Canberra is the capital city of Australia. With a population of 410,301, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall; the city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory, 280 km south-west of Sydney, 660 km north-east of Melbourne. A resident of Canberra is known as a Canberran. Although Canberra is the capital and seat of government, many federal government ministries have secondary seats in state capital cities, as do the Governor-General and the Prime Minister; the site of Canberra was selected for the location of the nation's capital in 1908 as a compromise between rivals Sydney and Melbourne, Australia's two largest cities. It is unusual among Australian cities, being an planned city outside of any state, similar to Washington, D. C. in the United States, or Brasília in Brazil. Following an international contest for the city's design, a blueprint by American architects Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin was selected and construction commenced in 1913.
The Griffins' plan featured geometric motifs such as circles and triangles, was centred on axes aligned with significant topographical landmarks in the Australian Capital Territory. The city's design was influenced by the garden city movement and incorporates significant areas of natural vegetation; the growth and development of Canberra were hindered by the World Wars and the Great Depression, which exacerbated a series of planning disputes and the ineffectiveness of a procession of bodies that were created in turn to oversee the development of the city. The national capital emerged as a thriving city after World War II, as Prime Minister Sir Robert Menzies championed its development and the National Capital Development Commission was formed with executive powers. Although the Australian Capital Territory is now self-governing, the Commonwealth Government retains some influence through the National Capital Authority; as the seat of the government of Australia, Canberra is the site of Parliament House, the official residence of the Monarch's representative the Governor-General, the High Court and numerous government departments and agencies.
It is the location of many social and cultural institutions of national significance, such as the Australian War Memorial, Australian National University, Royal Australian Mint, Australian Institute of Sport, National Gallery, National Museum and the National Library. The Australian Army's officer corps is trained at the Royal Military College and the Australian Defence Force Academy is located in the capital; the ACT is independent of any state to prevent any one state from gaining an advantage by hosting the seat of Commonwealth power. The ACT has voting representation in the Commonwealth Parliament, has its own Legislative Assembly and government, similar to the states; as the city has a high proportion of public servants, the Commonwealth Government contributes the largest percentage of Gross State Product and is the largest single employer in Canberra, although no longer the majority employer. Compared to the national averages, the unemployment rate is the average income higher. Property prices are high, in part due to comparatively restrictive development regulations.
The word "Canberra" is popularly claimed to derive from the word Kambera or Canberry, claimed to mean "meeting place" in Ngunnawal, one of the Indigenous languages spoken in the district by Aboriginal Australians before European settlers arrived, although there is no clear evidence to support this. An alternative definition has been claimed by numerous local commentators over the years, including the Ngunnawal elder Don Bell, whereby Canberra or Nganbra means "woman's breasts" and is the indigenous name for the two mountains, Black Mountain and Mount Ainslie, which lie opposite each other. In the 1860s, the name was reported by Queanbeyan newspaper owner John Gale to be an interpretation of the name nganbra or nganbira, meaning "hollow between a woman's breasts", referring to the Sullivans Creek floodplain between Mount Ainslie and Black Mountain. An 1830s map of the region by Major Mitchell indeed does mark the Sullivan's Creek floodplain between these two mountains as "Nganbra". "Nganbra" or "Nganbira" could have been anglicised to the name "Canberry", as the locality soon become known to European settlers.
R. H. Cambage in his 1919 book Notes on the Native Flora of New South Wales, Part X, the Federal Capital Territory noted that Joshua John Moore, the first settler in the region, named the area Canberry in 1823 stating that "there seems no doubt that the original was a native name, but its meaning is unknown."' Survey plans of the district dated 1837 refer to the area as the Canberry Plain. In 1920, some of the older residents of the district claimed that the name was derived from the Australian Cranberry which grew abundantly in the area, noting that the local name for the plant was canberry. Although popularly pronounced or, the original pronunciation at its official naming in 1913 was. Before white settlement, the area in which Canberra would be constructed was seasonally inhabited by Indigenous Australians. Anthropologist Norman Tindale suggested the principal group occupying the region were the Ngunnawal people, while the Ngarigo lived to the south of the ACT, the Wandandian to the east, the Walgulu to the south, Gandangara people to the north and Wiradjuri to the north-west.
