which at first were corporate videos, he free-lanced and filmed promotional videos for Celestica, The University of Texas at Austin, CBS News 11.

Tariq started filmmaking in college to earn extra money while getting his degree. He has produced feature video stories for Time, a short film for The New Yorker, co-directed a PSA to encourage vaccination against polio in Pakistan, he moved to New York again after college and worked in advertising as a copywriter at Saatchi & Saatchi. He worked as copywriter at other agencies, including RAPP and BBDO NY. In 2009, Tariq and his friend Aman Ali started. During Ramadan and Ali broke their fast at different mosques around New York each night of Ramadan, they shared their stories on a Tumblr blog. During the second year of the project, the men decided to visit 30 mosques in 30 different states during Ramadan, they continued the tour of mosques around the country the following year; as they explored the different communities of each mosque and Ali wrote about the diversity of America's Muslim population and the themes that affect the Muslim community as a whole. The blog has gotten extensive press coverage, the response has been positive.

The Huffington Post called the project "visually stunning," and more communities around the world have participated in a 30 mosques project. In 2013, Tariq co-directed; the film follows street children in Pakistan. When Tariq moved back to New York, he read about a humanitarian in Pakistan named Abdul Sattar Edhi, who started the first ambulance system in Pakistan in the 1950s and founded the Edhi Foundation. Tariq and Mullick wanted to make a film about him, but Edhi urged them to focus on the work his foundation does; as a result, the film follows a young runaway boy, who lives in a home for runaways that Edhi runs. The Sundance-funded These Birds Walk premiered at South by Southwest 2013 and opened in theaters across the US in November 2013; the film explores the struggles of street children in Karachi, Pakistan who are living the Edhi Foundation, a non-profit social welfare program, the sympathetic but reluctant ambulance driver who has to take them back to the homes they've run away from.

In 2014, Tariq co-founded a halal butcher shop in the East Village in New York with Khalid Latif and Russell Khan. The shop, Honest Chops, was started because of the founders' frustration with the lack of halal meat options in New York City; the butcher shop sources organic, humanely-raised animals from the Tri-State area and attempts to make the product accessible and affordable. A portion of the profits goes toward building social institutions in New York City; the shop distributes meat to soup kitchens, food pantries and families in need around major holidays. Tariq is a TED Fellow. In October 2014, he hosted a TED Talk titled "The beauty and diversity of Muslim life." The talk explores how his eclectic career reflects his perspective on what it means to be Muslim, he relates his disparate professions as a response to the complicated history that America has with diversity and people who oversimplify Muslim beliefs and communities. Tariq is a freelance copywriter and creative director in New York City.

The Sundance Institute awarded Tariq and Mullick the Art of Nonfiction fellowship January 2016. The Art of Nonfiction initiative expands the institute's support for documentaries that explore contemporary social issues. Bassam Tariq on IMDb

Korean idol

An idol, in fandom culture in South Korea, refers to a celebrity working in the field of K-pop, either as a member of a group or as a solo act. K-pop idols are characterized by the manufactured star system that they are produced by and debuted under, as well as their tendency to represent a hybridized convergence of visuals, fashion and music influenced by Western culture, they work for a mainstream entertainment agency and have undergone extensive training in dance and foreign language. Idols maintain a curated public image and social media presence, dedicate significant time and resources to building relationships with fans through concerts and meetups. Hundreds of candidates each day attend the global auditions held by Korean entertainment agencies to perform for the chance of becoming a trainee. Auditions closed auditions. Others are street-cast or scouted based on looks or potential talent; those who pass this audition stage are offered long-term contracts with the entertainment company.

There are no age limits to becoming a trainee. The trainee process lasts for an indefinite period of time, ranging from months to years, involves vocal and language classes taken while living together with other trainees, who sometimes attend school at the same time, although some trainees drop out of school to focus on their careers; the process may include "scouting, training, styling and managing", was developed around the creation of "H. O. T", a boyband of S. M. Entertainment in late 1990s. Trainees in the same company compete with each other, with some being eliminated from the coveted chance of settling in "the company-owned dormitories", continue fighting for the chance to debut in new idol groups, while those who cannot show their company the potential to become an eligible idol artist are weeded out of the company. Once a trainee enters the system, they are regulated in multiple aspects including personal life to body conditions and visual appearances; the survival, training and regulation take precedence over natural talent in the production of Korean idols.

