Congress of Verona
The Congress of Verona met at Verona on 20 October 1822 as part of the series of international conferences or congresses that opened with the Congress of Vienna in 1814–15, which had instituted the Concert of Europe at the close of the Napoleonic Wars. The Quintuple Alliance was represented by the following persons: Russia: Emperor Alexander I and Count Karl Robert Nesselrode. Count George Mocenigo, was present. While the representatives of the United Kingdom and the European powers had at first, during the Congress of Vienna, acted in concert, the extent to which the concord epitomized in the expression the "Concert of Europe" had unraveled in seven years became apparent in the way in which the three main questions before this Congress were handled; the instructions drawn up by Londonderry, as he was, for his own guidance, had been handed to Wellington by George Canning without alteration. They defined the United Kingdom's position towards the three questions which it was supposed would be discussed: the Turkish Question, the question of intervention in favor of the Bourbon royal power in Spain and the revolted Spanish colonies, the Italian Question.
The matter of the Italian Question dealt with the continued Austrian rule in Northern Italy. Since the United Kingdom could not undertake to support a system in which she had acquiesced, Wellington did not formally present his credentials until the other Powers had disposed of the matter, a British minister attending to keep informed and to see that nothing was done inconsistent with the European system and the treaties. In the Greek Question, the probable raising of which had alone induced the British government to send a minister plenipotentiary to the Congress, Wellington was instructed to suggest the eventual necessity for recognizing the belligerent rights of the Greeks, and, in the event of concerted intervention, to be careful not to commit the United Kingdom, beyond a supporting role; as for Russia and Austria, the immediate problems arising out of the Greek Question had been settled between the emperor Alexander and Metternich, to their mutual satisfaction, at the preliminary conferences held at Vienna in September.
When the plenipotentiaries met in Verona, the only question raised was the Spanish Question, of the proposed French intervention in Spain, in which Wellington's instructions were to express the uncompromising opposition of the United Kingdom to the whole principle of intervention. The discussion was opened by three questions formally propounded by Montmorency: Would the Allies withdraw their ministers from Madrid in the event of France being compelled to do so? In case of war, under what form and by what acts would the powers give France their moral support, so as to give to her action the force of the Quintuple Alliance, inspire a salutary fear in the revolutionaries of all countries? What material aid would the powers give if asked by France to intervene, under restrictions which France would declare and they would recognize? A series of gilt-copper medals struck in England represent participants of the Congress in less than flattering lights: the "Count de Chateaubriand" bears an inscription that offers the British view of the French position in a nutshell: THE KING OF FRANCE MY MASTER DEMANDS THE FREEDOM OF FERDINAND VII TO GIVE HIS PEOPLE INSTITUTIONS WHICH THEY CANNOT HOLD BUT FROM HIM, while the emperor Francis I of Austria asserts MY TROOPS OCCUPY NAPLES TO CHASTISE THE NEAPOLITANS FOR DARING TO CHANGE THEIR CONSTITUTION.
The reply of Alexander, who expressed his surprise at the desire of France to keep the intervention wholly French, was to offer to march 150,000 Russians through Germany to Piedmont, where they could be held ready to act against any Jacobins, whether in Spain or France. This solution appealed as little to Montmorency as to Wellington. Wellington based on the principle of non-intervention, refused to have anything to do with the suggestion, made by Metternich, that the powers should address a common note to the Spanish government in support of the action of France. Metternich proposed that the Allies should hold a common language, but in separate notes, though uniform in their principles and objects; this solution was adopted by the continental powers. On October 30 the powers handed in their formal replies to the French memorandum. Russia and Prussia would act as France should in respect of withdrawing their ministers, would give to France every assistance she might require, the details to be specified in a treaty.
