The Dog is eleventh of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. The Year of the Dog is associated with the Earthly Branch symbol 戌; the character 狗 refers to the actual animal while 戌 refers to the zodiac animal. People born within these date ranges can be said to have been born in the "Year of the Dog", while bearing the following elemental sign: In the sexagenary cycle, 2018, is the Celestial stem/Earthly Branch year indicated by the characters 戊戌. For the 2018 Year of the Dog, many countries and regions issued lunar new year stamps; these included countries where the holiday is traditionally observed as well as countries in the Americas, Africa and Oceania. The USC U. S.-China Institute created a web collection of more than one hundred of these stamps. Dog Dog in Chinese mythology Animal worship Horoscope 2018: Chinese New Year – Predictions in the Year of the Dog Neil Somerville. Your Chinese Horoscope 2006: What the Year of the Dog Holds for You.
P. 367. ISBN 9780007197736
The Berber calendar is the agricultural calendar traditionally used by Berbers. It is known as the fellaḥi; the calendar is utilized to regulate the seasonal agricultural works. The Islamic calendar, a lunar calendar, is not suited for agriculture because it does not relate to seasonal cycles. In other parts of the Islamic world either Iranian solar calendars, the Coptic calendar, the Rumi calendar, or other calendars based on the Julian calendar, were used before the introduction of the Gregorian calendar; the current Berber calendar is a legacy of the Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis and the Roman province of Africa, as it is a surviving form of the Julian calendar. The latter calendar was used in Europe before the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, with month names derived from Latin. Berber populations used various indigenous calendars, such as that of the Guanche autochthones of the Canary Islands; however little is known of these ancient calendrical systems. The agricultural Berber calendar still in use is certainly derived from the Julian calendar, introduced in the Roman province of Africa at the time of Roman domination.
The names of the months of this calendar are derived from the corresponding Latin names and races of the Roman calendar denominations of Kalends and Ides exist: El Qabisi, an Islamic jurisconsult by Kairawan who lived in the 11th century, condemned the custom of celebrating "pagans'" festivals and cited, among traditional habits of North Africa, that of observing January Qalandas. The length of the year and of the individual months is the same as in the Julian calendar: three years of 365 days followed by a leap year of 366, without exceptions, 30- and 31-day months, except for the second one that has 28 days; the only slight discrepancy lies in that the extra day in leap years is not added at the end of February, but at the end of the year. This means that the beginning of the year corresponds to the 14th day of January in the Gregorian calendar, which coincides with the offset accumulated during the centuries between astronomical dates and the Julian calendar. In addition to the subdivision by months, within the traditional agricultural calendar there are other partitions, by "seasons" or by "strong periods", characterized by particular festivals and celebrations.
Not all the four seasons have retained a Berber denomination: the words for spring and autumn are used everywhere, more sparingly the winter and, among northern Berbers, the Berber name for the autumn has been preserved only in Jebel Nafusa. Spring tafsut – Begins on 15 furar Summer anebdu – Begins on 17 mayu Autumn amwal / aməwan ( – Begins on 17 ghusht Winter tagrest - Begins on 16 numbír An interesting element is the existing opposition between two 40-day terms, one representing the coldest part of winter and one the hottest period of summer; the coldest period is made up by 20 "white nights", from 12 to 31 dujamber, 20 "black nights", beginning on the first day of yennayer, corresponding to the Gregorian 14 January. The first day of the year is celebrated in various ways in the different parts of North Africa. A widespread tradition is a meal with particular foods. In some regions, it is marked by the sacrifice of an animal. In Algeria, such a holiday is celebrated by many people who don't use the Berber calendar in daily life.
A characteristic trait of this festivity, which blurs with the Islamic Day of Ashura, is the presence, in many regions, of ritual invocations with formulas like bennayu, babiyyanu, bu-ini, etc. Such expressions, according to many scholars, may be derived from of the ancient bonus annus wishes. A curious aspect of the Yennayer celebrations concerns the date of New Year's Day. Though once this anniversary fell everywhere on 14 January, because of a mistake introduced by some Berber cultural associations active in recovering customs on the verge of extinction, at present in a wide part of Algeria it is common opinion that the date of "Berber New Year's Day" is 12 January and not the 14th; the celebration at the 12, two days before the traditional one, it had been explicitly signaled in the city of Oran. El Azara is the period of the year extending, according to the Berber calendar, from 3 to 13 February and known by a climate sometimes hot, sometimes cold. Before the cold ends and spring begins there is a period of the year, feared.
