9th century BC
The 9th century BC started the first day of 900 BC and ended the last day of 801 BC. It was a period of great change for several civilizations. In Africa, Carthage is founded by the Phoenicians. In Egypt, a severe flood covers the floor of Luxor temple, years a civil war starts, it is the beginning of the Iron Age in Central Europe, with the spread of the Proto-Celtic Hallstatt culture, the Proto-Celtic language. 895 BC: Death of King Xiao of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 894 BC: King Yi of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 892 BC: Megacles, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 30 years and is succeeded by his son Diognetus. 891 BC: Tukulti-Ninurta II succeeds his father Adad-nirari II as king of Assyria. 890 BC: Napoli some reports and excavations about the foundation of the city 889 BC: Takelot I succeeds his father Osorkon I as king of Egypt. 884 BC: Ashurnasirpal II succeeds his father Tukulti-Ninurta II as king of Assyria. 879 BC: Death of King Yi of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China.
878 BC: King Li of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 874 BC: Osorkon II succeeds Takelot I as king of the Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt. 874 BC: Ahab becomes king of Kingdom of Israel. 872 BC: Parshvanatha, 23rd Tirthankara of Jainism was born. 872 BC: An exceptionally high flood from the Nile covers the floors of the Temple of Luxor. 865 BC: Kar Kalmaneser was conquered by the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III. 864 BC: Diognetus, Archon of Athens, dies after a reign of 28 years and is succeeded by his son Pherecles. 860 BC: The kingdom of Urartu is unified. 858 BC: Aramu becomes king of Urartu. 858 BC: Shalmaneser III succeeds Ashurnasirpal II as king of Assyria. 854/3 BC: Battle of Karkar—An indecisive engagement between Assyrian king Shalmaneser III and a military alliance of the king of Damascus and lesser powers including the prince of Tyre. 850 BC: Takelot II succeeds Osorkon II as King of Egypt. 850 BC: The Middle Mumun Pottery Period begins in the Korean peninsula. 845 BC: Pherecles, Archon of Athens, dies after a reign of 19 years and is succeeded by his son Ariphron.
842 BC: Shalmaneser III devastates the territory of Damascus. 841 BC: Death of King Li of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 841 BC: Records of the Grand Historian regards this year as the first year of consecutive annual dating of Chinese history. 840 BC: Gopala Dynasty started in Nepal, first dynasty to rule in a country named Nepal despite its present geographical boundaries. 836 BC: Shalmaneser III of Assyria leads an expedition against the Tabareni. 836 BC: Civil war breaks out in Egypt. 827 BC: King Xuan of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 825 BC: Takelot II, king of Egypt, dies. Crown Prince Osorkon III and Shoshenq III, sons of Takelot, battle for the throne. C. 825 BC: Ariphron, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 20 years and is succeeded by his son Thespieus. 823 BC: Death of Shalmaneser III, king of Assyria. He is succeeded by his son Shamshi-Adad V. 820 BC: Pygmalion ascends the throne of Tyre. 817 BC: Pedubastis I declares himself king of Egypt, founding the Twenty-third Dynasty.
814 BC: Carthage is founded by Dido. 811 BC: Adad-nirari III succeeds his father Shamshi-Adad V as king of Assyria. 804 BC: Adad-nirari III of Assyria conquers Damascus. 804 BC: Death of Pedubastis I, pharaoh. C. 800 BC: Etruscan civilization. Beginning of the Iron Age in Central Europe, spread of the Proto-Celtic Hallstatt culture, the Proto-Celtic language. Adena culture appears in present-day Northeastern United States. Elijah, a 9th-century BC prophet found in the Old Testament of the Bible. 872 BC: Parshvanatha, 23rd Tirthankara of Jainism was born. Shalmaneser III, king of Assyria First inscriptions in Epigraphic South Arabian found in Akkele Guzay 9th century BC—Olmecs build pyramids. Emergence of the Brahmana period of Vedic Sanskrit, probable composition of the Shatapatha Brahmana, the first beginning of the Upanishadic and Vedantic traditions of Hinduism. In Highlander, the immortal Juan Sánchez Villa-Lobos Ramírez was born in Egypt in 896 BC. In True Blood, the vampire known as Russell Edgington was born around 850 BC, was turned about 800 BC.
