Sony Interactive Entertainment
Sony Interactive Entertainment LLC is a multinational video game and digital entertainment company, a wholly owned subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the central hub for the American businesses under the Japanese conglomerate Sony Corporation. The company was founded in Tokyo and established on November 16, 1993, as Sony Computer Entertainment, to handle Sony's venture into video game development through its PlayStation brand. Since the successful launch of the original PlayStation console in 1994, the company has been developing the PlayStation lineup of home video game consoles and accessories. Expanding into North America and other countries, the company became Sony's main resource for research and development in video games and interactive entertainment. In April 2016, SCE and Sony Network Entertainment International was restructured and reorganized into Sony Interactive Entertainment, carrying over the operations and primary objectives from both companies; the same year, SIE moved its headquarters from Tokyo to California.
Sony Interactive Entertainment handles the research and development and sales of both hardware and software for the PlayStation video game systems. SIE is a developer and publisher of video game titles, operates several subsidiaries in Sony's largest markets: North America and Asia. By August 2018, the company had sold more than 525 million PlayStation consoles worldwide. Sony Computer Entertainment, Inc. was jointly established by Sony and its subsidiary Sony Music Entertainment Japan in 1993 to handle the company's ventures into the video game industry. The original PlayStation console was released on December 1994, in Japan; the company's North American operations, Sony Computer Entertainment of America, were established in May 1995 as a division of Sony Electronic Publishing. Located in Foster City, the North American office was headed by Steve Race. In the months prior to the release of the PlayStation in Western markets, the operations were restructured: All video game marketing from Sony Imagesoft was folded into SCEA in July 1995, with most affected employees transferred from Santa Monica to Foster City.
On August 7, 1995, Race unexpectedly resigned and was named CEO of Spectrum HoloByte three days later. He was replaced by Sony Electronics veteran Martin Homlish; this proved to be the beginning of a run of exceptional managerial turnover, with SCEA going through four presidents in a single year. The PS console was released in the United States on September 9, 1995; as part of a worldwide restructuring at the beginning of 1997, SCEA and Sony Computer Entertainment Europe were both re-established as wholly owned subsidiaries of SCEI. The launch of the second PS console, the PlayStation 2 was released in Japan on March 4, 2000, the U. S. on October 26, 2000. On July 1, 2002, chairman of SCEI, Shigeo Maruyama, was replaced by Tamotsu Iba as chairman. Jack Tretton and Phil Harrison were promoted to senior vice presidents of SCE; the PlayStation Portable was SCEI's first foray into the small handheld console market. Its development was first announced during SCE's E3 conference in 2003, it was unveiled during their E3 conference on May 11, 2004.
The system was released in Japan on December 12, 2004, in North America on March 24, 2005, in Europe and Australia on September 1, 2005. On September 14, 2005, SCEI formed Sony Computer Entertainment Worldwide Studios, a single internal entity to oversee all wholly owned development studios within SCEI, it became responsible for the creative and strategic direction of development and production of all computer entertainment software by all SCEI-owned studios—all software is produced for the PS family of consoles. Shuhei Yoshida was named as President of SCE WWS on May 16, 2008, replacing Kazuo Hirai, serving interim after Harrison left the company in early 2008. On December 8, 2005, video game developer Guerrilla Games, developers of the Killzone series, was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS. On January 24, 2006, video game developer Zipper Interactive, developers of the Socom series, was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS. In March 2006, Sony announced the online network for its forthcoming PlayStation 3 system at the 2006 PlayStation Business Briefing meeting in Tokyo, tentatively named "PlayStation Network Platform" and called just PlayStation Network.
Sony stated that the service would always be connected and include multiplayer support. The launch date for the PS3 was announced by Hirai at the pre-Electronic Entertainment Expo conference held at the Sony Pictures Studios in Los Angeles, California, on May 8, 2006; the PS3 was released in Japan on November 11, 2006, the U. S. date was November 17, 2006. The PSN was launched in November 2006. On November 30, 2006, president of SCEI, Ken Kutaragi, was appointed as chairman of SCEI, while Hirai president of SCEA, was promoted to president of SCEI. On April 26, 2007, Ken Kutaragi resigned from his position as chairman of SCEI and group CEO, passing on his duties to the appointed president of SCE, Hirai. On September 20, 2007, video game developers Evolution Studios and Bigbig Studios, creators of the MotorStorm series, were acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS. On April 15, 2009, David Reeves, president and CEO of SCE Europe, announced his forthcoming resignation from his post.