It consists of ten days straddling the months of furar and mars, it is characterised by strong winds. It is said that, during this term, one should suspend many activities, should not marry nor go out during the night, leaving instead full scope to mysterious powers, which in that period are active and celebrate their weddings. Due to a linguistic taboo, in Djerba these creatures are called imbarken, i.e. "the blessed ones", whence this period takes its name. Jamrat el Ma, "embers of the sea", 27 February, is marked by a rise in sea temperature. Jamrat el Trab, "land embers" in English, is the period from 6 to 10 March and known to be marked by a mixture of heavy rain and sunny weather. Jamrat or coal is a term used t
2nd century BC
The 2nd century BC started the first day of 200 BC and ended the last day of 101 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, although depending on the region being studied, other terms may be more suitable, it considered to be the end of the Axial Age. In the context of the Eastern Mediterranean, it is referred to as the Hellenistic period. Fresh from its victories in the Second Punic War, the Roman Republic continued its expansion into neighboring territories annexing Greece and the North African coast, after destroying the city of Carthage at the end of the Third Punic War. Rome's influence was felt in the Near East, as crumbling Hellenistic states like the Seleucid Empire were forced to make treaties on Roman terms to avoid confrontation with the new masters of the western Mediterranean; the end of the century witnessed the reform of the Roman Army from a citizen army into a voluntary professional force, under the guidance of the noted general and statesman Gaius Marius. In South Asia, the Mauryan Empire in India collapsed when Brihadnatha, the last emperor, was killed by Pushyamitra Shunga, a Mauryan general and the founder of the Shunga Empire.
In East Asia, China reached a high point under the Han Dynasty. The Han Empire extended its boundaries from Korea in the east to Vietnam in the South to the borders of modern-day Kazakhstan in the west. In the 2nd century BC, the Han dispatched the explorer Zhang Qian to explore the lands to the west and to form an alliance with the Yuezhi people in order to combat the nomadic tribe of the Xiongnu. 198 BC: Battle of Panium: Antiochus III of the Seleucid empire defeats Ptolemy V of Egypt and takes control of Coele Syria and Judea. 197 BC: Flamininus defeats Philip V of Macedon at the Battle of Cynoscephalae. 196 BC: Antiochus III conquers western Asia Minor and Thrace, with severe impact on relations with Rome. 196 BC: Empress Lü's execution of Han Xin leads to the Ying Bu rebellion. 195 BC: The War against Nabis marks the end of Spartan power in Greece. 195 BC: Emperor Gaozu of Han dies and is succeeded by his son Hui. True power falls to Empress Lü. 194 BC: Wiman establishes Wiman Joseon in Korea.
192 BC: Antiochus III invades Greece, beginning the Roman-Syrian War. 192 BC: The Yue Kingdom of Eastern Ou established in Zhejiang with Chinese support. 191 BC: Battle of Thermopylae: Glabrio drives Antiochus III out of Greece. 190 BC: Battle of Magnesia: Rome and Pergamon drive Antiochus III out of Asia Minor. 189 BC: Galatian War: Vulso and Pergamon defeat Galatia. 188 BC: Emperor Hui of Han dies. Empress Lü remains in power. 185 BC: Ptolemy V defeats Ankhmakis and regains control of Upper Egypt. C.185 BC: Pushyamitra Shunga assassinates the last Maurya emperor, founding the Shunga dynasty. 183 BC: Zhao Tuo of Nanyue declares himself Emperor and attacks China. 180 BC: Lü Clan Disturbance: with the death of Empress Lü, Emperor Wen of Han is placed on the throne. C.180 BC: Demetrius I of Bactria invades India, leading to the establishment of the Indo-Greek Kingdom. 179 BC: Tiberius Gracchus ends the First Celtiberian War. 179 BC: Zhao Tuo of Nanyue makes peace with China. 176 BC: The Yuezhi attack the Xiongnu.