See: List of sovereign states in the 9th century BC. Zimmer, Joseph Campbell, ed. Philosophy of India, London, E. C. 4: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, Not in copyright
Demographics of Libya
Demographics of Libya include population density, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the Libyan population. No complete population or vital statistics registration exists in Libya. Of the over 6,000,000 Libyans that lived in Libya prior to the Libyan Crisis, more than a million were immigrants; the estimates in this article are from the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects, prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, unless otherwise indicated. The Libyan population resides in the country of Libya, a territory located on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa, to the west of and adjacent to Egypt. Most Libyans live in Tripoli, it is the capital of the country and first in terms of urban population, as well as Benghazi, Libya's second largest city. Berber, over the centuries, Libya has been occupied by the Phoenicians, Romans and Arabs; the Phoenicians had a big impact on Libya.
Many of the coastal towns and cities of Libya were founded by the Phoenicians as trade outposts within the southern Mediterranean coast in order to facilitate the Phoenician business activities in the area. Starting in the 8th century BCE, Libya was under the rule of the Phoenician Carthage. After the Romans defeated Carthage in the Third Punic War, Libya became a Roman province under the name of Tripolitania until the 7th century CE when Libya was conquered by the Arab Muslims as part of the Arab conquest of North Africa. Centuries after that, the Ottoman Empire conquered Libya in 1551, it remained in control of its territory until 1911. In the 18th century Libya was used as the base for various pirates. In the Second World War Libya was one of the main battlegrounds of North Africa. During the war, the territory was under an Anglo-French military government until it was overrun by the Axis Powers, who, in turn, were defeated by the Allies in 1943. In 1951, the country was granted independence by the United Nations.
In 1969, a military coup led by Muammar Gaddafi resulted in the overthrow of King Idris I. Gaddafi established an anti-Western leadership. In 1970, Gaddafi ordered all American military bases closed; the Libyan population has increased after 1969. They were only 523,176 people in 1911, 2 million in 1968, 5 million in 1969; that population growth was due in large part to King Idris and Gaddafi granting citizenship to many Tunisians and other immigrants. Many migrant workers came to Libya since 1969. Among the workers were construction workers and laborers from Tunisia and laborers from Egypt, teachers from Palestine, doctors and nurses from Yugoslavia and Bulgaria. 1,000,000 workers from other neighboring African countries like Sudan, Niger and Mali, migrated to Libya in the 1990s, after changes were made to Libya's Pan-African policies. Gaddafi used money from the sale of oil to improve the living conditions of the population and to assist Palestinian guerrillas in their fight against the Israelis.
In 1979, Libya fought in Uganda to assist the government of Idi Amin in the Ugandan Civil War, in 1981, fought in the Libyan-Chadian War. Libya had occupied the Aozou Strip. In September 2008, Italy and Libya signed a memorandum by which Italy would pay $5 billion over the next 20 years to compensate Libya for its dominion over Libya for its reign of 30 years. Since 2011, the country is swept by Libyan Civil War, which broke out between the Anti-Gaddafi rebels and the Pro-Gaddafi government in 2011, culminating in the death and overthrow of Gaddafi. Today Libya still continues to generate problems within the area and beyond affecting its population and the migrant route to Europe. Libya has a small population residing in a large land area. Population density is about 50 persons per km² in the two northern regions of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica, but falls to less than one person per km² elsewhere. Ninety percent of the people live in less than 10% of the area along the coast. About 90% of the population is urban concentrated in the four largest cities, Benghazi and Bayda.
