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Year 991 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar. Spring – Charles, duke of Lower Lorraine, is captured through the perfidy of Bishop Adalberon and is imprisoned by King Hugh I in Orléans. Pope John XV appeals to Empress Adelaide of Italy, the grandmother and regent of the 11-year-old King Otto III to intervene, but occupied with rebellious Slavs and Bohemians, she declines. Spring – King Æthelred II signs an peace treaty with Richard I, duke of Normandy, ratified in Rouen; the English coast is threatened, Viking attacks ravage Sussex. August 11 – Battle of Maldon: The Anglo-Saxons under the Ealdorman Byrhtnoth are defeated by Norwegian Viking invaders, led by Olaf Tryggvason at Maldon in Essex. Æthelred II decides to pay tribute to Olaf Tryggvason. He buys him off with a massive payment of 22,000 lbs of silver to hold off the Viking invaders and keep the peace in his realm. Spring – Fatimid troops under the defecting Hamdanid governor of Homs, attack Aleppo, but are defeated with Byzantine assistance.

Bakjur is executed by Emir Sa'd al-Dawla. Summer – Council of Reims: Archbishop Arnulf is deposed for high treason, he is succeeded by Gerbert of Aurillac. Airlangga, ruler of Kahuripan Guido Monaco, Italian monk and music theorist Pons II, count of Toulouse Yan Shu, Chinese statesman and poet March 1 – En'yū, emperor of Japan April 2 – Bardas Skleros, Byzantine general April 4 – Reginold, bishop of Eichstätt May 11 – Heriward, Frankish abbot May 20 – Piligrim, bishop of Passau August 11 – Byrhtnoth, ealdorman of Essex Aleramo, marquess of Montferrat and Liguria Al-Muqaddasi, Arab Muslim geographer Ashot-Sahak, king of Vaspurakan Bakjur, Hamdanid mercenary and governor Gausfred I, count of Empúries and Roussillon Ibn Babawayh, Persian Shi'ite scholar Meng Xuanzhe, prince of Later Shu Nakatsukasa, Japanese waka poet Ōnakatomi no Yoshinobu, Japanese nobleman Pan Mei, Chinese general and statesman Qian Weijun, king of Wuyue Sa'd al-Dawla, Hamdanid emir Suero Gundemáriz, Spanish nobleman Taira no Kanemori, Japanese nobleman Ya'qub ibn Killis, Fatimid vizier

Long Yellow Road (Toshiko Akiyoshi Trio album)

Long Yellow Road and the nearly identical release, Tosiko Akiyosi Recital is a jazz trio recording made by the pianist Toshiko Akiyoshi in Tokyo in February 1961. A total of five tracks were recorded at a 1961 February'recital' in Tokyo and were released by Asahi Sonorama and King Records in various formats and combinations at various times; the first track released, "Solveig's Song", was distributed in Japan as a "sonosheet" in the 1961 April issue of a monthly Asahi Sonorama music publication. The other four tracks were released a few days in a special edition sonosheet "book". A standard LP album version containing all five tracks was released under the title Long Yellow Road. Another version, containing most of the same tracks from the same session, was released in Japan under the title, Tosiko Akiyosi Recital. All five tracks from the original session as well as all six tracks from 1961's Toshiko Meets Her Old Pals were combined on a single CD released in Japan by King Records as 1961 - Toshiko Akiyoshi, a History of King Jazz Recordings.

LP side A "Long Yellow Road" – 5:35 "Hakone Twilight" – 5:30 "Kisarazu Jinku" – 5:45 LP side B "Solveig's Song" – 5:49 "Deep River" – 5:05 Toshiko Akiyoshi – piano Eddie Marshalldrums Gene Cherico – double bass Asahi Sonorama 1961 April edition sonosheet Asahi Sonorama 別冊 sonosheet. Japanese Title: 黄色い長い道、秋吉敏子帰国記念特集 Asahi Sonorama TAM YX-4056 Asahi Sonorama E-23 King Records K28Y6219 Studio Songs YZSO-10006

William Macleod

William Macleod, was an Australian artist and a partner in The Bulletin. He was described as generous, hospitable, a'big man with a ponderous overhang of waistfront, a trim, grey beard, the curling moustachios of a cuirassier, brown, kindly eyes gleaming through his spectacles'. Macleod was born in London, his father was of his mother Cornish/German. The family emigrated to Australia in 1854 or 1855, drawn by the potential for riches from the Victorian goldrush, but Macleod's father died a year later, his mother was remarried to James Anderson, a portrait painter. Anderson's heavy drinking and the family's parlius financial state forced Macleod to find work at the age of 12, he found employment as an assistant to a professional photographer, began studying at a school of the arts. His studies led to the production of a number of paintings and stained glass designs, by the age of 17 Macleod was earning enough from commissions to purchase a home for his mother, away from her husband. For a time he worked as a drawing master in schools.