He had joined the company in 1995 and was appointed as chairman of SCEE in 2003, president in 2005. His role of president and CEO of SCEE would be taken over by Andrew House, who joined Sony Corporation in 1990; the PSP Go was released on October 1
Daybreak Game Company
Daybreak Game Company LLC is an American video game developer based in San Diego. The company was founded in December 1997 as Sony Online Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Computer Entertainment, but was spun off to an independent investor in February 2015 and renamed Daybreak Game Company, they are known for creating the games EverQuest, EverQuest II, The Matrix Online, PlanetSide, Star Wars Galaxies, Clone Wars Adventures, Free Realms, Vanguard: Saga of Heroes, DC Universe Online, PlanetSide 2, H1Z1: Just Survive, H1Z1: King of the Kill, along with more recent acquisitions Dungeons and Dragons Online and Lord of the Rings Online. Sony Online Entertainment began with Sony Interactive Studios America, an internal game development studio of Sony, formed by 1995. In 1996, John Smedley was put in charge of SISA's development of an online role-playing video game; the game would evolve into the MMORPG EverQuest. Smedley hired programmers Brad McQuaid and Steve Clover, who had come to Smedley's attention through their work on the single-player role-playing game Warwizard.
In April 1998, Sony Online Entertainment was formed by merging parts of Sony Online Ventures with Sony Pictures Entertainment. Within a matter of months after this change, Sony Interactive Studios America was renamed 989 Studios. Towards the end of 1998, 989 Studios shifted its strategy to making PlayStation games; the company's video game and online development branch spun off named RedEye Interactive, soon after renamed Verant Interactive. Verant Interactive launched EverQuest on March 1999, through Sony with modest expectations; the game became successful. Sales continued rising at a steady rate until mid-2001; as of 2004, Sony reported subscription numbers close to 450,000. In March 2000, Verant released EverQuest: The Ruins of Kunark, the first in a long list of expansion packs for EverQuest. In April 2000, Verant hired former Ultima Online developers Rich Vogel, they formed an office in Texas, to develop Star Wars Galaxies for LucasArts. SOE acquired Verant in June 2000, promoted Brad McQuaid to be its Chief Creative Officer.
In October 2001, McQuaid resigned and founded Sigil Games Online, drawing many of the original developers of EverQuest from SOE. Developed by Sony Online Entertainment, LucasArts released Star Wars Galaxies in 2003, which saw rapid growth, as expected. Bruce Woodcock estimates that Star Wars Galaxies reached nearly 300,000 subscribers within the year, before trailing off. LucasArts has released three expansions for Star Wars Galaxies, Jump to Lightspeed in October 2004, Rage of the Wookiees in May 2005, Trials Of Obi-Wan in November 2005. In 2003, the company explored untouched MMOG territory with the massively multiplayer online first-person shooter PlanetSide and the PlayStation 2 MMORPG EverQuest Online Adventures. PlanetSide enjoyed a reasonably successful launch, however it never attracted wide popularity. SOE released two expansions for PlanetSide, a retail product titled Core Combat, Aftershock, a free expansion. EverQuest Online Adventures was not as successful, but it spawned an expansion, EverQuest Online Adventures Frontiers.
The game was shut down on March 2012, after nine years of operation. EverQuest II was released on November 9, 2004; the sequel was set hundreds of years after the original. Similar in strategy to EverQuest, SOE has released several adventure packs and expansion packs for EverQuest II, starting with The Bloodline Chronicles in March 2005. In January 2005, Sony Online Entertainment announced the creation of Station Publishing, a new label for distributing titles made by external developers. In November 2005, SOE added the New Game Enhancements to Star Wars Galaxies, changing many of the game's core mechanics; this upset players and critics, with the level of concurrent players reduced to around 10,000. SOE has produced numerous EverQuest expansions and spin-off video games, including Champions of Norrath and Lords of EverQuest, they published Champions: Return to Arms, the sequel to Champions of Norrath, in February 2005. In August 2005, SOE entered a deal with Warner Bros. Entertainment which saw the acquisition and transition of The Matrix Online to the existing line up of SOE games.