175 BC: Antiochus IV Epiphanes, took possession of the Syrian throne, at the murder of his brother Seleucus IV Philopator, which rightly belonged to his nephew Demetrius I Soter. 174 BC: The Xiongnu defeat the Yuezhi, who emigrate to Ili valley. 168 BC: Roman victory in the Battle of Pydna leads to the dissolution of the Antigonid Kingdom of Macedon. 168 BC: Antiochus IV of the Seleucid empire invades Egypt, but is forced to turn back by Gaius Popillius Laenas. 167 BC: Mithradates I of Parthia takes Margiana and Aria from the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom. 164 BC, 25 Kislev: Judas Maccabaeus, son of Mattathias of the Hasmonean family, restores the Temple in Jerusalem. 164 BC: Ptolemy VIII drives Ptolemy VI out of Alexandria. He flees to Rome. 164 BC: Antiochus IV dies on campaign, leaving the Seleucid empire to a nine-year-old child. 163 BC: Ptolemy VI regains Alexandria. Ptolemy VIII takes Cyrenaica. 163 BC: The rebel Timarchus seizes Media and Babylonia. 163 BC: On May 20, Chinese mathematicians observed and recorded the passage of the Halley's Comet.
161 BC: Battle of Vijithapura: Dutthagamani defeats the Tamil King Ellalan. 161 BC: Demetrius I Soter seizes the Seleucid throne, beginning a succession war that would consume the Seleucid realm for a century. 160 BC: The Wusun drive the Yuezhi out of the Ili valley. 158 BC: The Xiongnu attack northern China. 157 BC: Emperor Wen of Han dies and is succeeded by his son Jing. 155 BC: The Lusitanians begin the Lusitanian War against Rome. 154 BC: The Celtiberians of Numantia begin the Numantine War against Rome. 154 BC: Liu Pi leads the Rebellion of the Seven States against Emperor Jing of Han China and is defeated. 152 BC: Alexander Balas starts a revolt against Demetrius I Soter with the support of Jonathan Maccabaeus 148 BC: Mithradates I of Parthia takes Ecbatana from the Seleucids. 148 BC: Rome conquers Macedonia. 147 BC: Hasmonean victories restore autonomy to Judea. 146 BC: Rome destroys and razes the city of Carthage and destroys the Achaean League and razes Corinth. 145 BC: Battle of Antioch: Alexander Balas of the Seleucid empire loses his throne and Ptolemy VI of Egypt loses his life.
145 BC: Ptolemy VIII takes control of Alexandria. C. 145 BC: Ai-Khanoum is sacked. 141 BC: Emperor Jing of Han dies and is succeeded by his son Wu whose attempts at reform are stymied by his grandmother. 139 BC: The assassination of Viriathus marks the end of the Lusitanian War. 139 BC: Mithradates I of Parthia defeats the Seleucid king Demetrius II Nicator and captures Babylonia. 138 BC: Minyue's invasion of Eastern Ou sparks off the H
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to determine the proper days of Islamic holidays and rituals, such as the annual period of fasting and the proper time for the pilgrimage to Mecca; the civil calendar of all countries where the religion is predominantly Muslim is the Gregorian calendar. Notable exceptions to this rule are Afghanistan, which use the Solar Hijri calendar. Rents and similar regular commitments are paid by the civil calendar; the Islamic calendar employs the Hijri era whose epoch was established as the Islamic New Year of 622 AD/CE. During that year and his followers migrated from Mecca to Yathrib and established the first Muslim community, an event commemorated as the Hijra. In the West, dates in this era are denoted AH in parallel with the Christian and Jewish eras. In Muslim countries, it is sometimes denoted as H from its Arabic form. In English, years prior to the Hijra are reckoned as BH.