Archaeological evidence of settlement in the region includes inhabited rock shelters, rock paintings and engravings, burial places and quarry sites as well as stone tools and arrangements. Artefacts suggests early human activity occurred at some po
Melbourne Victory FC
Melbourne Victory Football Club is an Australian professional soccer club based in city centre of Melbourne, Victoria. Competing in the country's premier competition, the A-League, under licence from Football Federation Australia, Victory entered the competition in the inaugural season as the only Victorian-based club in the newly revamped domestic Australian league. Recognised as the most supported and the most successful club in the league to date, Victory has won four A-League Championships, three A-League Premierships, one Pre-Season Challenge Cup and one FFA Cup, the only club to have won all four domestic trophies in the modern era of Australian soccer, they have previously competed in the AFC Champions League on six occasions with the 2019 campaign confirmed to be the seventh occasion. Their furthest placement in the tournament was the 2016 campaign, where they were knocked out in the Round of 16. Although Victory are supported across the whole Melbourne metropolitan area, as well as regional cities in the state, it is based in the city centre.
The club's home ground is the Melbourne Rectangular Stadium, playing a majority of home matches at the venue, with the larger Docklands Stadium utilised for matches such as derbies and finals. As well as this, the club has an agreement to play a single match at Kardinia Park in Geelong every season; the club operates two other football departments, with youth & reserves team competing in the National Youth League and National Premier Leagues Victoria 2 and a women's team competing in the W-League. The NYL/NPL, W-League home matches are played at various locations across Melbourne, including Lakeside Stadium, Kingston Heath Soccer Complex as well as the senior team's various venues. Melbourne Victory's club colours are navy blue and silver, which encompass the traditional state sporting colours of Victoria; the home kit consists of a navy blue shirt with a chevron which fades from white at the bottom to navy blue at the top, paired with navy blue shorts and socks. The away kit is all white, with the shirt featuring a yoke consisting of a design reminiscent of the clubs home ground AAMI Park, set inside an off-centre chevron.
In the Victory's inaugural A-League season, only the club badge displayed a chevron, known colloquially as the "Big V", a symbol traditionally used by the Victoria Australian rules football team. From the 2006–07 season the away strip was changed to a grey shirt with a white chevron on the front; this was an immediate hit with the club's supporters, from the 2007–08 season onwards Melbourne's home shirt sported the white chevron on the front. A new kit was introduced for the 2008 AFC Champions League due to AFC rules requiring kits to have player numbers on the front of the uniform as well as the back, which would not fit well with the'V' on the Victory's regular kit. For the 2009–10 season, Melbourne changed their away shirt to be a reverse of their home shirt. In 2010, Melbourne wore the TAC'seatbelt' shirt against Perth Glory in a charity event to raise awareness for the necessary use of seat belts in cars. Adidas were announced as the club's official kit manufacturer for five years beginning in the 2011–12 season, after the initial deal for Reebok to supply all A-League clubs had expired.
The new kits were announced via the club's YouTube channel, featured a controversial change to a fluoro yellow away shirt. For their 2013–14 kits, Melbourne Victory received backlash from supporters, as the away kits featured a much lighter blue, bearing a large resemblance to fierce rivals Sydney FC. A number of different songs have become synonymous with Melbourne Victory, being both sung by supporters and played over the PA at different moments before and after games. "Stand By Me" by Ben E. King; this is sung as the team enters the pitch prior to kick-off, with fans holding their scarves above their heads throughout. "Seven Nation Army" by The White Stripes. The chorus melody is chanted as a goal celebration, with fans waving their scarves in the air as they sing, it has been adapted as a player chant for striker Besart Berisha. "Victory The Brave", a rearrangement of Scotland The Brave, penned by Jim Keays of The Masters Apprentices. This has long been played after every home win, but has been criticised by fans for sounding too much like a song for an AFL team, rather than something more traditionally seen in football.