Thirty percent of the population is estimated to be under the age of 15, but this proportion has decreased during the past decades. Eight population censuses have been carried out in Libya, the first in 1931 and the most recent one in 2006; the population multiplied sixfold between 1931 and 2006. During the past 60 years the demographic situation of Libya changed considerably. Since the 1950s, life expectancy increased and the infant mortality rates decreased; as the fertility rates remained high until the 1980s, population growth was high for three decades. However, after 1985 a fast decrease in fertility was observed from over 7 children per woman in the beginning of the 1980s to less than 3 in 2005-2010; because of this decrease in fertility the population growth slowed down and the proportion of Libyans under the age of 15 decreased from 47% in 1985 to 30% in 2010. Births and deaths 1950-1955: 42.85 years 1955-1960: 45.4 years 1960-1965: 48.1 years 1965-1970: 50.5 years 1970-1975: 52.8 years 1975-1980: 56.45 years 1980-1985: 60.2 years 1985-1990: 63.5 years 1990-1995: 65.85 years 1995-2000: 67.2 years 2000-2005: 68.8 years 2005-2010: 69.9 years The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.
Population 6,754,507 Age structure
Libya the State of Libya, is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad to the south, Niger to the southwest, Algeria to the west, Tunisia to the northwest. The sovereign state is made of three historical regions: Tripolitania and Cyrenaica. With an area of 1.8 million square kilometres, Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa, is the 16th largest country in the world. Libya has the 10th-largest proven oil reserves of any country in the world; the largest city and capital, Tripoli, is located in western Libya and contains over one million of Libya's six million people. The second-largest city is Benghazi, located in eastern Libya. Libya has been inhabited by Berbers since the late Bronze Age; the Phoenicians established trading posts in western Libya, ancient Greek colonists established city-states in eastern Libya. Libya was variously ruled by Carthaginians, Persians and Greeks before becoming a part of the Roman Empire.
Libya was an early centre of Christianity. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the area of Libya was occupied by the Vandals until the 7th century, when invasions brought Islam to the region. In the 16th century, the Spanish Empire and the Knights of St John occupied Tripoli, until Ottoman rule began in 1551. Libya was involved in the Barbary Wars of the 19th centuries. Ottoman rule continued until the Italian occupation of Libya resulted in the temporary Italian Libya colony from 1911 to 1947. During the Second World War, Libya was an important area of warfare in the North African Campaign; the Italian population went into decline. Libya became independent as a kingdom in 1951. A military coup in 1969 overthrew King Idris I; the "bloodless" coup leader Muammar Gaddafi ruled the country from 1969 and the Libyan Cultural Revolution in 1973 until he was overthrown and killed in the 2011 Libyan Civil War. Two authorities claimed to govern Libya: the Council of Deputies in Tobruk and the 2014 General National Congress in Tripoli, which considered itself the continuation of the General National Congress, elected in 2012.
After UN-led peace talks between the Tobruk and Tripoli governments, a unified interim UN-backed Government of National Accord was established in 2015, the GNC disbanded to support it. Parts of Libya remain outside either government's control, with various Islamist and tribal militias administering some areas; as of July 2017, talks are still ongoing between the GNA and the Tobruk-based authorities to end the strife and unify the divided establishments of the state, including the Libyan National Army and the Central Bank of Libya. Libya is a member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Arab League, the OIC and OPEC; the country's official religion is Islam, with 96.6% of the Libyan population being Sunni Muslims. The Latin name Libya referred to the region west of the Nile corresponding to its central location in North Africa visited by many Mediterranean cultures which referred to its original inhabitants as the "Libúē." The name Libya was introduced in 1934 for Italian Libya, reviving the historical name for Northwest Africa, from the ancient Greek Λιβύη.