The current Islamic year is 1440 AH. In the Gregorian calendar, 1440 AH runs from 11 September 2018 to 30 August 2019. For central Arabia Mecca, there is a lack of epigraphical evidence but details are found in the writings of Muslim authors of the Abbasid era. Inscriptions of the ancient South Arabian calendars reveal the use of a number of local calendars. At least some of these South Arabian calendars followed the lunisolar system. Both al-Biruni and al-Mas'udi suggest that the ancient Arabs used the same month names as the Muslims, though they record other month names used by the pre-Islamic Arabs; the Islamic tradition is unanimous in stating that Arabs of Tihamah and Najd distinguished between two types of months and forbidden months. The forbidden months were four months during which fighting is forbidden, listed as Rajab and the three months around the pilgrimage season, Dhu al-Qa‘dah, Dhu al-Hijjah, Muharram. Information about the forbidden months is found in the writings of Procopius, where he describes an armistice with the Eastern Arabs of the Lakhmid al-Mundhir which happened in the summer of 541 AD/CE.
However, Muslim historians do not link these months to a particular season. The Qur'an links the four forbidden months with Nasī’, a word that means "postponement". According to Muslim tradition, the decision of postponement was administered by the tribe of Kinanah, by a man known as the al-Qalammas of Kinanah and his descendants. Different interpretations of the concept of Nasī’ have been proposed; some scholars, both Muslim and Western, maintain that the pre-Islamic calendar used in central Arabia was a purely lunar calendar similar to the modern Islamic calendar. According to this view, Nasī’ is related to the pre-Islamic practices of the Meccan Arabs, where they would alter the distribution of the forbidden months within a given year without implying a calendar manipulation; this interpretation is supported by Arab historians and lexicographers, like Ibn Hisham, Ibn Manzur, the corpus of Qur'anic exegesis. This is corroborated by an early Sabaic inscription, where a religious ritual was "postponed" due to war.
According to the context of this inscription, the verb ns'’ has nothing to do with intercalation, but only with moving religious events within the calendar itself. The similarity between the religious concept of this ancient inscription and the Qur'an suggests that non-calendaring postponement is the Qur'anic meaning of Nasī’; the Encyclopaedia of Islam concludes "The Arabic system of can only have been intended to move the Hajj and the fairs associated with it in the vicinity of Mecca to a suitable season of the year. It was not intended to establish a fixed calendar to be observed." The term "fixed calendar" is understood to refer to the non-intercalated calendar. Others concur that it was a lunar calendar, but suggest that about 200 years before the Hijra it was transformed into a lunisolar calendar containing an intercalary month added from time to time to keep the pilgrimage within the season of the year when merchandise was most abundant; this interpretation was first proposed by the medieval Muslim astrologer and astronomer Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi, by al-Biruni, al-Mas'udi, some western scholars.
This interpretation considers Nasī’ to be a synonym to the Arabic word for "intercalation". The Arabs, according to one explanation mentioned by Abu Ma'shar, learned of this type of intercalation from the Jews; the Jewish Nasi was the official. Some sources say that the Arabs followed the Jewish practice and intercalated seven months over nineteen years, or else that they intercalated nine months over 24 years. Postponement of one ritual in a particular circumstance does not imply alteration of the sequence of months, scholars agree that this did not happen. Al-Biruni says this did not happen, the festivals were kept within their season by intercalation every second or third year of a month between Dhu al-Hijjah and Muharram, he says that, in terms of the fixed calendar, not introduced until 10 AH, the first intercalation was, for example, of a month between Dhu al-Hijjah and Muharram, the second of a month between Muharram and Safar, the third of a month between Safar and Rabi'I, so on. The intercalations were arranged.
The notice of interca
Indian national calendar
The Indian national calendar, sometimes called the Shalivahana Shaka calendar. It is used, alongside the Gregorian calendar, by The Gazette of India, in news broadcasts by All India Radio and in calendars and communications issued by the Government of India; the Saka calendar is used in Java and Bali among Indonesian Hindus. Nyepi, the "Day of Silence", is a celebration of the Saka new year in Bali. Nepal's Nepal Sambat evolved from the Saka calendar. Prior to colonization, the Philippines used to apply the Saka calendar as well as suggested by the Laguna Copperplate Inscription; the term may ambiguously refer to the Hindu calendar. The historic Shalivahana era calendar is still used, it has years. The calendar months follow the signs of the tropical zodiac rather than the sidereal zodiac used with the Hindu calendar. Chaitra has 30 days and starts on March 22, except in leap years, when it has 31 days and starts on March 21; the months in the first half of the year all have 31 days, to take into account the slower movement of the sun across the ecliptic at this time.