Wellington, on the other hand, replied on behalf of the United Kingdom that having no knowledge of the cause of dispute, not being able to form a judgment upon a hypothetical case, he could give no answer to any of the questions. Thus was proclaimed the open breach of the United Kingdom with the principles and policy of the Quintuple Alliance, as it had become with the admission of France in 1818, which development
39th (Dorsetshire) Regiment of Foot
The 39th Regiment of Foot was an infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in 1702. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 54th Regiment of Foot to form the Dorsetshire Regiment in 1881; the regiment was first raised by Adam Loftus, 1st Viscount Lisburne as Viscount Lisburne's Regiment of Foot in 1689 but was disbanded in 1697. It was re-raised in Ireland, without lineal connection to the previous regiment, by Colonel Richard Coote as Richard Coote's Regiment of Foot in August 1702; the regiment landed at Lisbon in June 1707 for service in the War of the Spanish Succession. It saw action at the Battle of La Gudina in May 1709 and remained in Portugal until 1713 when it embarked for Gibraltar and moved to Menorca in the year, it sailed to Gibraltar in 1726 to reinforce the garrison. The regiment sailed for Jamaica in 1729 and returned to Ireland in 1732; the regiment served as marines from March 1744 to September 1746 when it took part in the Raid on Lorient during the War of the Austrian Succession.
The regiment spent another two years serving as marines and returned to Ireland. On 1 July 1751 a royal warrant was issued which provided that in future regiments would no longer be known by their colonel's name, but would bear a regimental number based on their precedence: the regiment became the 39th Regiment of Foot; the regiment was posted to India in 1754 and saw action at the Battle of Chandannagar in March 1757 during the Seven Years' War. Under the command of Major Eyre Coote, the regiment played a major part in capturing the fort of Katwa at the Battle of Plassey in June 1757; the regiment returned to Ireland in autumn 1758 and was engaged in the Great Siege of Gibraltar in 1779 and the following three years. In 1782 the regiment took a county title as the 39th Regiment of Foot; the regiment sailed for the West Indies took part in the capture of Martinique in March 1794, the capture of Saint Lucia in April 1794 and the attack on Guadeloupe in June 1794 during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The British troops at Guadeloupe were forced to surrender in December 1794 and were held in captivity for over a year. The regiment was reformed in Ireland the following year by absorbing the short-lived 104th Regiment of Foot; the regiment participated in a task force under Major-General John Whyte to capture the Dutch settlements of Demerara and Berbice in April and May 1796. The regiment moved to Suriname in October 1800 to Barbados in December 1802 and returned to England in March 1803. In 1803 a 2nd battalion was raised; the 1st battalion moved in Naples to Sicily shortly thereafter. In 1807 a number of regiments had their territorial affiliations shuffled, with the East Middlesex title passing to the 77th Foot and the 39th taking the Dorsetshire title held by the 35th Regiment of Foot to become the 39th Regiment of Foot; the 2nd battalion deployed to the Peninsular to support General Sir Arthur Wellesley in June 1809 and fought at the Battle of Talavera in July 1809, the Battle of Bussaco in September 1810 and the Siege of Badajoz in May 1811 as well as the Battle of Albuera in May 1811 and the Battle of Arroyo dos Molinos in October 1811.
Meanwhile, the 1st battalion deployed to the Peninsular in August 1811 and saw action at the Battle of Vitoria in June 1813 and the Battle of Sorauren in July 1813. It pursued the French Army into France and fought at the Battle of Nivelle in November 1813, the Battle of the Nive in December 1813 and the Battle of Orthez in 1814 as well as the Battle of Toulouse in 1814; the battalion was posted to North America for service in the War of 1812 and took part in the Battle of Plattsburgh in September 1814 before returning to England in July 1815. The regiment formed part of the Army of Occupation in France from 1815 to 1818 when it embarked for Ireland; the regiment arrived in the British colony of New South Wales toward the end of 1825 and saw service guarding convicts and establishing settlements at Hobart, Swan River Colony and Bathurst before leaving for India in July 1832. It saw action at various skirmishes in spring 1834 during the Coorg War and at the Battle of Maharajpore in December 1843 during the Gwalior Campaign.
It embarked for the Crimea in spring 1854 and saw action at the Siege of Sevastopol in winter 1854 before returning to Canada in 1856 and moving on to Bermuda in 1859. As part of the Cardwell Reforms of the 1870s, where single-battalion regiments were linked together to share a single depot and recruiting district in the United Kingdom, the 39th was linked with the 75th Regiment of Foot, assigned to district no. 39 at Dorchester Barracks in Dorchester. On 1 July 1881 the Childers Reforms came into effect and the regiment amalgamated with the 54th Regiment of Foot to form the Dorsetshire Regiment; the battle honours of the regiment were as follows: Plassey, Gibraltar 1779-83, Vittoria, Nivelle, Orthes, Maharajpore, Sevastopol Colonels of the regiment included: 1689–1692 Adam Loftus, 1st Viscount Lisburne 1692–1702 Col. Richard Coote 1702–1703 Col. Richard Coote 1703–1719 Lt-Gen. Nicholas Sankey 1719–1722 Brig-Gen. Thomas Ferrers 1722–1730 Brig-Gen. William Newton 1730–1732 Lt-Gen. Sir John Cope, KB 1732–1737 Lt-Gen.