"The Horses" by Daryl Braithwaite. Beginning in the 2015–16 season, members of the South End started singing The Horses after a win, as an alternative to Victory The Brave. Although something of a joke, it has gained traction with some supporters, is now played over the PA system at the conclusion of Victory The Brave. Melbourne Victory plays the majority of its home games at Melbourne Rectangular Stadium, known as AAMI Park. Games considered to be "blockbusters", which include derbies and finals matches, are played at the larger Docklands Stadium, known as Marvel Stadium; the club currently plays one league match a season at Kardinia Park in the neighbouring city of Geelong. The football club was based at the 50-year-old Olympic Park Stadium, where they played all home matches during the 2005–06 A-League season; this stadium had seated areas only on the wings, with standing-room sandy terraces on the north and south ends. The average crowd during the first year was 14,158, 77% of its capacity of 18'500.
As a result, the match-day atmosphere would prove to be a marketing asset not just for Melbourne Victory, but for the rest of the league. It proved to be a major factor in the club's decision to relocate home games to Docklands Stadium known as'Telstra Dome', from the 2006–07 season onwards, for both safety reasons, and
Mount Gambier, South Australia
Mount Gambier is the second most populated city in South Australia with an estimated urban population of 28,684. The city is located on the slopes of Mount Gambier in the south east of the state, about 450 kilometres south-east of the capital Adelaide and just 17 kilometres from the Victorian border, it is the most important settlement in the Limestone Coast region and the seat of government for both the City of Mount Gambier and the District Council of Grant; the city is well known for its geographical features its volcanic and limestone features, most notably its Blue Lake and gardens, caves and sinkholes. The peak of the dormant volcano was the first place in South Australia named by European explorers, it was sighted in 1800 by Lieutenant James Grant from the survey brig, HMS Lady Nelson, named for Lord James Gambier, Admiral of the Fleet. The peak is marked by Centenary Tower, built in 1901 to commemorate the first sighting, at 192 m above sea level the landmark is the city's highest point.
Before European settlement, the Buandig people were the original Aboriginal inhabitants of the area. They called it'ereng balam' or'egree belum', meaning'home of the eagle hawk'; the peak of the dormant Mount Gambier crater was sighted in 1800 by Lieutenant James Grant from the survey brig, HMS Lady Nelson, named for Lord James Gambier, Admiral of the Fleet. The Henty brothers who owned large holdings in Portland, Western Victoria, laid claim to the land but were forced to retreat when the lands were granted to Evelyn Sturt, the brother of the explorer Charles Sturt. Industries soon began to appear; the Post Office opened on 22 September 1846, John Byng built the Mount Gambier Hotel in 1847, Dr Edward Wehl arrived in 1849 to begin a flour-milling operation. Hastings Cunningham founded "Gambierton" in 1854 by subdividing a block of 77 acres. From 1861 to 1878 the Post Office was known by this name before reverting to Mount Gambier. Local government appeared in 1863 when Dr Wehl, who now owned a substantial millhouse on Commercial Road, was elected chairman of the District Council of Mount Gambier.
In December 1864 this became the District Council of Mount Gambier West and, at the same time, a separate District Council of Mount Gambier East was formed. Incorporation in 1876 saw a further division, with the creation of the Town Council and Mr John Watson elected Mayor. Mount Gambier was governed in this fashion until 1932, when the District Council of East and West merged to form a single District Council of Mount Gambier once more. On 9 December 1954, Mount Gambier was declared a city, is now an important tourism centre in south-east South Australia. Mount Gambier's urban area is located along the northern slopes and plain of a maar volcano of the same name, Mount Gambier. Comprising several craters, it is part of the Newer Volcanics Province complex of volcanoes. One of these contains a huge lake of high-quality artesian drinking water which changes colour with the seasons. In winter, it is a steel grey and changes to a spectacular cobalt blue in the summer, giving rise to its name, Blue Lake.
