B movies (Hollywood Golden Age)
The B movie, whose roots trace to the silent film era, was a significant contributor to Hollywood's Golden Age of the 1930s and 1940s. As the Hollywood studios made the transition to sound film in the late 1920s, many independent exhibitors began adopting a new programming format: the double feature; the popularity of the twin bill required the production of short, inexpensive movies to occupy the bottom half of the program. The double feature was the predominant presentation model at American theaters throughout the Golden Age, B movies constituted the majority of Hollywood production during the period, it is not clear. In 1916, Universal became the first Hollywood studio to establish different feature brands based on production cost: the small Jewel line of "prestige" productions, midrange Bluebird releases, the low-budget Red Feather line of five-reelers—a measure of film length indicating a running time between fifty minutes and an hour; the following year, a grade between Red Feather and Bluebird, was introduced.
During those two years, about half of Universal's output was in the Red Feather and Butterfly categories. According to historian Thomas Schatz, "These low-grade westerns and action pictures...underwent a disciplined production and marketing process," in contrast to the Jewels, which were not as governed by studio policies. While the down-market branding was soon eliminated, Universal continued to focus on low and modestly budgeted productions. In 1919, wealthy Paramount Pictures created its own distinct low-budget brand: the company's Realart films were made attractive to exhibitors with lower rental fees than movies from the studio's primary production line. Indicating the breadth of the budgetary range at a single studio, in 1921, when the average cost of a Hollywood feature was around $60,000, Universal spent $34,000 on The Way Back, a five-reeler, over $1 million on Foolish Wives, a top-of-the-line Super Jewel; the production of inexpensive films like The Way Back allowed the studios to derive maximum value from facilities and contracted staff in between a studio's more important productions, while breaking in new personnel.
By 1927–28, at the end of the silent era, the production cost of an average feature from Hollywood's major film studios had soared, ranging from $190,000 at Fox to $275,000 at MGM. These averages, reflected "specials" and "superspecials" that might cost as much as $1 million and films made for around $50,000; some studios, like large Paramount and growing Warner Bros. depended on block booking and blind bidding practices, under which "independent theater owners were forced to take large numbers of the studio's pictures sight unseen. Those studios could parcel out second-rate product along with A-class features and star vehicles, which made both production and distribution operations more economical." Studios in the minor leagues of the industry, such as Columbia Pictures and Film Booking Offices of America, focused on low-budget productions. Smaller outfits—the sort typical of Hollywood's so-called Poverty Row—made films whose production costs might run as low as $3,000, seeking a profit through whatever bookings they could pick up in the gaps left by the larger concerns.
With the widespread arrival of sound film in American theaters in 1929, many independent exhibitors began dropping the then-dominant presentation model, which involved live acts and a broad variety of shorts before a single featured film. A new programming scheme developed that would soon become standard practice: a newsreel, a short and/or a serial, a cartoon, followed by a double feature; the second feature, which screened before the main event, cost the exhibitor less per minute than the equivalent running time in shorts. The majors' comprehensive booking policy, which would become known as the run-zone-clearance system, inadvertently pushed independent theaters toward adopting the double-feature format; as described by historian Thomas Schatz, the system "sent a picture, after playing in the lucrative first-run arena, through the 16,000'subsequent-run' movie houses. A top feature would play in its second run in smaller downtown theaters and move outward from the urban centers to the suburbs to smaller cities and towns, to rural communities, playing in smaller venues and taking upwards of six months to complete its run."