Thomas Wentworth 1737–1738 Gen. John Campbell, 4th Duke of Argyll, KT 1738–1739 Lt-Gen. Richard Onslow 1739–1740 Col. Robert Dalway 1740–1743 Brig-Gen. Samuel Walter Whitshed 1743–1752 Maj-Gen. Edward Richbell 1752–1766 Lt-Gen. John Adlercron 1766–1794 Gen. Sir Robert Boyd, KB 1
Hobart is the capital and most populous city of the Australian island state of Tasmania. With a population of 225,000, it is the least populated Australian state capital city, second smallest if territories are taken into account. Founded in 1804 as a British penal colony, Hobart known as Hobart Town or Hobarton, is Australia's second oldest capital city after Sydney, New South Wales. Prior to British settlement, the Hobart area had been occupied for as long as 35,000 years, by the semi-nomadic Mouheneener tribe, a sub-group of the Nuennone, or South-East tribe; the descendants of these Aboriginal Tasmanians refer to themselves as'Palawa'. Since its foundation as a colonial outpost, the city has expanded from the mouth of Sullivans Cove in a north-south direction along both banks of the Derwent River, from 22 km inland from the estuary at Storm Bay to the point where the river reverts to fresh water at Bridgewater. Penal transportation ended in the 1850s, after which the city experienced periods of growth and decline.
The early 20th century saw an economic boom on the back of mining and other primary industries, the loss of men who served in the world wars was counteracted by an influx of immigration. Despite the rise in migration from Asia and other non-English speaking parts of the world, Hobart's population remains predominantly ethnically Anglo-Celtic, has the highest percentage of Australian-born residents among the Australian capital cities. In June 2016, the estimated greater area population was 224,462; the city is located in the state's south-east on the estuary of the Derwent River, making it the most southern of Australia's capital cities. Its harbour forms the second-deepest natural port in the world, its skyline is dominated by the 1,271-metre kunanyi/Mount Wellington, much of the city's waterfront consists of reclaimed land. It is the financial and administrative heart of Tasmania, serving as the home port for both Australian and French Antarctic operations and acting as a major tourist hub, with over 1.192 million visitors in 2011/2012.
The metropolitan area is referred to as Greater Hobart, to differentiate it from the City of Hobart, one of the five local government areas that cover the city. The first European settlement began in 1803 as a military camp at Risdon Cove on the eastern shores of the Derwent River, amid British concerns over the presence of French explorers. In 1804, along with the military and convicts from the abandoned Port Phillip settlement, the camp at Risdon Cove was moved by Captain David Collins to a better location at the present site of Hobart at Sullivans Cove; the city known as Hobart Town or Hobarton, was named after Lord Hobart, the British secretary of state for war and the colonies. The area's indigenous inhabitants were members of the semi-nomadic Mouheneener tribe. Violent conflict with the European settlers, the effects of diseases brought by them reduced the aboriginal population, replaced by free settlers and the convict population. Charles Darwin visited Hobart Town in February 1836 as part of the Beagle expedition.
He writes of Hobart and the Derwent estuary in his Voyage of the Beagle:... The lower parts of the hills which skirt the bay are cleared. I was chiefly built or building. Hobart Town, from the census of 1835, contained 13,826 inhabitants, the whole of Tasmania 36,505; the Derwent River was one of Australia's finest deepwater ports and was the centre of the Southern Ocean whaling and sealing trades. The settlement grew into a major port, with allied industries such as shipbuilding. Hobart Town became a city on 21 August 1842, was renamed Hobart from the beginning of 1881. Hobart is located on the estuary of the Derwent River in the state's south-east. Geologically Hobart is built predominantly on Jurassic dolerite around the foothills interspersed with smaller areas of Triassic siltstone and Permian mudstone. Hobart extends along both sides of the Derwent River. Both of these areas rest on the younger Jurassic dolerite deposits, before stretching into the lower areas such as the beaches of Sandy Bay in the south, in the Derwent estuary.