It was intended to supplant terms applied to Ottoman Tripolitania, the coastal region of what is today Libya having been ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1911, as the Eyalet of Tripolitania. The name "Libya" was brought back into use in 1903 by Italian geographer Federico Minutilli. Libya gained independence in 1951 as the United Libyan Kingdom, changing its name to the Kingdom of Libya in 1963. Following a coup d'état led by Muammar Gaddafi in 1969, the name of the state was changed to the Libyan Arab Republic; the official name was "Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" from 1977 to 1986, "Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" from 1986 to 2011. The National Transitional Council, established in 2011, referred to the state as "Libya"; the UN formally recognized the country as "Libya" in September 2011, based on a request from the Permanent Mission of Libya citing the Libyan interim Constitutional Declaration of 3 August 2011. In November 2011, the ISO 3166-1 was altered to reflect the new country name "Libya" in English, "Libye" in French.
In December 2017 the Permanent Mission of Libya to the United Nations informed the United Nations that the country's official name was henceforth the "State of Libya". The coastal plain of Libya was inhabited by Neolithic peoples from as early as 8000 BC; the Afroasiatic ancestors of the Berber people are assumed to have spread into the area by the Late Bronze Age. The earliest known name of such a tribe was the Garamantes, based in Germa; the Phoenicians were the first to establish trading posts in Libya. By the 5th century BC, the greatest of the Phoenician colonies, had extended its hegemony across much of North Africa, where a distinctive civilization, known as Punic, came into being. In 630 BC, the ancient Greeks colonized the area around Barca in Eastern Libya and founded the city of Cyrene. Within 200 years, four more important Greek cities were established in the area that became known as
The Bible is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures. Varying parts of the Bible are considered to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans by Christians, Jews and Rastafarians. What is regarded as canonical text differs depending on traditions and groups; the Hebrew Bible overlaps with the Christian Old Testament. The Christian New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians, believed to be Jewish disciples of Christ, written in first-century Koine Greek. Among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about what should be included in the canon about the Apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect. Attitudes towards the Bible differ among Christian groups. Roman Catholics, high church Anglicans and Eastern Orthodox Christians stress the harmony and importance of the Bible and sacred tradition, while Protestant churches, including Evangelical Anglicans, focus on the idea of sola scriptura, or scripture alone.
This concept arose during the Protestant Reformation, many denominations today support the use of the Bible as the only infallible source of Christian teaching. The Bible has been a massive influence on literature and history in the Western World, where the Gutenberg Bible was the first book printed using movable type. According to the March 2007 edition of Time, the Bible "has done more to shape literature, history and culture than any book written, its influence on world history is unparalleled, shows no signs of abating." With estimated total sales of over 5 billion copies, it is considered to be the most influential and best-selling book of all time. As of the 2000s, it sells 100 million copies annually; the English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from the same word in Medieval Latin and Late Latin and from Koinē Greek: τὰ βιβλία, translit. Ta biblia "the books". Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra "holy book", while biblia in Greek and Late Latin is neuter plural, it came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun in medieval Latin, so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe.
Latin biblia sacra "holy books" translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια tà biblía tà ágia, "the holy books". The word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of "paper" or "scroll" and came to be used as the ordinary word for "book", it is the diminutive of βύβλος byblos, "Egyptian papyrus" so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece. The Greek ta biblia was "an expression. Christian use of the term can be traced to c. 223 CE. The biblical scholar F. F. Bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer to use the Greek phrase ta biblia to describe both the Old and New Testaments together. By the 2nd century BCE, Jewish groups began calling the books of the Bible the "scriptures" and they referred to them as "holy", or in Hebrew כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ, Christians now call the Old and New Testaments of the Christian Bible "The Holy Bible" or "the Holy Scriptures"; the Bible was divided into chapters in the 13th century by Stephen Langton and it was divided into verses in the 16th century by French printer Robert Estienne and is now cited by book and verse.
The division of the Hebrew Bible into verses is based on the sof passuk cantillation mark used by the 10th-century Masoretes to record the verse divisions used in earlier oral traditions. The oldest extant copy of a complete Bible is an early 4th-century parchment book preserved in the Vatican Library, it is known as the Codex Vaticanus; the oldest copy of the Tanakh in Hebrew and Aramaic dates from the 10th century CE. The oldest copy of a complete Latin Bible is the Codex Amiatinus. Professor John K. Riches, Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism at the University of Glasgow, says that "the biblical texts themselves are the result of a creative dialogue between ancient traditions and different communities through the ages", "the biblical texts were produced over a period in which the living conditions of the writers – political, cultural and ecological – varied enormously". Timothy H. Lim, a professor of Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Judaism at the University of Edinburgh, says that the Old Testament is "a collection of authoritative texts of divine origin that went through a human process of writing and editing."