This 70-metre deep lake accommodates a range of unusual aquatic flora and fauna, in particular fields of large stromatolites. There are several other craters in the city including the Leg of Mutton Lake; the region surrounding the city includes other volcanic features such as Mount Schank, along with many karst features such as water-filled caves and sinkholes. The urban area extends outside of the City of Mount Gambier into the District Council of Grant where the following suburbs now exist: Suttontown, Mil Lel and Worrolong to the north of the city and Yahl to the east, Compton to the west, Moorak and OB Flat to the south. Mount Gambier has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate; the town has cool wet winters. July is the wettest month with an average of 100.2 mm falling on 22 days whilst February records the lowest rainfall with an average of 26 mm on an average 8 days. The highest temperature recorded in Mount Gambier was 44.9 °C on 2 February 2014 and the lowest temperature recorded was −3.9 °C on 20 June 1950 and 2 July 1960.
Mount Gambier has 40.5 clear days on an annual basis. The government in the south-east area of the state, consisting of three local councils, amounted to a single administration. In consequence, many residents of Victoria used to look across the border to Mount Gambier as their centre. During the 1970s many elderly locals relocated to Victor Harbor and Moonta, both rural areas but with more resources available to cope with an ageing population. A 1976 study found that less than 10 per cent of residents aged over 65 had lived in the area for less than 5 years, leading to a lack of specific aged-care facilities. According to the 2006 Census the population of the Mount Gambier census area was 24,905 people, making it the largest urban area in the state outside Adelaide, the 50th largest urban area in Australia. 51.7% of the population were female, 84.9% were Australian born, over 91.5% of residents were Australian citizens and 1.6% were indigenous. The most popular industries for employment were Log Sawmilling and Timber Dressing, School Education and Retail Trade, while the unemployment rate is approx.
7%. The median weekly household income is A$814 or more compared with $924 in Adelaide. According to the 2006 Census, 60.0% of residents identified themselves as being Christian. The largest denominations represented were Catholics at 21.5%, Anglicans at 11.4%, the Uniting Church at 8.6%, Presbyterians at 6.9%. 26.9% of people claim no religion. A further 12.1% of people chose eithe
Hindmarsh Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Hindmarsh, an inner western suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. It is the home of Adelaide United; the stadium has a capacity of 16,500. Home team Adelaide United fill this capacity, averaged crowds of over 12,000 to its matches during the 2006-07 season and 2007-08 season. United used the stadium for its home matches in the 2008 AFC Asian Champions League, the 2010 AFC Asian Champions League, the 2012 AFC Asian Champions League. Built in 1960, the stadium stands on the site, once Hindmarsh Oval which housed the West Torrens Football Club of the SANFL from 1905 until 1921, when the team moved to nearby Thebarton Oval which would remain its home until 1989. During World War I the Patriotic Football League, a group of SANFL clubs that wanted to continue playing football during the war played many games at the venue; the 1916 Patriotic Football League Grand Final was held at the ground between Port Adelaide and West Torrens with Port Adelaide winning 7.11 to 1.13.
The Soccer Association of South Australia owned land on a former brick pit on Torrens Road at Brompton named Rowley Park, located only 5 km from the city, the original plan was for the land to be the home of Soccer in SA as the site formed a natural bowl. However, the Soccer Association had received negative press regarding its failure to grow grass on the site. Rowley Park had a tendency to flood during winter as the bottom of "The Brick Pit" was below the level of the water table which made playing soccer impossible; the land was leased to a group of speedway drivers and would become the famous Rowley Park Speedway which ran from December 1949 until it closed in April 1979. The land was sold and is now the Kym Bonython housing estate, named for the speedway's long time promoter Kym Bonython; when it became obvious to the Soccer Association that Rowley Park would be unsuitable as a soccer venue they obtained a lease on Hindmarsh Oval from the Hindmarsh Council. The old Hindmarsh Oval was developed over the years into a rectangular stadium capable of holding 15,000 with a single tier grandstand built in 1960 that held 2,000 while 6 light towers for night games were installed during the mid-1970s.