South of the Derwent estuary lies the Tasman Peninsula. The Eastern Shore extends from the Derwent valley area in a southerly direction hugging the Meehan Range in the east before sprawling into flatter land in suburbs such as Bellerive; these flatter areas of the eastern shore rest on far younger deposits from the Quaternary. From there the city extends in an easterly direction through the Meehan Range into the hilly areas of Rokeby and Oakdowns, before reaching into the tidal flatland area of Lauderdale. Hobart has access to a number of beach areas including those in the Derwent estuary itself. Hobart has a mild temperate oceanic climate; the highest temperature recorded was 41.8 °C on 4 January 2013 and the lowest was −2.8 °C on 25 June 1972 and 11 July 1981. Annually, Hobart receives 40.8 clear days. Compared to other major Australian cities, Hobart has the fewest daily average hours of sunshine, with 5.9 hours per day. However, during the summer it has the most
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Convention of Peking
The Convention or First Convention of Peking, sometimes now known as the Convention of Beijing, is an agreement comprising three distinct treaties concluded between the Qing dynasty of China and the United Kingdom, French Empire, Russian Empire in 1860. In China, they are regarded as among the unequal treaties; the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of China keeps the original copy of the Convention in the National Palace Museum in Taiwan. On 18 October 1860, at the culmination of the Second Opium War, the British and French troops entered the Forbidden City in Beijing. Following the decisive defeat of the Chinese, Prince Gong was compelled to sign two treaties on behalf of the Qing government with Lord Elgin and Baron Gros, who represented Britain and France respectively. Although Russia had not been a belligerent, Prince Gong signed a treaty with Nikolay Ignatyev; the original plan was to burn down the Forbidden City as punishment for the mistreatment of Anglo-French prisoners by Qing officials.
Because doing so would jeopardize the treaty signing, the plan shifted to burning the Old Summer Palace and Summer Palace instead. The treaties with France and Britain were signed in the Ministry of Rites building south of the Forbidden City on 24 October 1860. In the Convention, the Xianfeng Emperor ratified the Treaty of Tientsin; the area known as Kowloon was leased in March 1860. The Convention of Peking ended the lease, ceded the land formally to the British on 24 October 1860. Article 6 of the Convention between China and the United Kingdom stipulated that China was to cede the part of Kowloon Peninsula south of present-day Boundary Street and Hong Kong in perpetuity to Britain. Article 6 of the Convention between China and France stipulated that "the religious and charitable establishments which were confiscated from Christians during the persecutions of which they were victims shall be returned to their owners through the French Minister in China"; the treaty ceded parts of Outer Manchuria to the Russian Empire.
It granted Russia the right to the Ussuri krai, a part of the modern day Primorye, the territory that corresponded with the ancient Manchu province of East Tartary. See Treaty of Aigun, Treaty of Nerchinsk and Sino-Russian border conflicts; the governments of the United Kingdom and the People's Republic of China concluded the Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong in 1984, under which the sovereignty of the leased territories, together with Hong Kong Island, ceded under the Treaty of Nanjing, Kowloon Peninsula, was transferred to the PRC on 1 July 1997. However, the parts of Outer Manchuria ceded to Russia were never returned and remain as a part of Russia today. Second Convention of Peking History of Hong Kong Imperialism in Asia A timeline of the history of Hong Kong from 1840 to 1999 Full text of the Convention of Peking between China and the United Kingdom Full text of the Convention of Peking between China and France Full text of the Convention of Peking between China and Russia
Devizes is a market town and civil parish in the centre of Wiltshire, England. It developed around Devizes Castle, an 11th-century Norman castle, received a charter in 1141 permitting regular markets, which are held weekly in an open market place; the castle was besieged during the Anarchy, a 12th-century civil war between Stephen of England and Empress Matilda, again during the English Civil War when the Cavaliers lifted the siege during the Battle of Roundway Down. Devizes remained under Royalist control until 1645, when Oliver Cromwell attacked and forced the Royalists to surrender; the castle was destroyed in 1648 on the orders of Parliament, today little remains of it. From the 16th century Devizes became known for its textiles, by the early 18th century it held the largest corn market in the West Country, constructing the Corn Exchange in 1857. In the 18th century, curing of tobacco, snuff-making were established; the Wadworth Brewery was founded in the town in 1875. Standing at the west edge of the Vale of Pewsey, the town is about 10.5 miles southeast of Chippenham and 11 miles east-north-east of the county town of Trowbridge.