He states that it is not a magical book, nor was it written by God and passed to mankind. Parallel to the solidification of the Hebrew canon, only the Torah first and the Tanakh began to be translated into Greek and expanded, now referred to as the Septuagint or the Greek Old Testament. In Christian Bibles, the New Testament Gospels were derived from oral traditions in the second half of the first century CE. Riches says that: Scholars have attempted to reconstruct something of the history of the oral traditions behind the Gospels, but the results have not been too encouraging; the period of transmission is short: less than 40 years passed between the death of Jesus and the writing of Mark's Gospel. This means that there was little time for oral trad
Neterkheperre or Netjerkheperre-Setepenamun Siamun was the sixth pharaoh of Egypt during the Twenty-first dynasty. He built extensively in Lower Egypt for a king of the Third Intermediate Period and is regarded as one of the most powerful rulers of the 21st Dynasty after Psusennes I. Siamun's prenomen, Netjerkheperre-Setepenamun, means "Divine is The Manifestation of Ra, Chosen of Amun" while his name means'son of Amun.' Little is known of the family relationships of Siamun. In 1999, Chris Bennett made a case for a Queen Karimala known from an inscription in the temple of Semna being the daughter of Osorkon the Elder, she is called both'King's Daughter" and "King's Wife". Her name suggests she may have been Libyan, which would fit in with her being the daughter of Osorkon the Elder. Given the date of the inscription, she might have been the queen of either king Siamun or king Psusennes II. Bennett prefers a marriage to Siamun, because in that case she could have taken over the position of Viceroy of Kush Neskhons as a religious figurehead in Nubia after the death of the latter in year 5 of king Siamun.
What is more, a marriage to her might explain how Siamun, an Egyptian, judging by his nomen, came to succeed a Libyan Osochor. Siamun is identified with the last king of Manetho's 21st Dynasty, "Psinaches"; this king is credited with a reign of only 9 Years, which subsequently had to be amended to 9 Years on the basis of an inscription from the Karnak Priestly Annals mentioning a Year 17 of king Siamun. However, there is no real basis for interpreting the name "Psinaches" as a corruption of the name Netjerkheperre-setepenamun Siamun, it has been suggested that Manetho's "Psinaches" might rather be a reference to king Tutkheperre Shoshenq as the direct successor of Manetho's Osorkon the Elder. The highest attested yeardate for Siamun is a Year 17 the first month of Shemu day, mentioned in fragment 3B, lines 3-5 from the Karnak Priestly Annals, it records the induction of son of Nespaneferhor into the Priesthood at Karnak. This date was a lunar Tepi Shemu feast day. Based on the calculation of this lunar Tepi Shemu feast, Year 17 of Siamun has been shown by the German Egyptologist Rolf Krauss to be equivalent to 970 BC.
Hence, Siamun would have taken the throne about 16 years earlier in 986 BC. A stela dated to Siamun's Year 16 records a land-sale between some minor priests of Ptah at Memphis; the Year 17 inscription is an important palaeographical development because it is the first time in Egyptian recorded history that the word pharaoh was employed as a title and linked directly to a king's royal name: as in Pharaoh Siamun here. Henceforth, references to Pharaoh Psusennes II, Pharaoh Shoshenq I, Pharaoh Osorkon I, so forth become commonplace. Prior to Siamun's reign and all throughout the Middle and New Kingdom, the word pharaoh referred only to the office of the king. According to the French Egyptologist Nicolas Grimal, Siamun doubled the size of the Temple of Amun at Tanis and initiated various works at the Temple of Horus at Mesen, he built at Heliopolis and at Piramesse where a surviving stone block bears his name. Siamun constructed and dedicated a new temple to Amun at Memphis with 6 stone columns and doorways which bears his royal name.