The investment on a potential trainee could be expensive. In 2012, The Wall Street Journal reported that the cost of training one member of Girls' Generation under S. M. Entertainment was US$3 million; the K-pop trainee system was popularised by Lee Soo-man, the founder of S. M. Entertainment, as part of a concept labelled cultural technology; as a unique process, the Korean idol trainee system has been criticised by Western media outlets. There are negative connotations of idols within independent and underground Korean music scenes; when trainees are chosen to debut in new groups, they will face a new setting of personalities created by the company to cater the entertainment market. Each member of an idol group has his or her own character to play and therefore an important part of their job duties is to maintain that temperament in any kind of exposure they may get. One way to build personal image of idol groups is through social media services with contents taken care by the company to make sure the consistency of these personal characteristics.

The relationship between Korean idols and their fans can be characterized as "parasocial kin", which means to rather than admire or perfect Korean idols, fans more at the same time create a familial connection with their idols, in some cases between fans themselves. The one who facilitate this kind of relationship could be production companies or community of fans through various ways such as social networks services, fan sites, offline meetings in occasions like concerts or fan meetings etc.. The nature of this "parasocial kin" relationship can be seen in the proactive participation of Korean idol fans in production of idol groups. Fans have their own unique ways to show their attitude and opinion on issues concerning "unfair" actions of management companies, under this situation they more appear to be protecting idols from exploitation of companies due to the familial connection built between both sides. Several Korean idol groups and solo artists have resented the contracts issued to them by their management companies, claiming that the decade-long contracts are "too long, too restrictive, gave them none of the profits from their success".

A director of South Korean entertainment agency DSP Media stated that the company does share profit with the performers, but little is left over after paying costs. Korean entertainment companies such as S. M Entertainment have been called "factories" for their unique method of mass-producing stars. Members of groups are retired and replaced with fresh trainees when their age or musical inclinations begin to pose a problem. TVXQ charged S. M. Entertainment for unreasonable terms in their contracts with the company in 2009. Entertainment companies in Korea use a boot-camp system in grooming their idols. In the case of S. M. Entertainment, the company receives 300,000 applicants in nine countries every year, they possess training facilities in the Gangnam district of Seoul, where recruits train for years in anticipation of their debut. SM was called the first company to market "bands as brands", commodify not just the artists' product, but the artist themselves; such techniques have resulted in mass recognition abroad and helped to spark the Korean Wave, which benefits entertainment companies by broadening their audience.

As domestic fandom is not enough to produce the profits that these corporations and their players require and marketing of the artist/group has become

John M. Watson Sr.

John M. Watson Sr. was an American Jazz musician and actor. He is best known for his roles in films such as Groundhog Day, The Fugitive, Natural Born Killers, Soul Food, he was a noted trombonist with musicians Red Saunders and Count Basie. Watson was born in Albany, New York on January 10, 1937, his father was a musician, known as an outstanding piano player subbing for the great Art Tatum. His mother was singer. Watson was raised in Ohio, he graduated from Middletown High School in 1954. After serving four years in the United States Army he attended Miami University where he met his wife of 44 years, Virginia, they had had two daughters. Watson majored in Music Education and graduated in 1962. Watson was a member of the Miami University marching band, the orchestra, the concert band, he led his own band on the campus of Miami, performing for various campus functions. He was a member of Phi Mu Alpha music fraternity, of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity. After graduation in 1962, he planned to travel to Los Angeles to pursue his dream of being a musician, but stopped in Chicago to see a family member and never left.

Shortly after arriving in Chicago, he joined the Red Saunders Band, the 17 piece house band at the historic Regal Theater. Watson played with the band, his first day being the day that Stevie Wonder recorded his first song - Fingertips -, recorded live at the Regal. Watson was on other famous live recordings from the Regal Theater, including Gene Chandler's Rainbow'65, he traveled with various Motown acts including Marvin Gaye and the Four Tops. During this time he was a part of several recordings from artists such as Jack Mc Duff, James Cotton, Barbara Acklin and Etta James. Watson worked as a band teacher during this time at Du Sable, Dunbar and CVS high schools. In 1968 he joined the band at Jesse Jackson's Operation Breadbasket, led by Ben Branch. Watson would serve as the musical director of Operation Push, continued to play in the band until the late 70s. In 1969 he played with the Jackson Five until 1970, when he joined the Count Basie Band, about which he said "other than going to heaven I can't think of anything better".