The "clearance" policy prevented independent exhibitors' timely access to top-quality films as a matter of course. The bottom-billed movie gave the program "balance"—the practice of pairing different sorts of features suggested to potential customers that they could count on something of interest no matter what was on the bill; as the president of one Poverty Row company would put it, "Not everybody likes to eat cake. Some people like bread, a certain number of people like stale bread rather than fresh bread." The low-budget picture of the 1920s transformed into the second feature, the B movie, of the 1930s and 1940s—the most reliable bread of Hollywood's Golden Age. The major companies upon which the Hollywood studio sy
Entertainment Weekly is an American magazine, published by Meredith Corporation, that covers film, music, Broadway theatre and popular culture. Different from celebrity-focused publications like Us Weekly, In Touch Weekly, EW concentrates on entertainment media news and critical reviews. However, unlike Variety and The Hollywood Reporter, which are aimed at industry insiders, EW targets a more general audience; the first issue was published on February 16, 1990. Created by Jeff Jarvis and founded by Michael Klingensmith, who served as publisher until October 1996, the magazine's original television advertising soliciting pre-publication subscribers portrayed it as a consumer guide to popular culture, including movies and book reviews, sometimes with video game and stage reviews, too.. In 1996, the magazine won the coveted National Magazine Award for General Excellence from the American Society of Magazine Editors. EW won the same award again in 2002. In September 2016, in collaboration with People, Entertainment Weekly launched the People/Entertainment Weekly Network.
The network is "a free, ad-supported online-video network carries short- and long-form programming covering celebrities, pop culture and human-interest stories". It was rebranded as PeopleTV in September 2017; the magazine features celebrities on the cover and addresses topics such as television ratings, movie grosses, production costs, concert ticket sales, ad budgets, in-depth articles about scheduling, showrunners, etc. It publishes several "double issues" each year; the magazine numbers its issues sequentially, it counts each double issue as "two" issues so that it can fulfil its marketing claim of 52 issues per year for subscribers. Entertainment Weekly follows a typical magazine format by featuring a letters to the editor and table of contents in the first few pages, while featuring advertisements. While many advertisements are unrelated to the entertainment industry, the majority of ads are related to up-and-coming television, film or music events; these beginning articles open the magazine and as a rule focus on current events in pop culture.
The whole section runs eight to ten pages long, features short news articles, as well as several specific recurring sections: "Sound Bites" opens the magazine. It’s a collage of media personalities. "The Must List" is a two-page spread highlighting ten things. "First Look", subtitled "An early peek at some of Hollywood's coolest projects", is a two-page spread with behind-the-scenes or publicity stills of upcoming movies, television episodes or music events. "The Hit List", written each week by critic Scott Brown, highlights ten major events, with short comedic commentaries by Brown. There will be some continuity to the commentaries; this column was written by Jim Mullen and featured twenty events each week, Dalton Ross wrote an abbreviated version. "The Hollywood Insider" is a one-page section. It gives details, in the separate columns, on the most-current news in television and music. "The Style Report" is a one-page section devoted to celebrity style. Because its focus is on celebrity fashion or lifestyle, it is graphically rich in nature, featuring many photographs or other images.
The page converted to a new format: five pictures of celebrity fashions for the week, graded on the magazine's review "A"-to-"F" scale. A spin-off section, "Style Hunter", which finds reader-requested articles of clothing or accessories that have appeared in pop culture appears frequently. "The Monitor" is a two-page spread devoted to major events in celebrity lives with small paragraphs highlighting events such as weddings, arrests, court appearances, deaths. Deaths of major celebrities are detailed in a one-half- or full-page obituary titled "Legacy"; this feature is nearly identical to sister publication People's "Passages" feature. The "celebrity" column, the final section of "News and Notes", is devoted to a different column each week, written by two of the magazine's more-prominent writers: "The Final Cut" is written by former executive editor and author Mark Harris. Harris' column focuses on analyzing current popular-culture events, is the most serious of the columns. Harris has written among other topics.