He bestowed numerous favours onto the Memphite Priests of Ptah. In Upper Egypt, he appears eponymously on a few Theban monuments although Siamun's High Priest of Amun at Thebes, Pinedjem II, organised the removal and re-burial of the New Kingdom royal mummies from the Valley of the Kings in several hidden mummy caches at Deir El-Bahari Tomb DB320 for protection from looting; these activities are dated from Year 1 to Year 10 of Siamun's reign. One fragmentary but well known surviving triumphal relief scene from the Temple of Amun at Tanis depicts an Egyptian pharaoh smiting his enemies with a mace; the king's name is explicitly given as in the relief and there can be no doubt that this person was Siamun as the eminent British Egyptologist Kenneth Kitchen stresses in his book, On the Reliability of the Old Testament. Siamun appears here "in typical pose brandishing a mace to strike down prisoners now lost at the right except for two arms and hands, one of which grasps a remarkable double-bladed ax by its socket."
The writer observes that this double bladed axe or'halbread' has a flared crescent shaped blade, close in form to the Aegean influenced double axe but is quite distinct from the Palestinian/Canaanite double headed axe which has a different shape that resembles an X. Thus, Kitchen concludes Siamun's foes were the Philistines who were descendants of the Aegean-based Sea Peoples and that Siamun was commemorating his recent victory over them at Gezer by depicting himself in a formal battle scene relief at the Temple in Tanis. More Paul S. Ash has put forward a detailed argument that Siamun's relief portrays a fictitious battle, he points out that in Egyptian reliefs Philistines are never shown holding an axe, that there is no archaeological evidence for Philistines using axes. He argues that there is nothing in the relief to connect it with Philistia or the Levant. Although Siamun's original royal tomb has never been located, it has been proposed that he is one of "two decayed mummies in the antechamber of NRT-III" on the basis of ushabtis found on them which bore this king's name.
Siamun's original tomb may have been inundated by the Nile which compelled a reburial of this king in Psusennes I's tomb. It has been suggested that Siamun was the unnamed pharaoh of the Bible who gave in marriage his daughter to king Solomon in order to seal an alliance between the two, conquered Gezer an
1st millennium BC
The 1st millennium BC is the period of time between from the year 1000 BC to 1 BC. It encompasses the Iron Age in the Old World and sees the transition from the Ancient Near East to classical antiquity. World population doubled over the course of the millennium, from about 100 million to about 200–250 million; the Neo-Assyrian Empire dominates the Near East in the early centuries of the millennium, supplanted by the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century. Ancient Egypt is in decline, falls to the Achaemenids in 525 BC. In Greece, Classical Antiquity begins with the colonization of Magna Graecia and peaks with the conquest of the Achaemenids and the subsequent flourishing of Hellenistic civilization; the Roman Republic supplants the Etruscans and the Carthaginians. The close of the millennium sees the rise of the Roman Empire; the early Celts dominate Central Europe. In East Africa, the Nubian Empire and Aksum arise. In South Asia, the Vedic civilization blends into the Maurya Empire; the Scythians dominate Central Asia.
In China, the Spring and Autumn period sees the rise of Confucianism. Towards the close of the millennium, the Han Dynasty extends Chinese power towards Central Asia, where it borders on Indo-Greek and Iranian states. Japan is in the Yayoi period; the Maya civilization rises in Mesoamerica. The first millennium BC is the formative period of the classical world religions, with the development of early Judaism Zoroastrianism in the Near East, Vedic religion and Vedanta and Buddhism in India. Early literature develops in Greek, Hebrew, Sanskrit and Chinese; the term Axial Age, coined by Karl Jaspers, is intended to express the crucial importance of the period of c. the 8th to 2nd centuries BC in world history. World population more than doubled over the course of the millennium, from about an estimated 50–100 million to an estimated 170–300 million. Close to 90% of world population at the end of the first millennium BC lived in the Iron Age civilizations of the Old World; the population of the Americas was below 20 million, concentrated in Mesoamerica.
