The shōrō, shurō or kanetsuki-dō is the bell tower of a Buddhist temple in Japan, housing the temple's bonshō. It can be found at some Shinto shrines which used to be shrines, as for example Nikkō Tōshō-gū. Two main types exist, the older hakamagoshi, which has walls, the more recent fukihanachi or fukinuki, which does not. During the Nara period after the arrival of Buddhism in Japan bell towers were 3 x 2 bay, 2 storied buildings. A typical temple garan had two, one to the left and one to the right of the kyōzō, the sūtra repository. An extant example of this style is Hōryū-ji's Sai-in Shōrō in Nara. During the following Heian period was developed a new style called hakamagoshi which consisted of a 2 storied, hourglass-shaped building with the bell hanging from the second story; the earliest extant example is Hōryū-ji's Tō-in Shōrō. During the 13th century the fukihanachi type was created at Tōdai-ji by making all structural parts visible; the bell tower in this case consists of a 1-ken wide, 1-ken high structure with no walls and having the bell at its center.
Sometimes the four pillars have an inward inclination called uchikorobi. After the Nara period, in which temple layout was rigidly prescribed after the Chinese fashion, the position of the bell tower stopped being prescribed and began to change temple by temple. Roofs are either gabled or hip-and-gable
Shinto architecture is the architecture of Japanese Shinto shrines. With a few exceptions, the general blueprint of a Shinto shrine is Buddhist in origin. Before Buddhism, shrines were just temporary. Buddhism brought to Japan the idea of permanent shrines and much of Shinto architecture's vocabulary; the presence of verandas, stone lanterns, elaborate gates are examples of this influence. The composition of a Shinto shrine is variable, none of its possible features are present; the honden or sanctuary, the part which houses the kami and, the centerpiece of a shrine, can be missing. However, since its grounds are sacred, they are surrounded by a fence made of stone or wood called tamagaki, while access is made possible by an approach called sandō; the entrances themselves are straddled by gates called torii, which are therefore the simplest way to identify a Shinto shrine. A shrine may include within its grounds each destined to a different purpose. Among them are the honden or sanctuary, where the kami are enshrined, the heiden, or hall of offerings, where offers and prayers are presented, the haiden or hall of worship, where there may be seats for worshipers.
The honden is the building that contains the shintai "the sacred body of the kami". Of these, only the haiden is open to the laity; the honden is located behind the haiden and is much smaller and unadorned. Other notable shrine features are the temizuya, the fountain where visitors cleanse their hands and mouth and the shamusho, the office that supervises the shrine. Shrines can be large, as for example Ise Shrine, or as small as a beehive, as in the case of the hokora, small shrines found on road sides. Before the forced separation of Shinto and Buddhism, it was not uncommon for a Buddhist temple to be built inside or next to a shrine or to the contrary for a shrine to include Buddhist subtemples. If a shrine was a Buddhist temple, it was called a jingu-ji. At the same time, temples in the entire country adopted tutelary kami (chinju and built temple shrines called chinjusha to house them. After the forcible separation of Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines ordered by the new government in the Meiji period, the connection between the two religions was severed, but continued nonetheless in practice.
The practice of marking sacred areas began in Japan as early as the Yayoi period originating from primal Shinto tenets. Features in the landscape such as rocks, waterfalls and mountains, were places believed to be capable of attracting kami, subsequently were worshiped as yorishiro. Sacred places may have been marked with a surrounding fence and an entrance gate or torii. Temporary buildings similar to present day portable shrines were constructed to welcome the gods to the sacred place. Over time the temporary structures evolved into permanent structures that were dedicated to the gods. Ancient shrines were constructed according to the style of storehouses; the buildings had gabled roofs, raised floors, plank walls, were thatched with reed or covered with hinoki cypress bark. Such early shrines did not include a space for worship. Three important forms of ancient shrine architectural styles exist: taisha-zukuri, shinmei-zukuri and sumiyoshi-zukuri They are exemplified by Izumo Taisha, Nishina Shinmei Shrine and Sumiyoshi Taisha and date to before 552.
According to the tradition of Shikinen sengū-sai, the buildings or shrines were faithfully rebuilt at regular intervals adhering to the original design. In this manner, ancient styles have been replicated through the centuries to the present day; the following is a diagram illustrating the most important elements of a Shinto shrine. Torii – Shinto gate Stone stairs Sandō – the approach to the shrine Chōzuya or temizuya – fountain to cleanse one's hands and face Tōrō – decorative stone lanterns Kagura-den – building dedicated to Noh or the sacred kagura dance Shamusho – the shrine's administrative office Ema – wooden plaques bearing prayers or wishes Sessha/massha – small auxiliary shrines Komainu – the so-called "lion dogs", guardians of the shrine Haiden – oratory Tamagaki – fence surrounding the honden Honden – main hall, enshrining the kami. On the roof of the haiden and honden are visible chigi and katsuogi, both common shrine ornamentations; the torii is a gate which marks the entrance to a sacred area but not a shrine.