The names of the months are derived from older, Hindu lunisolar calendars, so variations in spelling exist, there is a possible source of confusion as to what calendar a date belongs to. Years are counted in the Saka era. To determine leap years, add 78 to the Saka year – if the result is a leap year in the Gregorian calendar the Saka year is a leap year as well, its structure is just like the Persian calendar. Senior Indian Astrophysicist Meghnad Saha was the head of the Calendar Reform Committee under the aegis of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. Other members of the Committee were: A. C. Banerjee, K. K. Daftari, J. S. Karandikar, Gorakh Prasad, R. V. Vaidya and N. C. Lahiri, it was Saha's effort. The task before the Committee was to prepare an accurate calendar based on scientific study, which could be adopted uniformly throughout India, it was a mammoth task. The Committee had to undertake a detailed study of different calendars prevalent in different parts of the country. There were thirty different calendars.
The task was further complicated by the fact that religion and local sentiments were integral to those calendars. India's first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, in his preface to the Report of the Committee, published in 1955, wrote: “They represent past political divisions in the country.... Now that we have attained Independence, it is desirable that there should be a certain uniformity in the calendar for our civic and other purposes, this should be done on a scientific approach to this problem.” Usage started at 1 Chaitra 1879, Saka Era, or 22 March 1957. Report of the Calendar Reform Committee – online link. Mapping Time: The Calendar and its History by E. G. Richards, 1998, pp. 184–185. Calendars and their History Indian Calendars Positional astronomy in India Indian National Calendar abstract
The 1st century was the century AD 1 to AD 100 according to the Julian calendar. It is written as the 1st century AD or 1st century CE to distinguish it from the 1st century BC which preceded it; the 1st century is considered part of epoch, or historical period. During this period, North Africa and the Near East fell under increasing domination by the Roman Empire, which continued expanding, most notably conquering Britain under the emperor Claudius; the reforms introduced by Augustus during his long reign stabilized the empire after the turmoil of the previous century's civil wars. In the century the Julio-Claudian dynasty, founded by Augustus, came to an end with the suicide of Nero in AD 68. There followed the famous Year of Four Emperors, a brief period of civil war and instability, brought to an end by Vespasian, ninth Roman emperor, founder of the Flavian dynasty; the Roman Empire experienced a period of prosperity and dominance in this period and the First Century is remembered as part of the Empire's golden age.
The 1st century saw the appearance of Christianity. China continued to be dominated by the Han Dynasty, despite a fourteen-year interruption by the Xin dynasty under Wang Mang. Han rule was restored in AD 23; the capital was moved from Chang'an to Luoyang. Western Europe: Celtic, Germanic and Finnic tribal chiefdom and the Roman Empire Eastern Europe: Roman Empire, Sarmatian and Balt tribal chiefdoms North Africa: Roman Empire, Mauri and Gaetulian tribal chiefdoms West Africa: Gur, Kwa and Mande tribal chiefdoms Central Africa: Bantu tribes, collapsing Nok culture Nok civilization East Africa: Kingdom of Kush, Kingdom of Blemmyes, Kingdom of Aksum Southern Africa: Bantu tribes, Khoisan. Western Asia: Roman and Parthian Empires and Arabian Kingdoms, smaller tribes. Central Asia: Kushan Empire, Sarmatian and other Iranian tribal chiefdoms South Asia: Kushan Empire, Western Satraps, Satavahana Empire, Dravidian Kingdoms, Kingdom of Kalinga, Indo-Parthian Kingdom, Zhangzhung. Southeast Asia: Mandala of city-states, Kingdom of Funan East Asia: Han Dynasty, Yamatai and Xianbei tribal chiefdoms, Three Kingdoms of Korea.