The population of Oceania was less than one million people. 10th century BC Near East: Neo-Assyrian Empire Near East: Shoshenq I invades Canaan Aegean: Helladic period ends 9th century BC Egypt: 872 BC: Nile floods the Temple of Luxor Egypt: 836 BC: Civil war in Egypt North Africa: 814 BC: Carthage founded China: 841 BCndash. Greece: Archaic Greece, Greek alphabet Greece: Homer 776 BC: Greece: First Olympiad 753 BC: Europe: foundation of Rome 7th century BC 671 BC: Assyrian conquest of Egypt Near East: 631 BC: Death of Ashurbanipal, decline of the Assyrian Empire 6th century BC Egypt: 592 BC: Psamtik II sacks Napata Sudan: Aspelta moves the Kushite capital to Meroe Near East: 539 BC: Achaemenid conquest of Babylon under Cyrus the Great South Asia: Śramaṇa movement and "second urbanisation" South Asia: Early Buddhism Europe: 509 BC: Roman Republic 5th century BC China: 479 BC: death of Confucius China: 476 BC: Warring States period China: 486 BC: Grand Canal construction begins Near East: Second Temple Judaism, redaction of the Hebrew Bible Greece: beginning of the classical period.
Greece: Greco-Persian Wars Greece: 440 BC: Herodotus' Histories Greece: 431 BC: Peloponnesian War Oceania: Austronesian expansion reaches Western Polynesia 4th century BC Greece: 395 BC: Corinthian War Egypt: 343 BC: Achaemenid conquest Greece/Asia/Egypt: 330s BC: conquests of Alexander the Great, end of the Achaemenid Empire, Macedonian Empire, beginning of the Hellenistic period South Asia: Mauryan Empire 3rd century BC China: Qin Unified China China: 206 BC: Han Dynasty South Asia: 261 BC: Kalinga war Rome: Roman expansion in Italy Rome/Carthage: Punic Wars 264 BC: First Punic War 218 BC Second Punic War 2nd century BC Rome/Carthage: 149 BC Third Punic War, Roman province of Africa Rome/Greece: 146 BC Battle of Corinth, beginning of the Roman era South Asia: 185 BC: Fall of the Maurya Empire China: Confucianism became the state ideology of China 1st century BC China: 91 BC: Records of the Grand Historian finished Rome/Europe: 58-50 BC Gallic Wars Rome: 32/30 BC: Final War of the Roman Republic Rome/Egypt: 31 BC: Roman conquest of Egypt Rome/Europe/West Asia/Africa: 27 BC: Roman Empire Some of the central figures of the Axial Age are legendary or semi-legendary, with no contemporary written records available RulersChina: Dynasties in Chinese history, List of Chinese monarchs Egypt: Third Intermediate Period of Egypt Carthage: List of monarchs of Carthage Assyrian Empire: List of Assyrian kings Babylonia: Neo-Babylonian_dynasty Canaan / Biblical Levant: Kings of Israel and Judah Achaemenid Persia: List of monarchs of Persia Kingdom of Kush: List of monarchs of Kush Classical Greece: Monarchs: List of kings of Sparta, Thirty Tyrants Athenian democracy: Pericles Macedon: List of ancient Macedonians, Argead dynasty Hellenistic period: Ptolemaic Dynasty, Antigonid dynasty, Hasmonean dynasty Rome: kings of Rome, List of Roman consuls Parthian Empire: List of Parthian kings India: List of Indian monarchsReligion, p
According to the Hebrew Bible, Solomon's Temple known as the First Temple, was the Holy Temple in ancient Jerusalem before its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BCE and its subsequent replacement with the Second Temple in the 6th century BCE. The period in which the First Temple or stood in Jerusalem, is known in academic literature as the First Temple period; the Hebrew Bible states that the temple was constructed under Solomon, king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah and that during the Kingdom of Judah, the temple was dedicated to Yahweh, is said to have housed the Ark of the Covenant. Jewish historian Josephus says that "the temple was burnt four hundred and seventy years, six months, ten days after it was built"; because of the religious sensitivities involved, the politically volatile situation in Jerusalem, only limited archaeological surveys of the Temple Mount have been conducted. No archaeological excavations have been allowed on the Temple Mount during modern times.