Other than the grandstand, the ground was all terracing surrounding the playing surface. This changed in 1996. Along with the Olympic Sports Field, Hindmarsh became one of two Adelaide venues in the new but now-defunct National Soccer League in 1977. Hindmarsh was the home ground of the Adelaide City Zebras, the home ground for West Adelaide Hellas. Hindmarsh would become the sole Adelaide NSL venue during the late 1980s. In 1986 Hindmarsh stadium hosted the first leg of the NSL Grand Final between Adelaide City and Sydney Olympic. For Adelaide fans Olympic won 1-0. Adelaide would go on to become NSL Champions. Hindmarsh again hosted the NSL Grand Final in 1994-95 when Adelaide City faced the Mark Viduka led Melbourne Knights. In front of a packed house of over 16,000 the Knights defeated the Zebras 2-0; as soccer was played to smaller crowds during the 1970s and 80's, Hindmarsh became a regular host of the Socceroos in some of their international matches, with Adelaide-based players such as Robert Zabica, Alex Tobin, the Vidmar brothers Aurelio and Tony all playing prominent roles.
Hindmarsh Stadium not only hosted soccer matches but hosted Rugby Union and Rugby league. In 1992 the New Zealand All Blacks played an exhibition game against a South Australian'Select' team which included former Wallabies Lock and current day author/media personality Peter FitzSimons; the All Blacks, including goal kicking Stand-off Grant Fox who would retire the following year as the All Blacks highest point scorer, ran out easy winners while FitzSimons, playing up to the crowd by humorously claiming innocence, was sent off midway through the second half after numerous infringements. At the time this made FitzSimons the only Wallaby to be sent off in a match against the All Blacks. In 1996 as part of the rebuilding of the venue before the 2000 Summer Olympic Games, the original single tier grandstand with its wooden bench seats was demolished and replaced by the current two tier structure; the terracing on the opposite wing was removed and replaced by seating. When the ground was rebuilt before the Olympics only the new grandstand would remain in place.
In 1998 the short lived National Rugby League team the Adelaide Rams used Hindmarsh for their last 4 home games of the 1998 NRL season. The Rams début at the venue was a success when they thumped the Balmain Tigers 52-0 in front of 7,351 fans; the Rams would end up 2-2 at Hindmarsh after defeating the Auckland Warriors, but losing to Manly-Warringah and North Sydney. The Rams were to continue using Hindmarsh as their home ground in the 1999 NRL season giving them a rectangular venue suited to league rather than an oval as was their previous home, the Adelaide Oval; however the team was wound up by owners News Ltd only weeks before the start of the 1999 season. Hindmarsh Stadium was one of the venues chosen to host preliminary matches for the men's soccer during the 2000 Olympics held in Sydney; this saw the stadium receive a complete rebuild which brought it to its present status. The field was lengthened from 110 to 120 metres to be ab
Wellington Regional Stadium
Wellington Regional Stadium is a major sporting venue in Wellington, New Zealand. The stadium's bowl site size is 48,000 sq m; the stadium was built in 1999 by Fletcher Construction and is situated close to major transport facilities one kilometre north of the CBD. It was built on reclaimed railway land, surplus to requirements, it was built to replace Athletic Park, no longer considered adequate for international events due to its location and state of disrepair. The stadium was built to provide a larger-capacity venue for One Day International cricket matches, due to the Basin Reserve ground losing such matches to larger stadia in other parts of the country; the stadium serves as a large-capacity venue for concerts. The stadium is a multi-purpose facility, though used for sporting events, it is the home of the Hurricanes Super Rugby team. The stadium hosts the Wellington Sevens, one of the events in the annual World Rugby Sevens Series for national rugby sevens teams. Westpac Stadium serves as a home venue for All Blacks rugby matches.
Westpac Stadium is the home venue for A-League football team Wellington Phoenix FC, the stadium referred to as "The Ring of Fire" by Phoenix supporters. It serves as a major home venue for the New Zealand national football team, notably hosting the home leg of their 2010 FIFA World Cup qualification match against Bahrain. During the summer the stadium hosts international and domestic limited overs cricket, with the home team being the New Zealand Black Caps for the international contests and Wellington Firebirds for the domestic competition; the stadium has been used for rugby league matches, including national team fixtures and New Zealand Warriors away fixtures. The St Kilda Football Club, an Australian rules football club in the Australian Football League, played home games on Anzac Day at the venue from 2013-15. Off-field facilities built into the stadium included the New Zealand Institute of Sport, a campus for the Wellington School of Cricket, run by the Wellington Cricket Association.