"Binge Thinking" was written by screenwriter Diablo Cody. After several profiles of Cody in the months leading up to and following the release of her debut film, she was hired to write a column detailing her unique view of the entertainment business. If You Ask Me..." Libby Gelman-Waxer was brought in to write his former Premiere column for Entertainment Weekly in 2011. There are four to six major articles within the middle pages of the magazine; these articles are most interviews, but there are narrative articles as well as lists. Feature articles tend to focus on movies and television and less on books and the theatre. In the magazine's history, there have only been a few cover stories devoted to authors. There are seven sections of reviews in the back pages of each issue (together enc
Kathleen Mary Griffin is an American comedian and actress. She has released several comedy albums. In 2007 and 2008, Griffin won Primetime Emmy Awards for her reality show Kathy Griffin: My Life on the D-List, she has appeared on TV and on film numerous times in supporting roles. Born in Oak Park, she moved to Los Angeles in 1978, where she studied drama at the Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute and became a member of the improvisational comedy troupe The Groundlings. In the 1990s, Griffin began performing as a stand-up comedian and appeared as a guest star on several television shows, she achieved wider recognition after her role as a supporting character in the NBC sitcom Suddenly Susan. Her Bravo reality show Kathy Griffin: My Life on the D-List became a ratings hit for the network and earned her two Emmy Awards for Outstanding Reality Program. Griffin has released six comedy albums, her first album, For Your Consideration, made her the first female comedian to debut at the top of the Billboard Top Comedy Albums chart.
In 2009, she released her autobiography, Official Book Club Selection: A Memoir According to Kathy Griffin. Griffin has taped numerous standup comedy specials with Bravo. For the latter network, she has recorded 16 television specials, breaking the Guinness World record for the number of aired TV specials on any network, by any comedian in the history of comedy. In 2011, she became the first comedian to have four televised specials in a year. Aside from her comedy career, she is an LGBT activist involved in causes such as same-sex marriage and the repeal of "Don't ask, don't tell", she has participated in two USO tours. Griffin is known for her conversational style and controversial statements on celebrities and sexuality. After being nominated for six years in a row for the Grammy for Best Comedy Album, she won the award in 2014. Kathleen Mary Griffin was born on November 4, 1960, in the Chicago suburb of Oak Park, Illinois, to Mary Margaret "Maggie" Griffin and John Patrick Griffin, both first-generation Irish-Americans.
Maggie Griffin worked as a cashier for Oak Park Hospital. Griffin has four older siblings: Kenny, Joyce and John. Griffin described herself during her early years as "a kid who needed to talk, all the time", her brother Gary and her sister Joyce both died from cancer. She would visit her neighbors, the Bowens, to tell them stories about her family. After most of her siblings had moved, Griffin spent hours alone in the house and developed a binge eating disorder, she explained that though eating disorders were not well known at that time, she knew her eating behavior was aberrant and always threw the garbage away in the neighbor's can. In her 2009 autobiography Official Book Club Selection, Griffin confessed that she "still suffers " but has learned to "deal with them". In the same book, Griffin discussed her eldest brother, a drug addict and homeless at various times, revealed that she was "afraid of him until the moment he died" due to his violent, abusive nature. Griffin states that Kenny would climb into bed with her when he was 30 and she was 7 and "whisper" into her ears.
As a young girl, Griffin attended St. Bernadine's Elementary School and began to develop a dislike for organized religion because of the punishments she and other "vulnerable" students received from the nuns. After graduation, she attended Oak Park and River Forest High School and sought refuge in musical theatre, playing roles such as Rosemary in How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying and Hodel in Fiddler on the Roof. During her senior year she began arguing with her parents, who wanted her to attend college, because she wanted to become a professional actress, her first appearance on television was as an extra on a Chicago White Sox commercial, she was signed with several Chicago talent agencies. At 18, Griffin persuaded her parents to move to Los Angeles to help her become famous. At 19, Griffin attended a show of the California-based improvisational group The Groundlings, she said, "I thought. This is the greatest thing in the world." Griffin began performing in the early 1980s in the Los Angeles improvisational comedy troupe The Groundlings.