Therefore, there are few pieces of archaeological evidence for the existence of Solomon's Temple. An ivory pomegranate which mentions priests in the house "of ---h", an inscription recording the Temple's restoration under Jehoash have both appeared on the antiquities market, but their authenticity has been challenged and they are the subject of controversy; the noun hekhal means "a large building". This can be either the main building of the Temple in Jerusalem, or a palace such as the "palace" of Ahab, king of Samaria, or the "palace" of the King of Babylon. Hekhal is used 80 times in the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible. Of these, 70 refer to the House of the LORD, the other 10 are references to palaces. There is no reference to any part of the tabernacle using this term in the Hebrew Bible. In the year that king Uzziah died. I saw the LORD sitting upon a throne high and lifted up, His train filled the hekhal. In older English versions of the Bible, including the King James Version, the term temple is used to translate hekhal.
In modern versions more reflective of archaeological research, the distinction is made of different sections of the whole Temple. Scholars and archaeologists agree on the structure of Solomon's Temple as described in 1 Kings 6:3–5, with three main elements: the porch. Schmid and Rupprecht are of the view that the site of the temple used to be a Jebusite shrine which Solomon chose in an attempt to unify the Jebusites and Israelites. Rabbinic sources state that the First Temple stood for 410 years and, based on the 2nd-century work Seder Olam Rabbah, place construction in 832 BCE and destruction in 422 BCE, 165 years than secular estimates; the exact location of the Temple is unknown: it is believed to have been situated upon the hill which forms the site of the 1st century Second Temple and present-day Temple Mount, where the Dome of the Rock is situated. The only source of information on the First Temple is the Tanakh. According to the biblical sources, the temple was constructed under Solomon, during the united monarchy of Israel and Judah.
The Bible describes Hiram I of Tyre who furnished architects and cedar timbers for the temple of his ally Solomon at Jerusalem. He co-operated with Solomon in mounting an expedition on the Red Sea. 1 Kings 6:1 puts the date of the beginning of building the temple "in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel". The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE; this puts the date of its construction in the mid-10th century BCE. 1 Kings 9:10 says that it took Solomon 20 years altogether to build his royal palace. The Temple itself finished being built after 7 years. 1 Kings 8:10-66 and 2 Chronicles 6:1-42 recount the events of the temple's dedication. When the priests emerged from the holy of holies after placing the Ark there, the Temple was filled with an overpowering cloud which interrupted the dedication ceremony, "for the glory of the Lord had filled the house of the Lord". Solomon interpreted the cloud as " that his pious work was accepted": The Lord has said that he would dwell in thick darkness.
I have built you a place for you to dwell in forever. The allusion is to Leviticus 16:2: The Lord said to Moses: Tell your brother Aaron not to come just at any time into the sanctuary inside the curtain before the mercy seat, upon the ark, or he will die. Solomon led the whole assembly of Israel in prayer, noting that the construction on the temple represented a fulfilment of God's promise to David, dedicating the temple as a place of prayer and reconciliation for the people of Israel and for foreigners living in Israel, highlighting the paradox that God who lives in the heavens cannot be contained within a single building; the dedication was concluded with sacrifices said to have included "twenty-two thousand bulls and one hundred and twenty thousand sheep". During the United Monarchy the Temple was dedicated to the God of Israel. From the reign of King Manasseh until King Josiah, Baal and "the host of heaven" were worshipped; until the reforms of King Josiah, there was a statue for the goddess Asherah and priestesses wove ritual textiles for her.
Next to the temple was a house for the temple prostitutes (2 Kings