In 2000, The Westpac Stadium hosted the Edinburgh Military Tattoo. This was the first time the event was hosted outside Scotland. In 2002, during an England versus Black Caps cricket match, director Peter Jackson recorded 30,000 fans chanting in Black Speech for the sound of 10,000 chanting Uruk-hai during the Battle of Helm's Deep in the film The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers. On 4 March 2006 WWE's first New Zealand show, WWE SmackDown Road to WrestleMania 22 Tour was held at the stadium. 23,875 people were in attendance to witness the televised event. There were 9 matches including a triple threat match between Kurt Angle, The Undertaker and Mark Henry for the World Heavyweight Championship Also in 2006 a concert was held by The Rolling Stones which ended the Australasian leg of its A Bigger Bang World Tour, On 14 October 2007, Australia defeated New Zealand in the Centenary Test rugby league game; the 58–0 defeat set a new record for the largest loss by the New Zealand national rugby league team.
On 1 December 2007, the stadium hosted an exhibition match between Wellington Phoenix FC and Los Angeles Galaxy. LA Galaxy won 4–1 in front of 31,853 spectators, the largest crowd for non-national football match in New Zealand history. On 17 January 2008, the stadium hosted the kickoff show of the Oceania leg of The Police Reunion Tour and over Easter the inaugural two-day "Rock2Wgtn" music festival, headlined by Kiss and Ozzy Osbourne. Attendance over the two days was around 50,000. New Zealand hosted. Six pool matches and two playoff matches were played at the Westpac Stadium. Due to FIFA rules disallowing host stadia to be named after non-FIFA sponsors, the stadium was known as "Wellington Stadium" during the event; the stadium hosted the national team's 2010 FIFA World Cup qualifying match on 14 November 2009 against Bahrain. New Zealand won the match 1–0, with a record crowd at the time of 35,194 for a football match in New Zealand. On 28 January 2010 AC/DC kicked off the Australasian leg of its Black Ice World Tour at the stadium.
The concert sold out so a second was scheduled for 30 January. The stadium was a venue for Bon Jovi's The Circle Tour in 2010; the stadium hosted eight games during the 2011 Rugby World Cup including two quarter-final matches. On 11 May 2013 the stadium and Wellington hosted its first National Rugby League fixture since 2004 with the Auckland-based New Zealand Warriors hosting the Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs at the stadium for'The Capital Clash'; the Warriors wore their'Capital Clash' jerseys which incorporated the black and gold colours of Wellington and a design based on a strip worn by Wellington Rugby league teams in the 1970s. The Warriors lost the game late in the match in front of 28,096 fans. On 20 November 2013, the stadium hosted the second leg of the World Cup qualification inter-confederation play-off against Mexico, which resulted in New Zealand failing to qualify for the 2014 FIFA World Cup. On 15 November 2014, the stadium hosted the 2014 Rugby League Four Nations Final, it was the first Four Nations Final held in New Zealand, though the Mount Smart Stadium in Auckland hosted the inaugural final of the tournament known as the Tri-Nations, in 1999.
The stadium was one of the venues for 2015 Cricket World Cup, co-hosted by New Zealand and Australia. It hosted a total of four matches during the World Cup which included a quarter-final clash between the hosts New Zealand and West Indies. On 11 November 2017, the stadium hosted its third World Cup qualif
Mandurah is a coastal city in Western Australia, situated 72 kilometres south of the state capital, Perth. It is the state's second-largest city, with a population just ahead of that of Bunbury. Mandurah's central business district is located on the Mandurah Estuary, an outlet for the Peel Inlet and Harvey Estuary; the city takes its name from a Noongar word meaning "meeting place" or "trading place". A townsite for Mandurah was laid out in 1831, two years after the establishment of the Swan River Colony, but attracted few residents; until the post-war boom of the 1950s and 1960s it was little more than a small fishing village. In subsequent years, Mandurah's reputation for boating and fishing attracted a large number of retirees to the canal developments in the city's south; the 1000-hectare suburb of Halls Head was developed during the 1980s by the Parry Corporation and the state Government Employees Superannuation Board—one of the notorious WA Inc deals which gave rise to a royal commission.