In an E! True Hollywood Story segment, she stated that she went to see the Groundlings perform before she joined, she said that, at one show, she went backstage and talked with Groundling member Phil Hartman and asked him what the group was all about. This led to her taking classes there and being asked into the Groundling's main company. While Kathy was a Groundling, she became best friends with Judy Toll, she went on to perform standup comedy and became part of the alternative comedy scene in Los Angeles. She ran her own standup night, Hot Cup of Talk, with Janeane Garofalo; that became the title of her 1998 solo HBO special. Griffin made an appearance in Quentin Tarantino's 1994 film Pulp Fiction as a pedestrian coming to the aid of Marcellus Wallace after he is hit by a car driven by Butch Coolidge. In the credits she was listed as herself, she broke into film in the supporting role of Connie in the horror film The Unborn. Griffin amassed a number of TV and film credits throughout the 19
Celebrity is the fame and public attention accorded by the mass media to individuals or groups or animals, but is applied to the persons or groups of people themselves who receive such a status of fame and attention. Celebrity status is associated with wealth, while fame provides opportunities to earn revenue. Successful careers in sports and entertainment are associated with celebrity status, while political leaders become celebrities. People may become celebrities due to media attention on their lifestyle, wealth, or controversial actions, or for their connection to a famous person. Athletes in Ancient Greece were welcomed home as heroes, had songs and poems written in their honor, received free food and gifts from those seeking celebrity endorsement. Ancient Rome lauded actors and notorious gladiators, Julius Caesar appeared on a coin in his own lifetime. In the early 12th century, Thomas Becket became famous following his murder, he was promoted by the Christian Church as a martyr and images of him and scenes from his life became widespread in just a few years.
In a pattern repeated, what started out as an explosion of popularity turned into long-lasting fame: pilgrimages to Canterbury Cathedral where he was killed became fashionable and the fascination with his life and death have inspired plays and films. The cult of personality can be traced back to the Romantics in the 18th century, whose livelihood as artists and poets depended on the currency of their reputation; the establishment of cultural hot-spots became an important factor in the process of generating fame: for example and Paris in the 18th and 19th centuries. Newspapers started including gossip columns and certain clubs and events became places to be seen in order to receive publicity; the movie industry spread around the globe in the first half of the 20th century and with it the now familiar concept of the recognizable faces of its superstars. Yet, celebrity was not always tied to actors in films when cinema was starting out as a medium; as Paul McDonald states in The Star System: Hollywood's Production of Popular Identities, "in the first decade of the twentieth century, American film production companies withheld the names of film performers, despite requests from audiences, fearing that public recognition would drive performers to demand higher salaries."
Public fascination went well beyond the on-screen exploits of movie stars and their private lives became headline news: for example, in Hollywood the marriages of Elizabeth Taylor and in Bollywood the affairs of Raj Kapoor in the 1950s. The second half of the century saw television and popular music bring new forms of celebrity, such as the rock star and the pop group, epitomised by Elvis Presley and the Beatles, respectively. John Lennon's controversial 1966 quote: "We're more popular than Jesus now," which he insisted was not a boast, that he was not in any way comparing himself with Christ, gives an insight into both the adulation and notoriety that fame can bring. Unlike movies, television created celebrities who were not actors. However, most of these are only famous within the regions reached by their particular broadcaster, only a few such as Oprah Winfrey, Jerry Springer, or David Frost could be said to have broken through into wider stardom. In the'60s and early'70s, the book publishing industry began to persuade major celebrities to put their names on autobiographies and other titles in a genre called celebrity publishing.
In most cases, the book was not written by the celebrity but by a ghost-writer, but the celebrity would be available for a book tour and appearances on talk shows. Cultures and regions with a significant population may have their own independent celebrity systems, with distinct hierarchies. For example, the Canadian province of Quebec, French-speaking, has its own system of French-speaking television and music celebrities. A person who garners a degree of fame in one culture may be considered less famous or obscure in another; some nationwide celebrities might command some attention outside their own nation. S. whereas the francophone Canadian singer Celine Dion is well known in both the French-speaking world and in the United States. Regions within a country, or cultural communities can have their own celebrity systems in linguistically or culturally distinct regions such as Quebec or Wales. Regional radio personalities, politicians or community leaders may be local or regional celebrities. In politics, certain politicians are recognizable to many people the head of state and the Prime Minister.