In April 2006, Sony Online Entertainment, Inc. became Sony Online Entertainment LLC, owned by Sony Pictures Digital and Sony Computer Entertainment America. In May 2006, it was announced. However, Sigil retained full development rights, SOE's role was only that of marketing, technical support, hosting the game servers. SOE announced the release of Field Commander, its third game for the PlayStation Portable System. In August 2006, SOE announced the acquisition of developer Worlds Apart Productions, renaming the studio SOE-Denver; the studio has since released an online version of the WizKids pirates constructible strategy game. In November 2006, SOE released its first PlayStation 3 title Untold Legends: Dark Kingdom, within the launch window of the PlayStation 3 system. SOE released Pirates Online Constructible Strategy Game, the online version of the WizKids Pirates Constructible Strategy Game. In January 2007, SOE announced that it has licensed rights from Midway Home Entertainment to develop and release six classic Midway games for PlayStation 3 download, including Mortal Kombat II, Gauntlet II, Rampage World Tour and Championship Sprint.
The games were available from the PlayStation Store. The announcement came shortly after SOE released its second PlayStation 3 digital download GripShift. On May 15, 2007, Sony Online Entertainment announced that they had completed a transaction to purcha
NFL GameDay (video game series)
NFL GameDay is a series of American football video games for both the PlayStation and PlayStation 2 video game consoles. NFL GameDay directly competed with Sega's NFL 2K franchises; the NFL GameDay series began with NFL GameDay released for the 1995-96 NFL season and ended with NFL GameDay 2005 following EA's acquisition of exclusive NFL licensing. The games were designed by 989 Sports throughout their ten-year duration. NFL GameDay is the first video game in the NFL GameDay series, it was released in 1996 on the PlayStation by Sony Interactive Studios America as a competitor to the Madden football game series. Its cover athlete is William Floyd; the game makes use of motion capture for its animations. NFL GameDay'97 is the second video game in the NFL GameDay series, it was released on November 1996 on the PlayStation by Sony Interactive Studios America. On the cover is Daryl Johnston. Gameday 97 includes new options & features like season-ending injuries, a full-fledged draft, more statistics, the ability to create players.
It features all 30 NFL teams and modeled stadiums, including real NFL uniforms with real logos and numbers. Motion capture was again used, with Tim Brown being the motion capture actor. In order to avoid a common complaint against competitor Madden NFL - that the A. I. can be beaten with a specific play - the developers hired a full-time game tester whose job was to find such plays and report them so that a counter could be developed. NFL GameDay 98 is the third video game in the NFL GameDay series, it was released July 1997 on the PlayStation by Sony Interactive Studios America. On the cover is Jerome Bettis, it is the first football video game to feature 3D polygonal graphics. NFL GameDay 99 is the fourth game in the NFL GameDay series, it was released July 31, 1998 on the PlayStation, August 31, 1998 on the PC, both by 989 Sports. On the cover is Terrell Davis. NFL GameDay 2000 is the fifth video game in the NFL GameDay series, it was released July 1999 on the PlayStation by 989 Sports. On the cover is Terrell Davis.
NFL GameDay 2001 is the sixth video game in the NFL GameDay series, the first to be released on the PlayStation 2. It was released October 30, 2000 on the PlayStation, November 20, 2000 on the PlayStation 2, both by 989 Sports. On the cover is Marshall Faulk. NFL GameDay 2002 is the seventh video game in the NFL GameDay series, it was released August 6, 2001 on the PlayStation, December 4, 2001 on the PlayStation 2, both by 989 Sports. On the cover is Donovan McNabb. NFL GameDay 2003 is the eighth video game in the NFL GameDay series, it was released August 2002 on the PlayStation and PlayStation 2, both by 989 Sports. On the cover is Tom Brady. NFL GameDay 2004 is the ninth video game in the NFL GameDay series, it was released September 2003 on the PlayStation and PlayStation 2, both by 989 Sports. On the cover is LaDainian Tomlinson. NFL GameDay 2005 is the tenth and final game in the NFL GameDay series, unlike the last few GameDay video games, it is only available on the PlayStation console, not on the PlayStation 2.
It was released on August 1, 2004. On the cover is Derrick Brooks, it was the last first-party game published for the Playstation though there were sporadic official releases in 2005 and 2006 by others
Twisted Metal 4
Twisted Metal 4 is a vehicular combat video game developed by 989 Studios and published by Sony Computer Entertainment for the PlayStation. The game was released in North America on October 31, 1999 and was re-released for the Sony Greatest Hits line-up in 2000. Like the previous installment, it wasn't released in the PAL regions. Twisted Metal 4 is the fourth installment in the Twisted Metal series and the second and last installment to be developed by 989 Studios; the game's plot centers on Sweet Tooth, the long-time mascot of the titular Twisted Metal competition, overthrowing Calypso, the mysterious organizer of the competition, in a coup d'état. He takes over the mantle of granting the winner of the competition a single wish, regardless of price, size or reality. Twisted Metal 4 received mixed to positive reviews from critics, who considered it to be an improvement over the previous Twisted Metal III in terms of level design. In concept, Twisted Metal 4 is a demolition derby. Players choose a vehicle and an arena—or a series of arenas in the story mode—to engage in battle with opposing drivers.