It has nearly five hundred listed buildings, some notable churches, a town hall and a green in the centre of the town. Devizes Castle was built by Osmund, Bishop of Salisbury in 1080, but the town is not mentioned in the Domesday Book; because the castle was on the boundaries of the manors of Rowde, Bishops Cannings and Potterne it became known as the castrum ad divisas, hence the name Devizes. On John Speed's map of Wiltshire, the town's name is recorded as The Devyses; the first castle on the site was of the motte and bailey form and was made of wood and earth, but this burnt down in 1113. A new castle was built in stone by Roger of Osmund's successor. Devizes received its first charter in 1141 permitting regular markets; the castle changed hands several times during the Anarchy, a civil war between Stephen of Blois and Matilda in the 12th century. The castle held important prisoners, including eldest son of William the Conqueror; the town has had churches since the 12th century and today has four Church of England parish churches.
During the 12th and 13th centuries, the town of Devizes developed outside the castle with craftsmen and traders setting up businesses to serve the residents of the castle. The first known market in Devizes was in 1228; the original market was in the large space outside St Mary’s Church, rather than in the current Market Place, which at that time would have been within the castle’s outer bailey. The chief products in the 16th and early 17th centuries were wheat and yarn, with cheese and butter increasing in importance later. In 1643, during the English Civil War, Parliamentary forces under Sir William Waller besieged Royalist forces under Sir Ralph Hopton in Devizes; however the siege was lifted by a relief force from Oxford under Henry Wilmot, 1st Earl of Rochester and Waller's forces were totally destroyed at the Battle of Roundway Down. Devizes remained under Royalist control until 1645, when Oliver Cromwell attacked and forced the Royalists to surrender; the castle was destroyed in 1648 on the orders of Parliament, a process known as slighting, today little remains of it.
From the 16th century Devizes became known for its textiles white woollen broadcloth but the manufacture of serge, drugget and cassimere or Zephyr cloth. In the early 18th century Devizes held the largest corn market in the West Country of England and traded hops, cattle and various types of cloth. Before the Corn Exchange was built in 1857, the trade in wheat and barley was conducted in the open, with sacks piled around the market cross. Today's cross displays the tale of a woman, Ruth Pierce, who dropped dead after being discovered cheating. Wool merchants were able to build prosperous town houses in St. John's and Long Street and around the market place. From the end of the 18th century the manufacture of textiles declined, but other trades in the town included clock-making, a bell foundry, milliners and silversmiths. In the 18th century brewing, curing of tobacco and snuff-making were established in the town. Brewing still survives in the Wadworth Brewery; the pond known as The Crammer, east of the town centre, is claimed to be site of the 18th-century Moonrakers story which led to a colloquial name for Wiltshire people.
In 1794 it was decided in the Bear Hotel to raise a body of ten independent troops of yeomanry in the county of Wiltshire. These would be brought together to form the Royal Wiltshire Yeomanry, the senior yeomanry regiment. In 1810 the county Militia, quartered at Devizes and the Royal Wiltshire Yeomanry were called out to quell the disturbances; the mutiny came to a head when the two forces faced off against each other with loaded firearms in the Market Square, at which point the Militia ringleaders surrendered. The Royal Wiltshire Yeomanry went on to serve at home and abroad, including in the Boer War, World War I and World War II, live on as B Squadron and Y Squadron of the Royal Wessex Yeomanry, based in Old Sarum and Swindon respectively. A new Devizes Prison, or "County House of Corrections", was opened in 1817; this replaced the Old Bridewell, built in Bridewell Street in 1579. The new prison was built of brick and stone, it was designed by Richard Ingleman as a two-storey polygon surrounding a central governor's house and reflected the panopticon principle.