North America: Central America: Mayan and Zapotec civilizations. Caribbean: South America: Nazca, Moche civilizations, Tairona tribal chiefdoms. Early 1st century – Augustus of Primaporta, is made, it is now kept in Braccio Nuovo, Rome. Early 1st century – Gemma Augustea is made, it is now kept at Vienna. Early 1st century – House of the Silver Wedding, Pompeii, is built. Excavated in 1893, the year of the silver wedding anniversary of Italy's King Humbert and his wife, Margherita of Savoy, who have supported archaeological fieldwork at Pompeii. Early 1st century - Inner shrine, Mie, Mie Prefecture, is built. Yayoi period. AD 1: Lions became extinct in Western Europe. AD 2: First census of China, the census is one of the most accurate in Chinese history. AD 6: Census of Quirinius. AD 7: Prince Cunobeline of Catuvellauni defeats the Trinovantes in England and establishes his capital at Camulodunum. AD 9: Three Roman legions were ambushed and destroyed at Teutoberg Forest by Germans under the leadership of Arminius.
AD 9: Prince Cunobeline is crowned King of Catuvellauni, his Kingdom dominates Southern England. AD 9 – 23: Wang Mang temporarily overthrew the Han dynasty of China. AD 9 – 23: Xin dynasty. AD 14: Augustus Caesar, first emperor of Rome, dies, his adopted son and son-in-law Tiberius is his successor. AD 25: The Han dynasty is restored by Liu Xiu who proclaims himself Emperor Guangwu of Han. AD 28 – 75: Emperor Ming of Han, Buddhism reaches China. Humans establish the Bunlap tribe, among others. C. AD 29: Jesus begins his ministry. C. AD 33: The Crucifixion of Jesus. C. AD 33 – 36: Conversion of Paul the Apostle. AD 40: Succession crisis erupts at King Cunobeline's court and his exiled younger son Prince Adminius flees to the court of Caligula in Rome. AD 40: Emperor Caligula plans to invade Britain, but forgets to bring an army, he instead declares war upon the sea, whipping it and taking shells as prisoners. AD 40 – 43: Revolts erupts in Vietnam by the Trung sisters. AD 42: King Cunobeline dies, his son Caratacus becomes King.
He and his brother conquer much of South-Eastern England, expanding territory into Atrebates, driving out King Verica. King Verica travels to Rome to the court of Claudius to help reclaim his throne. AD 43: Roman conquest of Britain begins. London is founded. AD 44: Death of Herod Agrippa. AD 41 – 54: Rachias, an ambassador sent from Sri Lanka to the court of Claudius. Buddhist monks in Sri Lanka first write down Buddha's teachings, creating the Pali canon; the regions of present-day Afghanistan and North India come under the control of the Kushans, a nomadic people forced out of northwest China by the Han Dynasty. Tacitus mentions the Suiones. Kaundinya, an Indian brahmin establishes the pre-Angkor Cambodian Kingdom of Funan; the Goths settle in northern Poland, which they called Gothiscandza, shape the Wielbark culture. C. AD 50: Christian Council of Jerusalem. Mid-1st century – Wall niche, from garden in Pompeii, is made, it is now kept at University of Cambridge, England. Mid-1st century – Detail of a wall painting in the House of M. Lucretius Fronto, Pompeii
Vikram Samvat. It uses solar sidereal years; the Vikram Samvat is notable because many medieval era inscriptions use it. It is said to be named after the legendary king Vikramaditya, but the term "Vikrama Samvat" does not appear in the historical records before the 9th century, rather the same calendaring system is found by other names such as Krita and Malava. In the colonial era scholarship, the era was believed to be based on the commemoration of King Vikramaditya expelling the Sakas from Ujjain; however epigraphical evidence and scholarship suggest that this theory has no historical basis and likely was an error. Starting in the 9th century and thereafter, epigraphical artwork uses Vikrama-Samvat, suggesting that sometime around the 9th-century, the Hindu calendar era, in use became popular as Vikram Samvat, while Buddhist and Jain epigraphy continued to use an era based on the Buddha or the Mahavira. According to popular tradition, the legendary king Vikramaditya of Ujjain established the Vikrama Samvat era after defeating the Śakas.