Yet only heads of state who play a major role in international politics have a good chance of becoming famous outside their country's borders, since they are featured in mass media. The President of the United States, for instance, is famous by name and face to millions of people around the world. Since World War II the U. S. Presidential elections are followed all across the globe, making the elected candidate world-famous as a result. In contrast, both the Pope and The Dalai Lama are far more famous under their official title than under their actual names; when politicians leave active politics their recognizability tends to diminish among general audiences, as
A character actor or character actress is a supporting actor who plays unusual, interesting, or eccentric characters. The term contrasted with that of leading actor, is somewhat abstract and open to interpretation. In a literal sense, all actors can be considered character actors since they all play "characters", but in the usual sense it is an actor who plays a distinctive and important supporting role. A character actor may play characters who are different from the actor's off-screen real-life personality, while in another sense a character actor may be one who specializes in minor roles. In either case, character actor roles are more substantial than non-speaking extras; the term is used to describe television and film actors. An early use of the term was in the 1883 edition of The Stage, which defined a character actor as "one who portrays individualities and eccentricities". Actors with a long career history of playing character roles may be difficult for audiences to recognize as being the same actor.
Unlike leading actors, they are seen as less glamorous. While a leading actor has physical beauty needed to play the love interest, a character actor may be short or tall, heavy or thin, older, or unconventional-looking and distinctive in some physical way. For example, the face of Chicago character actor William Schutz was disfigured in a car accident when he was five years old, but his appearance despite reconstructive surgery helped him to be memorable and distinctive to theater audiences; the names of character actors are not featured prominently in movie and television advertising on the marquee, since a character actor's name is not expected to attract film audiences. The roles that character actors play in film or television are identified by only one name, such as "Officer Fred", while roles of leading actors have a full name, such as "Captain Jack Sparrow"; some character actors have distinctive voices or accents. A character actor with a long career may not have a well-known name, yet may be recognizable.
During the course of an acting career, an actor can sometimes shift between leading roles and secondary roles. Some leading actors, as they get older, find that access to leading roles is limited by their increasing age. In the past, actors of color, who were barred from roles for which they were otherwise suited, found work performing ethnic stereotypes. Sometimes character actors have developed careers based on specific talents needed in genre films, such as dancing, acrobatics, swimming ability, or boxing. Many up-and-coming actors find themselves typecast in character roles due to an early success with a particular part or in a certain genre, such that the actor becomes so identified with a particular type of role that casting directors steer the actor to similar roles; some character actors play the same character over and over, as with Andy Devine's humorous but resourceful sidekick, while other actors, such as Sir Laurence Olivier, have the capacity of submerging themselves in any role they play.
That being said, some character actors can be known as "chameleons", actors who can play roles that vary wildly. One such example of this is Gary Oldman; some character actors develop a cult following with a particular audience, such as with the fans of Star Trek or The Rocky Horror Picture Show. Character actors tend to play the same type of role throughout their careers, including Harvey Keitel as a "tough and determined guy", Dame Maggie Smith as an "upstanding lady matriarch", Christopher Lloyd as an eccentric, Claude Rains as a "sophisticated, sometimes ambiguously moral man", Abe Vigoda as a "leathery, sunken-eyed" and tired hoodlum on the verge of retirement, Christopher Walken as a "speech maker", Vincent Schiavelli as "the confused guy", Fairuza Balk as a "moody goth girl", Steve Buscemi as "a quirky, smart guy with a mind just outside of reality" and Forest Whitaker as a "calm, composed character with an edge and potential to explode". Ed Lauter portrayed a menacing figure because of his "long, angular face", recognized in public, although audiences knew his name.