Along with four other local government areas, the City of Mandurah is included in the wider Peel region. Mandurah is sometimes grouped together with Perth for statistical purposes since the extension of the Kwinana Freeway and the completion of the Mandurah railway line in the late 2000s; the two cities now form a conurbation along the Indian Ocean coastline, although the Perth metropolitan area ends at Singleton. Mandurah has grown from isolated holiday communities along the shores of the Peel-Harvey Estuary to a major regional city in just over a decade, in a similar vein to the Gold Coast in Eastern Australia. In recent times, it has formed a conurbation with Perth along the coast. Mandurah has become a popular lifestyle alternative for Perth retirees and its connection with the Perth CBD has been strengthened with the opening of the Perth-Mandurah railway line in December 2007 and a direct road connection to the Kwinana Freeway built by late 2010. A housing affordability survey of 227 cities in 2008 ranked it the least affordable city in Australia.
The waters of the Peel Inlet and Harvey Estuary form the centre of Mandurah. The estuary is twice the size of Sydney Harbour; the city lies around this freshwater system which in turn feeds into the Indian Ocean. The city and its suburbs have many kilometres of ocean coastline most of, sandy beaches. Mandurah has a number of suburbs built around artificially created canal systems that extend from the Peel Inlet, such as Halls Head, Dudley Park and Wannanup. In terms of geology, much of Mandurah lies on the dune systems which dominate South Western WA's coastline, progressively grading towards the Swan Coastal Plain as one travels inland; the area has infertile soils due to the dunes being rather sandy, having poor water retention qualities. Limestone outcrops are found to the north of the city along the Mandurah Line. Mandurah is the closest city to Yalgorup National Park, home to modern thrombolites as well as an array of flora and fauna. Mandurah is located in the Swan Coastal Plain ecoregion.
The ecoregion contains an array of vegetation, from coastal dune and sandplains to banksia and eucalypt woodlands. Mandurah is covered by shoreline and dune deposits from the Pleistocene and Holocene that overlie Paleozoic and Neogene deposits of the Perth Basin. Coastal dunes feature scrub-heath communities, though banksia low woodlands occur on the soils of coastal dunes. Progressing inland give way to eucalypt woodlands. Seasonal wetlands are the most diverse habitat in the Swan Coastal Plain, which Mandurah has several wetland regions around the Peel Inlet; the wetlands feature several osprey nests and darters. Other fauna includes galah, short-billed black cockatoo, long-billed black cockatoo, Australian ringneck among others. Australian ringnecks face competition for nesting space from rainbow lorikeet, an introduced species in Western Australia, that has now spread to Mandurah. Despite attempts to eradicate rainbow lorikeets, the population has grown to the point that they can no longer be eradicated.
Mandurah is considered a marginal area for both major parties at both state and federal politics. Northern Mandurah lies in the safe Labor seat of Brand, held by Gary Gray, while southern and central Mandurah lies in the more marginal Canning, held by the Liberal Party's Andrew Hastie. State politics highlight a significant divide, with northern and central Mandurah located in the safe Labor seat of Mandurah held by David Templeman, while southern Mandurah located in the safe Liberal seat of Dawesville, held by Zak Kirkup. Despite technically being in a regional area, the National Party vote is negligible. Sharing a similar climate to Perth, Mandurah has a typical Mediterranean climate with hot dry summers and mild wet winters. During summer, the average maximum temperature is 27 °C with an average minimum temperature of 19 °C. At its extreme it can get hot having a couple of days exceed 40 °C in the latter half of summer. In winter, the average maximum temperature is 18 °C with an average minimum temperature of 9 °C.