When Macleod was still in his early twenties he began contributing drawings to The Sydney Mail, the Illustrated Sydney News, the Town and Country Journal and others. He obtained a reputation as a portrait painter whose work was hung at exhibitions of the Art Societies in both Sydney and Melbourne. For many years he was successful; when The Bulletin started in 1880, he had a drawing in the first number and for the next two years was a regular contributor. Months after The Bulletin was launched, he and another artist, Samuel Begg, purchased a third share of the magazine, but relinquished it when the founders, J. F. Archibald and John Haynes were more financially secure, he became one of the artists for the Picturesque Atlas of Australasia and did a large number of illustrations for it, including most of the portraits. When he was approaching the end of this work, J. F. Archibald, impressed by his business methods when a contributor to the Bulletin, asked him to join the staff, he became business manager in September 1887, soon acquired an interest in the paper, for nearly 40 years was engaged in the management of it.

He read all the proofs with a watchful eye for possible libel actions. At one period he owned 75% of the paper but, recognising the value of Archibald's work for it, he handed over to him 25% as a gift, he gave up working as an artist, but took a special interest in the cartoonists. His greatest discovery was cartoonist David Low. In 1901, known as'Mr Bulletin McLeod', he was the toastmaster at the send-off dinner at the Hotel Australia to Scottish Border poet and Australian bush balladeer Will H. Ogilvie. Ogilvie was one of The Bulletin's stable of poets. Macleod took up painting again, became interested in sculpture, did a good deal of modelling; this included The Bulletin cartoonist ` Hop' Hopkins. Recreationally he enjoyed lawn bowls, being a founding member of one club and president for eight years, president for seven years of another. In 1923, Macleod was a finalist in the third annual Archibald Prize, named for fellow The Bulletin founder, along with G. W. Lambert and others, his subject was again close friend'Hop' Hopkins.

He was married twice. In 1926 he retired from The Bulletin, died on 24 June 1929, aged 78, at his house'Dunvegan', Musgrave Street, Sydney. Macleod was survived by O'Brien, son Ronald Henry Macleod and two daughters, Annie May and Amy Isabel Macleod, of the first marriage. Son Norman, aged 35, daughter Ada, aged about 40, both died in 1919 from influenza. O'Brien died in March 1934 at Mosman. Serle, Percival. "Macleod, William". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson. B. G. Andrews,'Macleod, William', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 10, MUP, 1986, pp 335–336. Additional resources listed by the Australian Dictionary of Biography G. A. Taylor, Those Were the Days M. Mahood, The Loaded Line P. Rolfe, The Journalistic Javelin S. Lawson, The Archibald Paradox Scottish Australasian, 1 April 1911 Newspaper News, 1 July 1929 Bowyang, 7, 1982 Daily Telegraph, 21 June 1924 Bulletin, 26 June 1929 manuscript catalogue under Macleod

Charcoal (art)

Artists' charcoal is a form of dry art medium made of finely ground organic materials that are held together by a gum or wax binder or produced without the use of binders by eliminating the oxygen inside the material during the production process. These charcoals are used by artists for their versatile properties, such as the rough texture that leaves marks less permanent than other art media. Charcoal can produce lines that are light or intensely black, while being removable, yet vulnerable to leaving stains on paper; the dry medium can be applied to any surface from smooth to coarse. Fixatives are used with charcoal drawings to solidify the position to prevent erasing or rubbing off of charcoal dusts; the method used to create artists' charcoal is similar to that employed in other fields, such as producing gunpowder and cooking fuel. The type of wood material and preparation method allow a variety of charcoal types and textures to be produced. There are various types and uses of charcoal as an art medium, but the used types are: Compressed and Pencil.

Vine charcoal is a long and thin charcoal stick, the result of burning grape vines in a kiln without air. Willow charcoal is a long and thin charcoal stick, the result of burning willow sticks in a kiln without air; the removable properties of willow and vine charcoal, through dusting and erasing, are favored by artists for making preliminary sketches or basic compositions. This makes such charcoal less suitable for creating detailed images. Compressed charcoal is shaped into a stick. Intensity of the shade is determined by hardness; the amount of gum or wax binders used during the production process affects the hardness, softer producing intensely black markings while firmer leaves light markings. Charcoal pencils consist of compressed charcoal enclosed in a jacket of wood. Designed to be similar to graphite pencils while maintaining most of the properties of charcoal, they are used for fine and crisp detailed drawings, while keeping the user's hand from being marked. Other types of artists' charcoal such as charcoal crayons were developed during the 19th century and used by caricaturists.

Charcoal powders are used to create patterns and pouncing, a transferring method of patterns from one surface to another. There are wide variations in artists' charcoal, depending on the proportion of ingredients: compressed charcoal from burned birch, lamp black pigment, a small quantity of ultramarine; the longer this mixture is heated, the softer it becomes. Paper used with artists' charcoal can vary in quality. Rough texture may allow more charcoal to adhere to the paper; the use of toned paper allows different possibilities as white oil pastels can be used in combination with charcoal to create contrast. It is a method in which dark lines are continuously placed parallel to each-other; when done with charcoal, it comes darker. Rubbing is done with a sheet of paper pressed against the targeted surface rubbing charcoal against the paper, it creates an image of the texture of the surface. Blending is done to create smooth transitions between lighter areas of a drawing, it can create a shadow effect.