Character actors can play a variety of types, such as the femme fatale, sidekick, town drunk, whore with a heart of gold, many others. A character actor's roles are perceived as being different from their perceived real-life persona, meaning that they do not portray an extension of themselves, but rather a character different from their off-screen persona. Character actors subsume themselves into the characters they portray, such that their off-screen acting persona is unrecognizable. According to one view, great character actors are out of work, have long careers that span decades, they are often regarded by fellow actors. Commedia dell ` David. Quinlan's Illustrated Directory of Film Character Actors. USA: Batsford Press. ISBN 0713470402. Voisin, Scott. Character Kings: Hollywood's Familiar Faces Discuss the Art & Business of Acting. BearManor Media. ISBN 978-1-59393-342-5
Superstar is someone who has great popular appeal and is known, prominent, or successful in some field. Celebrities referred to as "superstars" may include individuals who work as actors, musicians and other media-based professions; the origin of the term in the context of celebrity is uncertain, but a similar expression is attested in The Cricketers of My Time, a famous cricket book by John Nyren about the Hambledon Club. Writing in 1832, Nyren described the outstanding 18th-century batsman John Small as "a star of the first magnitude"; the earliest use of the term "superstar" has been credited to Frank Patrick in reference to the great hockey players on his Vancouver Millionaires teams of the 1910s-1920s Cyclone Taylor. Within a major published piece in Interview Magazine that appeared in June 1977, when asked by editor Glenn O’Brien, “Who invented the word superstar?” Andy Warhol, the pop artist known for popularizing the term, responded, "I think it was Jack Smith." O’Brien asked, "And who were the first superstars?"
To which Warhol responded, "They were all Jack Smith’s stars. "Super Star" is the name of a hugely successful rose which Harry Wheatcroft introduced and named in 1960, licensed from a German developer.. By 1909, the silent film companies began promoting "picture personalities" by releasing stories about these actors to fan magazines and newspapers, as part of a strategy to build "brand loyalty" for their company's actors and films. By the 1920s, Hollywood film company promoters had developed a "massive industrial enterprise" that "... peddled a new intangible—fame."Hollywood "image makers" and promotional agents planted rumours, selectively released real or fictitious biographical information to the press, used other "gimmicks" to create personas for actors. They "...worked reinforce that persona manage the publicity." Publicists thus "created" the "enduring images" and public perceptions of screen legends such as Rock Hudson, Marilyn Monroe and Grace Kelly. The development of this "star system" made "fame... something that could be fabricated purposely, by the masters of the new'machinery of glory.'"
According to Sofia Johansson the "canonical texts on stardom" include articles by Boorstin and Dyer that examined the "representations of stars and on aspects of the Hollywood star system." Johansson notes that "more recent analyses within media and cultural studies have instead dealt with the idea of a pervasive, contemporary,'celebrity culture'." In the analysis of the'celebrity culture,' "fame and its constituencies are conceived of as a broader social process, connected to widespread economic, political and cultural developments."In 1976 Mattel, Inc. produced a Superstar concept of its Barbie™ Doll. In the 1980s and 1990s, entertainment publicity tactics have become "more subtle and sophisticated", such as using press releases, movie "junkets, community activities; these promotional efforts are targeted and designed using market research, "to increase the predictability of success of their media ventures." In some cases, publicity agents may create "provocative advertisements" or make an outrageous public statement to "trigger public controversy and thereby generate "free" news coverage."
According to Roger Caillois, superstars are created by the interplay between "mass media, free enterprise, competition." Superstars are produced by a mixture of effort by chance. The "superstar has extraordinary natural talent augmented by an more extraordinary perseverance and drive." However, "small and relative differences are of decisive importance for winning or losing by a hair's breadth." It is here. Caillois notes that the role of chance in superstardom is paradoxical, given that the west is such a "predominantly meritocratic society," which valorizes the role of work, competition and determination." Only one may be first. Choose to win indirectly, through identification with someone else"- the superstar, whose triumph as the most popular actor or hit recording artist is in part due to the actions of "... those who worship the hero". The public believes that "the manicurist elected Beauty Queen, by the sales girl entrusted with the heroine's role in a super production, by the shopkeeper's daughter winning the Tour de France, by the gas station attendant who basks in the limelight as a champion toreador" represents the chance or possibility, from the public's perspective, that they may become wealthy and successful.