It had an operational life of more than ninety years and was closed in 1922. It stood on the north side of the Castle's Old Park, across the Kenn
Second Opium War
The Second Opium War, the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war pitting the United Kingdom and the French Empire against the Qing dynasty of China, lasting from 1856 to 1860. The terms "Second War" and "Arrow War" are both used in literature. "Second Opium War" refers to one of the British strategic objectives: legalizing the opium trade, expanding trade, opening all of China to British merchants, exempting foreign imports from internal transit duties. The "Arrow War" refers to the name of a vessel; the war followed on from the First Opium War. In 1842, the Treaty of Nanking—the first of what the Chinese called the unequal treaties—granted an indemnity and extraterritoriality to Britain, the opening of five treaty ports, the cession of Hong Kong Island; the failure of the treaty to satisfy British goals of improved trade and diplomatic relations led to the Second Opium War. In China, the First Opium War is considered to be the beginning of modern Chinese history.
Between the two wars, repeated acts of aggression against British subjects led in 1847 to the Expedition to Canton which assaulted and took, by a coup de main, the forts of the Bocca Tigris resulting in the spiking of 879 guns. The 1850s saw the rapid growth of Western imperialism; some of the shared goals of the western powers were the expansion of their overseas markets and the establishment of new ports of call. The French Treaty of Huangpu and the American Wangxia Treaty both contained clauses allowing renegotiation of the treaties after 12 years of being in effect. In an effort to expand their privileges in China, Britain demanded the Qing authorities renegotiate the Treaty of Nanking, citing their most favoured nation status; the British demands included opening all of China to British merchant companies, legalising the opium trade, exempting foreign imports from internal transit duties, suppression of piracy, regulation of the coolie trade, permission for a British ambassador to reside in Beijing and for the English-language version of all treaties to take precedence over the Chinese language.
To give Chinese merchant vessels operating around treaty ports the same privileges accorded to British ships by the Treaty of Nanking, British authorities granted these vessels British registration in Hong Kong. In October 1856, Chinese marines in Canton seized a cargo ship called the Arrow on suspicion of piracy, arresting twelve of its fourteen Chinese crew members; the Arrow had been used by pirates, captured by the Chinese government, subsequently resold. It was registered as a British ship and still flew the British flag at the time of its detainment, though its registration had expired, its captain, Thomas Kennedy, aboard a nearby vessel at the time, reported seeing Chinese marines pull the British flag down from the ship. The British consul in Canton, Harry Parkes, contacted Ye Mingchen, imperial commissioner and Viceroy of Liangguang, to demand the immediate release of the crew, an apology for the alleged insult to the flag. Ye refused to release the last three. On 23 October the British destroyed four barrier forts.
On 25 October a demand was made for the British to be allowed to enter the city. Next day the British started to bombard the city, firing one shot every 10 minutes. Ye Mingchen issued a bounty on every British head taken. On 29 October a hole was blasted in the city walls and troops entered, with a flag of the United States being planted by James Keenan on the walls and residence of Ye Mingchen. Losses were 12 wounded. Negotiations failed and the city was bombarded. On 6 November, 23 war junks were destroyed. There were pauses for talks, with the British bombarding at intervals, fires were caused on 5 January 1857, the British returned to Hong Kong; the British government lost a Parliamentary vote regarding the Arrow incident and what had taken place at Canton to the end of the year on 3 March 1857. There was a general election in April 1857 which increased the government majority. In April, the British government asked the United States of America and Russia if they were interested in alliances, the offers were rejected.
In May 1857, the Indian Mutiny became serious. British troops destined for China were diverted to India, considered the priority issue. France joined the British action against China, prompted by complaints from their envoy, Baron Jean-Baptiste Louis Gros, over the execution of a French missionary, Father Auguste Chapdelaine, by Chinese local authorities in Guangxi province, which at that time was not open to foreigners; the British and the French joined forces under Admiral Sir Michael Seymour. The British army led by Lord Elgin, the French army led by Gros, together they attacked and occupied Canton in late 1857. A joint committee of the Alliance was formed; the Allies left the city governor at his original post in order to maintain order on behalf of the victors. The British-French Alliance maintained control of Canton for nearly four years; the coalition cruised north to capture the Taku Forts near Tientsin in May 1858. The United States and Russia sent envoys to Hong Kong to offer military help to the British and French, though in the end Russia sent no military aid.
The U. S. was involved in a minor concurrent conflict during the war, although they ignored the UK's offer of alliance and did not coordinate with the Anglo-French forces. In 1856, the Chinese garrison at Canton shelled a United States Navy steamer. S. Navy retaliated in the Battle of the Pearl River Forts; the ships bombarded the