Two common methods of blending are, using a finger to rub or spread charcoal, applied to the paper or the use of paper blending stumps called a Tortillon. Many prefer to use a chamois, a soft square piece of leather. Erasing is performed with a kneaded rubber eraser; this is a malleable eraser, claimed to be self-cleaning. It can be shaped by kneading it with hands, into tips for smaller areas or flipped inside out to clean. Charcoal was a key component of Cave painting, with examples dating back to at least 28,000 years ago. One of the oldest paintings is a picture of a zebra, found at the Apollo cave in Namibia. In the renaissance, Charcoal was used, but few works of art survived due to charcoal particles flaking off the canvas. At the end of the 15th century, a process of submerging the drawings in a gum bath was implemented to prevent the charcoal from flaking away. Charcoal paintings date as far back as ca.23,000 BC. Since many cultures have utilized charcoal for art, in rites of passage. Many indigenous people from Australia, parts of Africa, Pacific Islands, parts of Asia, others still practice body painting for rites of passage including child birth, spiritual rituals, war and funerary rites.

Many artists use charcoal because of its unique dark black strokes. The weak structure of charcoal causes the material to flake off onto the canvas. Throughout western art history, artists well known for other mediums have used charcoal for sketching or preliminary studies for final paintings. Examples of contemporary artists using charcoal as a primary medium are Robert Longo, William Kentridge, Dan Pyle and Joel Daniel Phillips

St. Peter's Roman Catholic Church, Drogheda

St. Peter's Roman Catholic Church is located on West Street, Ireland. Designed by J. O'Neill and W. H. Byrne and built in the French Gothic style of local limestone ashlar in 1884; the church is famous for its tall west gable, rose window and for containing the national shrine of St. Oliver Plunkett. During the time of the Penal Laws, Catholic chapels were barred within a town's walls. Therefore, Drogheda's Catholic chapel was outside the Westgate and was inadequate for the needs of the populace. A plot of land on a suitable site in West Street was persistently refused by the corporation. Through the influence of a Mr. Chester, a wealthy Catholic, a lease was secured. A ceremony was held for all to witness Richard O'Reilly, Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of all-Ireland laying the foundation stone. Although the occasion was marred by an unseemly interruption, when the Mayor and Drogheda corporation arrived at the ceremony wearing their official regalia, with the Mace and Sword of state being borne before them, to confront the Archbishop.

They warned him. Sir Edward Bellew of Barmeath Castle, a Catholic, stepped forward and convinced the mayor and corporation and their fellow travelers to withdraw; the proceedings continued without further ado and the foundation stone was duly laid. The first Church on the site was completed in 1793 to a design by Francis Johnston to a cost in the region of £12,000; the façade of St. Peters is an imposing structure in the French Gothic Revival style, built of local limestone, it is one of the most notable buildings on West Street in the town centre of Drogheda. The building from 1793 was incorporated into the present building; the tower of the church is similar to that of St. Patrick's Church in Dungannon, County Tyrone. A detail image of that building is held at the Highlanes Gallery, illustrated on a mid 19th Century map of the town created by Isaiah Rowland CE; the Church is famous for housing the National Shrine to St. Oliver Plunkett, martyred at Tyburn in 1681; the shrine contains the preserved head of the saint.

Another showcase displays his shoulder blade and other bones as relics. On exhibit is the cell door of Newgate prison in which he spent his last days; the Church is a prominent tourist attraction but signs urge silence and remind people that they are in a sacred place. Official Website TripAdvisor Saint Peter's Church - Shrine Page

Ellen Bard

Ellen M. Bard was a Republican member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives. Bard was born in Minnesota, she graduated from Pomona College in 1971. She earned a M. S. degree from the Boston University School of Public Communication in 1972 and another M. S. from the MIT Sloan School of Management in 1980. Bard was a Marshall Scholar, she was elected to represent Ward 7 on the Abington Township Board of Commissioners in 1990. In 1994, after one term as a Township Commissioner, she was elected to represent the 153rd legislative district in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives. During her tenure there, she has had 17 bills signed into law. During her legislative career, she was known for advocating on behalf of the Abington School District and for her work on energy and environmental issues, including her service as Chair of the Task Force on a 21st Century Energy Policy for Pennsylvania, she left her PA House seat to run for Pennsylvania's 13th congressional district, losing the Republican primary to Melissa Brown, who went on to lose to Allyson Schwartz.

In May 2009, after her diagnosis with pancreatic cancer and her husband moved from Jenkintown to San Francisco to be near their daughter. She died in October 2009. Pennsylvania House of Representatives - Ellen M. Bard at the Wayback Machine official PA House profile Pennsylvania House Republican Caucus - Ellen Bard at the Wayback Machine - official Party website