For example, Levine points out that "Lars Ulrich, the drummer for Metallica, was a service station attendant before becoming a rich rock star. Caillois calls superstars' huge incomes and rewards "disguised lotteries", a "special kind of game of chance." For example, the grand prizes for literary competitions "bring fortune and glory to a writer, for several years." Caillois notes that a "superstar" cannot be successful at some activity. He says that the "material reward of the superstar is a necessary ingredient for the identification of the public with the sta
Hollywood Squares is an American game show in which two contestants play tic-tac-toe to win cash and prizes. The show piloted on NBC in 1965, the regular series debuted in 1966 on the same network; the board for the game is a 3 × 3 vertical stack of open-faced cubes, each occupied by a celebrity seated at a desk and facing the contestants. The stars are asked questions by the host, the contestants judge the truth of their answers to gain squares in the right pattern to win the game. Although Hollywood Squares was a legitimate game show, the game acted as the background for the show's comedy in the form of joke answers given by the stars prior to their real answer; the show's writers supplied the jokes. In addition, the stars were given bluff answers prior to the show; the show was scripted in this sense. In any case, as original host Peter Marshall would explain at the beginning of the Secret Square game, the celebrities were briefed prior to the show to help them with bluff answers, but they otherwise heard the actual questions for the first time as they were asked on air.
In 2013, TV Guide ranked it at No. 7 in its list of the 60 greatest game shows ever. Internationally, there have been multiple versions produced under a variety of names. Although there have been variations over the years in the rules of and the prizes in the game, certain aspects of the game have remained consistent. Two contestants competed in every match, one playing X and the other O. With rare exceptions, the matches were male vs. female with the male playing the X position and referred to informally as Mr. X, with the female playing the O position and referred to informally as Ms. Circle. One of the contestants was a returning champion. Taking turns, each contestant selected a square; the star was asked a question and gave an answer, preceded by a zinger. The contestants had the choice of agreeing with the star's answer or disagreeing if they thought the star was bluffing. On rare occasions, a star would not know the correct answer to a question, but would be unable to come up with a plausible bluff.
In such instances, the contestant would be offered the chance to answer the question and would earn or lose the square based on how they answered. The contestants declined, in which case they incurred no penalty and the same star was asked another question; the objective was to complete a line across, vertically, or diagonally or to score as many squares as possible, as contestants could win by capturing five squares. Agreeing or disagreeing with a star's answer captured the square. If the contestant failed to agree or disagree the square went to his/her opponent. An exception was made if the square would result in the opponent winning by default, not allowed. Bert Parks hosted the 1965 pilot of Hollywood Squares. NBC acquired the rights to the show, which debuted on October 17, 1966 with Peter Marshall as host, a job he held for 15 years. Marshall agreed to host. Hollywood Squares was the final addition to a short-lived game show powerhouse block on NBC, which for the next two years included Concentration, Jeopardy!, You Don't Say!, Let's Make a Deal, Match Game and others.
During most of its daytime run, NBC broadcast The Hollywood Squares at 11:30 a.m. Eastern/10:30 a.m. Central; the daytime show aired its 3536th and last episode on June 20, 1980. The show ran at night, first on NBC from January 12 to September 13, 1968 as a mid-season replacement for the short-lived sitcom Accidental Family. A nighttime syndicated program ran from November 1, 1971 until May 22, 1981. Airing once weekly, the syndicated Squares added a second airing in 1972 and began airing daily or nightly in September 1980, the show's final season; the daytime series was played as a best two-out-of-three match between a returning champion and an opponent, with each individual game worth $200/$400 per match. A five-match champion retired with an additional $2,500, the Secret Square prize package and a new car. By 1976, the prize for a five-day champion included additional cash, two new cars and a luxury vacation, with a total value of somewhere between $20,000 and $25,000. In September 1976, an endgame was added after each match with the champion selecting a star, each of whom held an envelope with a prize.
The nighttime versions featured the same two contestants playing for the entire half-hour with each completed game worth $300 or $250. On the syndicated version, if time ran out with a game still in progress, each X or O on the board at that point was worth an additional $50 to the contestants, with each contestant guaranteed at least $100 in total winnings; the contestant with the most money at the end of the show won a bonus prize, which for the first seven years of the syndicated series was a car. From 1978–80, the endgame described above was utilized with each prize worth at least $5,000 including a new car. If the ma