Mandurah's proximity to the ocean moderates diurnal temperatures somewhat, with temperatures a few kilometres inland 4 or 5 degrees warmer during summer days. Frosts are rare as a result, but do occur annually around suburbs such as Greenfields; the current weather station opened in 2001 and is situated right on
Orange, New South Wales
Orange is a city in the Central West region of New South Wales, Australia. It is 254 kilometres west of Sydney, at an altitude of 862 metres. Orange had an estimated urban population of 39,755 as of June 2016 making the city a significant regional centre. A significant nearby landmark is Mount Canobolas with a peak elevation of 1,395 metres AHD and commanding views of the district. Orange is the birthplace of poets Banjo Paterson and Kenneth Slessor, although Paterson lived in Orange for only a short time as an infant. Walter W. Stone, book publisher and passionate supporter of Australian literature, was born in Orange; the first Australian Touring Car Championship, known today as V8 Supercar Championship Series, was held at the Gnoo Blas Motor Racing Circuit in 1960. In 1822 Captain Percy Simpson marched into the Wellington District and established a convict settlement, called "Blackman's Swamp" after James Blackman. In the late 1820s, the surveyor J. B. Richards worked on a survey of the Macquarie River below Bathurst and of the road to Wellington.
On a plan dated 1829, he indicated a village reserve, in the parish of Orange. Sir Thomas Mitchell named the parish Orange, as he had been an associate of the Prince of Orange in the Peninsular War, when both were aides-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington, whose title was bestowed on the valley to the west by Oxley. Initial occupation by British graziers began in late 1829, tiny settlements turned into larger towns as properties came into connection with the road. In 1844, the surveyor Davidson was sent to check on encroachments onto the land reserved for a village, to advise on the location for a township, his choices were Pretty Plains, or Blackman's Swamp. Blackman's Swamp was chosen, it was proclaimed a village and named Orange by Major Thomas Mitchell in 1846 in honor of Prince William of Orange. At nearby Ophir, a significant gold find in Australia was made in 1851, resulting in a sporadic population movement, known as the Australian gold rush. Additional gold finds in nearby areas led to the establishment of Orange as a central trading centre for the gold.
The growth of Orange continued as the conditions were well suited for agriculture, in 1860 it was proclaimed a municipality. The railway from Sydney reached Orange in 1877. In 1946, 100 years after it was first being established as a village, Orange was proclaimed as a minor city. According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 37,182 people in the Orange urban centre. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 6.6% of the population. 83.2% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 1.6%, India 1.0%, New Zealand 0.9%, Philippines 0.5% and China 0.4%. 87.3% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Malayalam 0.7%, Mandarin 0.4%, Italian 0.3% and Nepali 0.3%. The most common responses for religion were Catholic 30.1%, No Religion 22.0% and Anglican 20.2%. Of the employed people in Orange, 6.2% worked in Hospitals. Other major industries of employment included Gold Ore Mining 4.2%, State Government Administration 3.4%, Other Social Assistance Services 3.2% and Supermarket and Grocery Stores 2.5%.
Owing to its altitude, Orange has a temperate oceanic climate, with warm summers and cool winters with frequent morning frosts and light to moderate, sometimes heavy snowfalls. The city is wet for an inland location owing to orographic effects from Mount Canobolas during the cooler months when snow falls. Compared with most population centres in Australia it has colder winters in terms of its daytime maximum temperatures, owing chiefly to its south-westerly exposure. In summer, the average maximum temperatures are lower than in most inland centres, on account of its elevation. Owing to its inland location, the humidity is low in the summer months with the dewpoint around 10 °C. Having 99.8 clear days annually, it is still cloudier than the coastal areas of Sydney and Wollongong, with a marked lack of sunshine in winter compared to summer The climate has enabled the area to be a major apple and pear producer, more a centre for cool-weather wine production. Orange is a well-known fruit growing district, produces apples and many stone fruits such as cherries, peaches and plums.
In recent years, a large number of vineyards have been planted in the area for expanding wine production. The growth of this wine industry, coupled with the further development of Orange as a gourmet food capital, has ensured Orange's status as a prominent tourism destination. Other large industries include: Cadia gold mine is a large open cut gold and copper mine located about 20 kilometres south of Orange; the mine has been developed throughout the 1990s and is a major employer in the region with an expected lifespan of several decades. Cadia is the second largest open-cut mine in Australia, following the Super Pit at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. Large mineral deposits are being uncovered from the more developed Ridgeway underground mine, adjacent to the Cadia Mine. An Electrolux white goods factory, closed in 2017. Ora