By this time, two of his children had been born. Weary from being on the road 50 weeks out of the year and away from his family, he left the band in late 1972. Upon returning from the road, he worked at Manley High School as the band director. Manley had been an upper grade center, becoming a high school. Watson started the band from scratch, turned it into one of the most successful high school bands in Chicago, he was one of the most popular teachers at Manley. In 1982 he went to Hirsch High School as the band director, he retired in 1996. Of course he continued to perform around Chicago, first with bassist Cleveland Eaton, a longtime colleague who had since left the Ramsey Lewis trio, his roster of acts he has played with is a veritable who's who in jazz music and includes Von Freeman, Franz Jackson, the Ellington Dynasty, Sonny Stitt, Ella Fitzgerald, Joe Williams, many others. In 1987 Watson was asked to audition for a lottery commercial in Chicago, he got the job, the commercial was voted as the most popular in Chicago.

This began his acting career. That year, he took a role as Cutler, the bandleader in Ma Rainey's Black Bottom; the play became the highest grossing play in Chicago that year, featured a young Harry Lennix. He had several theater roles over the years, including Two Train's Running, I'm Not Rappaport, the Lion and the Jewel, he was in the Steppenwolf Theater production of One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, which starred Gary Sinise. After a successful run at the Steppenwolf, the play ran for nine months on Broadway, six months in London. Watson was a Joseph Jefferson Award Winner for his work as Musical Director of Duke Ellington's Play "Jump for Joy" which had a successful run at the Royal George Theater. Watson's first movie role was as Harold Monroe in the 1990 movie Opportunity Knocks starring Dana Carvey, he had 13 movies to his credit, including key roles as Bones Roosevelt in The Fugitive, the Bartender in Groundhog Day, Uncle Pete in Soul Food. He made television appearances in The Untouchables and Early Edition, appeared in numerous television and radio commercials.

Watson died on September 2006 of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. John M. Watson Sr. on IMDb


Ludza is a town in the Latgale region of eastern Latvia. It is located on the main Riga - Moscow road, part of European route E22, only 30 km from the Latvian-Russian border; the population as of 2011 was 8,931. After Nikolay Karamzin, Ludza was first mentioned as Лючин in Hypatian Codex dating back to 1173 or 1177. In 1399 the Livonian Order built a stone fortress atop an older Latgalian fortress and used Ludza as an eastern outpost in Livonia. Ludza Castle ruins can be visited nowadays. After the dissolution of the Livonian Order in 1561, Ludza was incorporated to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and became part of Wenden Voivodeship. After the first partition of Poland in 1772 was taken over by the Russian Empire and added to Vitebsk Governorate. Ludza received town rights in 1777 from Catherine II of Russia; the Jewish population was important in the town. On July 1941, the Germans kept the Jews prisoners in a ghetto. From July 1941 until the spring of 1942, hundreds of Jews are murdered in mass executions perpetrated by Einsatzgruppen.

Until July 1, 2009, Ludza was the administrative centre of Ludza District. On July 1, 2009, due to the introduction of the new administrative division in Latvia it became the centre of Ludza municipality. Ludza Museum and Ludza Tourism Information Centre offer excursions around the town; the most visited sights are: Ludza History Museum and open-air exposition Roman Catholic Church Orthodox Church Evangelical Lutheran Church Old Believers' Church Ruins of the medieval Ludza Castle Ludza Craftsmen CentreSeveral lakes offer fishing and water tourism possibilities. The children of Ludza may attend three pre-school educational institutions - "Rūķītis", "Pasaciņa" and "Namiņš". Elementary and secondary education curricula are provided by Ludza Gymnasium and Ludza Secondary School #2, as well as by Ludza Evening Secondary School. Additional out of school activities are offered at: Ludza Music Primary School Ludza Art School Ludza Children and Youth Centre Ludza Sport School As of 2011, the town had a population of 8931, of which 5175 were ethnic Latvians, 3259 were ethnic Russians, 192 were Belarusians, 103 were Ukrainians, 84 were Poles, 23 were Lithuanians, 95 belonging to other ethnic groups.

Yakov Kulnevmajor-general, hero of the Patriotic war with Napoleon Ferdynand Antoni OssendowskiPolish writer and explorer Karol Bohdanowicz – Polish geologist Wanda Dynowska – Polish writer and theosophist, social activist in India Leonid Dobychin – Russian writer Ilya Chashnik – Russian suprematist painter Ludza municipality has several cooperation partners abroad. Bad Bodenteich Hlybokaye Brest Nevel Sebezh Novopolotsk Ludza municipality takes part in the Euroregions Pskov and Country of Lakes. Ludza Estonians Ludza castle ruins Ludza municipality Ludza Municipality portal Portal of Ludza Craftsmen Centre, LV, ENG, DE, RU The murder of the Jews of Ludza during World War II, at Yad Vashem website