Kalakacharya Kathanaka by the Jain sage Mahesarasuri gives the following account: Gandharvasena, the then-powerful king of Ujjain, abducted a nun called Sarasvati, the sister of the monk. The enraged monk sought the help of the Śaka ruler King Sahi in Sistan. Despite heavy odds but aided by miracles, the Śaka king defeated Gandharvasena and made him a captive. Sarasvati was repatriated; the defeated king retired to the forest. His son, being brought up in the forest, had to rule from Pratishthana. On, Vikramaditya invaded Ujjain and drove away from the Śakas. To commemorate this event, he started a new era called the "Vikrama era"; the Ujjain calendar started around 58–56 BCE, the subsequent Shaka era calendar was started in 78 CE at Pratishthana. The association of the era beginning in 57 BCE with Vikramaditya is not found in any source before the 9th century CE; the earlier sources call this era by various names, including Kṛṭa, the era of the Malava tribe, or Samvat. The earliest known inscription that calls the era "Vikrama" is from 842 CE.
This inscription of Chauhana ruler Chandamahasena was found at Dholpur, is dated Vikrama Samvat 898, Vaishakha Shukla 2, Chanda. The earliest known inscription that associates this era with a king called Vikramaditya is dated 971 CE; the earliest literary work that connects the era to Vikramaditya is Subhashita-Ratna-Sandoha by the Jain author Amitagati. For this reason, multiple authors believe that the Vikram Samvat was not started by Vikramaditya, who might be a purely legendary king or the title adopted by a king who renamed the era after himself. V. A. Smith and D. R. Bhandarkar believed that Chandragupta II adopted the title Vikramaditya, changed the name of the era to "Vikrama Samvat". According to Rudolf Hoernlé, the king responsible for this change was Yashodharman: Hoernlé believed that he conquered Kashmir, is the same person as the "Harsha Vikramaditya" mentioned in Kalhana's Rajatarangini. Earlier, some scholars believed that the Vikrama Samavat corresponded to the Azes era of the Indo-Scythian king King Azes.
However, this was disputed by Robert Bracey following the discovery of an inscription of Vijayamitra, dated in two eras. The theory seems to be now discredited by Falk and Bennett, who place the inception of the Azes era in 47–46 BCE; the traditional New Year of Vikram Samvat is one of the many festivals of Nepal, marked by parties, family gatherings, the exchange of good wishes, participation in rituals to ensure good fortune in the coming year. It occurs in mid-April each year, coincides with the traditional new year in Assam, Burma, Kerala, Manipur, Punjab, Sri Lanka, Tamil Nadu and Thailand. In addition to Nepal, the Vikram Samvat calendar is recognized in North and East India, in Gujarat among Hindus. Hindu religious festivals are based on a Luni-Solar calendar, not Solar calendar, based on Vikram Samvat. In North India, the new year in Vikram Samvat starts from the first day of Chaitra Skukla paksha. In Buddhist communities, the month of Baishakh is associated with Buddha's Birthday, it commemorates the birth and passing of Gautama Buddha on the first full moon day in May, except in a leap year when the festival is held in June.
Although this festival is not held on the same day as Pahela Baishakh, the holidays fall in the same month of the Bengali and Theravada Buddhist calendars, are related through the spread of Hinduism and Buddhism in the Indian subcontinent. In Gujarat, the day after Diwali is celebrated as the first day of the Vikram Samvat calendar, the first day of the month Kartik; the Vikrami era is an ancient calendar and has been used by Hindus and Sikhs. It is one of the several regional Hindu calendars that have been in use on the Indian subcontinent, it is based on twelve synodical lunar months and 365 solar days; the lunar new year starts on the new moon in the month of Chaitra. This day, known as Chaitra Sukhladi, is a restricted holiday in India; the Vikrami Samvat has been in use in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times, remains in use by the Hindus in north, w