A variety of weapons are obtainable by pick-ups scattered throughout the stage. The objective of the game is to be the last one standing; the game's plot takes a different turn of events compared to its predecessors. Its intro video details the tournament's story, starting around the 1900s as a circus-type caravan that traveled across the country spreading destruction everywhere. A young Sweet Tooth finds himself amazed by the contest and runs off in its pursuit and winning; as his wish, he desires to become the star of Twisted Metal. At first revered by the chaos he created, as time went on Sweet Tooth became jealous of Calypso, until he decides to initiate a coup d'état helped by a group of midget clowns, takes control of Twisted Metal, it is discovered that Calypso's source of powers comes from a mysterious ring that consumes the souls of those who die, increasing his strength and youth, Sweet Tooth having taken it, finds that he possess the same abilities as Calypso to grant wishes. He tends to cheat people with their wishes.
After a contractual dispute with the developer of the first two games in the series, SingleTrac, Twisted Metal development duties were handed over to Sony's in-house development team, 989 Studios. In development of Twisted Metal III, the source code and physics engine for Twisted Metal 2 weren't available because they were property of SingleTrac. Therefore, new ones had to be created from scratch instead; the new source code introduced advanced physics simulation and AI techniques to the series. In development of Twisted Metal 4, the game was reworked to improve upon the shortcomings of Twisted Metal III, introducing smoother gameplay and softer physics. Levels were expanded further and an increased arsenal of weapons was created which would become exclusive to this game; the game includes a total of 13 selectable characters from the start. Most characters were original characters created for the game, whereas a few of the returning characters appear as stage bosses without story. Unlike previous games in the series, each stage counts with its own boss to defeat in order to advance.
Every boss becomes selectable after defeating the story mode at least once. The musician Rob Zombie is included in the playable characters due to the large amount of his songs on the previous installment in the series, Twisted Metal III. Twisted Metal 4 received mixed to positive reviews from critics, with an aggregate score of 68.04% on GameRankings. Brian of Game Revolution considered the game to be an improvement over Twisted Metal III and noted that the level design has improved from the previous installment, but cited some unsatisfactory levels and physics problems and the repetitive soundtrack as negative points. Joe Fielder of GameSpot said that the game was a "huge leap" ahead of Twisted Metal III, commenting on the improved level design and physics, but remarked that the latter two "remain a little too touchy and unforgiving" and that the graphics, while "prettier" than those of Twisted Metal III, "aren't nearly as sharp as the graphics in its current main competitor - Activision's Vigilante 8: Second Offense".
Marc Nix of IGN commented negatively on the "toy car" control and sound of the vehicles, but noted the "colorful" graphics and "well-done" interactive environments. This was the second Twisted Metal. Twisted Metal 4 at MobyGames
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0
Cool Boarders 2001
Cool Boarders 2001 is a snowboarding video game developed by Idol Minds and published by Sony Computer Entertainment for the PlayStation and PlayStation 2 and is the only Cool Boarders title to be released only in North America. The PlayStation 2 version received "generally favorable reviews", while the PlayStation version received "mixed" reviews, according to the review aggregation website Metacritic. Cool Boarders 2001 at MobyGames
Cool Boarders 3
Cool Boarders 3 is a snowboarding video game developed by Idol Minds for the PlayStation. Continuing with the previous games in the series, Cool Boarders 3 gives the player the chance to snowboard down mountain courses while completing tricks to amass points; some courses like Downhill, Boarder X, Slalom, require the player to concentrate more on beating their CPU opponents' times to the finish line. While others, namely Slope Style, Half Pipe, Big Air, force the player to pull off many big tricks in order to build up a large point score. A feature absent from the game, present in its immediate predecessor is support for the System Link feature, removing the ability for non-split screen, two-player multiplayer. Unlike the previous games in the series, Cool Boarders 3 featured a vast number of playable characters, along with unlockable characters. At the start of the game, there are 13 different boarders with the chance to unlock 8 extra boarders upon beating the high scores. Cool Boarders 3 included 11 different snowboards and a further 12 unlockable boards each modeled after real boards from snowboard companies such as Burton and Ride.
The game received an average score of 71.19 % based on an aggregate of 16 reviews. Cool Boarders 3 at MobyGames