A shrine may have any number of torii made of wood, metal, concrete or any other material. They can be found in different places within a shrine's precincts to signify an increased level of holiness. Torii can be found at Buddhist temples, however they are an accepted symbol of Shinto, as such are used to mark shrines on maps; the origin of the torii is unclear, no existing theory has been accepted as valid. They may for example have originated in India as a derivative of the torana gates in the monastery of Sanchi, located in central India; the sandō is the road approaching either a Buddhist temple. Its point of origin is straddled in the first case by a Shinto torii, in the second by a Buddhist sanmon, gates which mark the beginning of the shrine's or temple territory. There can be stone lanterns and other decorations at any point along its course. There can be more than one sandō, in which case the main one is called omote-sandō, or front sandō, ura-sandō, or rear sandō, etc. B
Komainu called lion-dogs in English, are statue pairs of lion-like creatures either guarding the entrance or the honden, or inner shrine of many Japanese Shinto shrines or kept inside the inner shrine itself, where they are not visible to the public. The first type, born during the Edo period, is called sandō komainu, the second and much older type jinnai komainu, they can sometimes be found at Buddhist temples, nobility residences or private homes. Meant to ward off evil spirits, modern komainu statues are identical, but one has the mouth open, the other closed; the two forms are referred to collectively as a-un. This is a common characteristic in religious statue pairs at both temples and shrines; the pattern is Buddhist in origin and has a symbolic meaning: The open mouth is pronouncing the first letter of the Sanskrit alphabet, pronounced "a", while the closed one is uttering the last letter, pronounced "um", to represent the beginning and the end of all things. Together they form the sound Aum, a syllable sacred in several religions like Hinduism and Jainism.
Komainu resemble Chinese guardian lions and in fact originate from Tang dynasty China. The Chinese guardian lions are believed to have been influenced by lion pelts and lion depictions introduced through trade from either the Middle East or India, countries where the lion existed and was a symbol of strength. During its transportation along the Silkroad, the symbol changed, acquiring a distinctive look; the first lion statue in India appears around the 3rd century BC on top of a column erected by King Ashoka. The tradition arrived in China where it developed into the guardian lion, exported to Korea and Okinawa. During the Nara period, as in the rest of Asia, the pair always consisted of two lions. Used only indoors until the 14th century, they were made of wood. During the Heian period, for example, wooden or metal pairs were employed as weights and door-stops, while at the Imperial Palace they were used to support screens or folding screens. During the early Heian period, the tradition changed and the two statues started to be different and be called differently.
One was called shishi because, as before, it resembled that animal. The other had its mouth closed, looked rather like a dog, was called komainu, or "Goguryeo dog", sometimes had a single horn on its head; the animals returned to be identical, but for their mouths, ended up being called both komainu. Ubiquitous as they are now at shrines, Komainu have been used outdoors only since the 14th century. In Asia, the lion was popularly believed to have the power to repel evil, for this reason it was habitually used to guard gates and doors. In Japan, too it ended up being installed at the entrance of shrines and temples next to the lion-dog; as a protection against exposure to Japan's rainy weather, the komainu started being carved in stone. The shīsā, the stone animals that in Okinawa guard the gates or the roofs of houses, are close relatives of the shishi and the komainu, objects whose origin and symbolic meaning they share, their name itself is centuries old regional variant of shishi-san. Starting from the Edo period other animals have been used instead of lions or dogs, among others wild boars, tigers and foxes.
The most frequent variant of the komainu theme is the fox, guardian of shrines dedicated to kami Inari. There are about 30 thousand Inari shrines in Japan, the entrance of each is guarded by a pair of fox statues. One, sometimes both, has a sūtra roll, a key or a jewel in its mouth; the statues do not symbolize the animals' proverbial malice, but the magic powers they are believed to possess. Sometimes the guardians are painted, in that case they are always white. White foxes are messengers of the kami, sometimes himself believed to be, portrayed as, a fox. Although visible genitals are rare, the left fox is believed to be the right one female; the foxes wear red votive bibs similar to those worn by statues of other deities, for example Buddhist god Jizō, from which one expects some kind of favor in return. In this case however the bibs seem to be purely a rite. Chinese guardian lions Kitsune Chinthe Xiezhi Nio Media related to Inari fox statues at Wikimedia Commons "JAANUS". On-line Dictionary of Japanese Architectural and Art Historical Terminology.
"Lion-dogs". Kyoto National Museum Dictionary. Retrieved 16 July 2010. Mihashi, Ken. "Komainu". Shogakukan Encyclopedia online. Yahoo. Retrieved 16 July 2010. Kanechiku, Nobuyuki. "Shishi". Shogakukan Encyclopedia online. Retrieved 16 July 2010. Kotera, Yoshiaki. "Komainu". Japanese Religions. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2010. Nakayama, Kaoru. "Komainu". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Kokugakuin University. Retrieved 27 December 2010. Scheid, Bernhard. "Inari Fuchswächter". University of Vienna. Retrieved 30 July 2010. "Shisa Travelogue". Okinawa Prefectural Government. Retrieved 18 July 2010. Smyers, Karen Ann; the Fox and the Jewel: Shared and Private Meanings in Contemporary Japanese Inari Worship. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-2102-5. OCLC 231775156
The honden called shinden or sometimes shōden, as in Ise Shrine's case, is the most sacred building at a Shinto shrine, intended purely for the use of the enshrined kami symbolized by a mirror or sometimes by a statue. The building is in the rear of the shrine and closed to the general public. In front of it stands the haiden, or oratory; the haiden is connected to the honden by a heiden, or hall of offerings. Physically, the honden is the heart of the shrine complex, connected to the rest of the shrine but raised above it, protected from public access by a fence called tamagaki, it is small and with a gabled roof. Its doors are kept closed, except at religious festivals. Shinto priests; the rite of opening those doors is itself an important part of the shrine's life. Inside the honden is kept the go-shintai "the sacred body of the kami"; the go-shintai is not divine, but just a temporary repository of the enshrined kami. Important as it is, the honden may sometimes be absent, as for example when the shrine stands on a sacred mountain to which it is dedicated, or when there are nearby himorogi or other yorishiro that serve as a more direct bond to a kami.
Ōmiwa Shrine in Nara, for example, contains no sacred images or objects because it is believed to serve the mountain on which it stands. For the same reason, it has no honden. Another important shrine without a honden is head of the Suwa shrine network; the honden's structure determines the shrine's architectural style. Many exist, but three are of particular importance because they are the only ones believed to predate the arrival of Buddhism, have therefore a special architectural and historical significance, they are exemplified by the honden at Izumo Taisha, Nishina Shinmei Shrine and Sumiyoshi Taisha. German architect Bruno Taut compared the importance of Ise Shrine's honden to that of Greece's Parthenon. For details, see the article Shinto architecture. Main Hall of a temple for the similar concept in Japanese Buddhism Glossary of Shinto for an explanation of terms concerning Shinto, Shinto art, Shinto shrine architecture Holy of Holies in Judeo-Christian traditions Tamura, Yoshiro. "The Birth of the Japanese nation in".
Japanese Buddhism - A Cultural History. Tokyo: Kosei Publishing Company. P. 232 pages. ISBN 4-333-01684-3. "Honden". JAANUS. Retrieved 2008-12-19. Mori, Mizue. "Honden". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Kokugakuin University. Retrieved 2008-12-19. Smyers, Karen Ann; the Fox and the Jewel: Shared and Private Meanings in Contemporary Japanese Inari Worship. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-2102-5. OCLC 231775156
Katsuogi or Kasoegi are short, decorative logs found on Japanese and Shinto architecture. They are placed at a right angle along the ridge of roofs, are featured in religious or imperial architecture. Katsuogi predate Buddhist is an architectural element endemic to Japan, they are placed on the roof with chigi, a forked ornamentation used on Shinto shrines. Today and chigi are used on Shinto buildings and can be used to distinguish them from other religious structures, such as Buddhist temples in Japan; the original purpose of the katsuogi is uncertain. A theory is that the wooden logs were used to weigh down the thatch roofing seen in early Japanese structures; as construction techniques improved, the need for weights disappeared, the logs remained only for ornamental value. Their existence during the Jōmon period is in any case well documented by numerous artifacts. Like the chigi, the katsuogi was reserved only for the powerful nobility, it was first described in the Kojiki, a 7th-century Japanese text, where it seemed to be something accessible only to the emperor.
In the excerpt, Emperor Yūryaku sees an official's house laden with katsuogi on the roof. Angered by this, he pronounces the official a knave and a scoundrel for building a house in imitation of the imperial palace. In history, emperors granted families such as the Nakatomi clan and the Mononobe clan permission to use katsuogi on their houses; as these clans were fervent supporters and administrators of Shinto, the katsuogi would come to decorate Shinto shrines. By the 6th century, katsuogi were beginning to be used on the homes of powerful families, along with chigi. After the Meiji restoration their use in new shrines was limited to the honden; the katsuogi is a short, rounded log. Most are round, although square or diamond shapes have been used; some are carved with tapered ends. More ornate katsuogi will be covered in gold or bronze, decorated with the clan symbol or motif; the number of katsuogi used on any given roof varies, but in general there is always at least one on each end. Earlier buildings tend to employ more katsuogi.
Katsuogi are always used in buildings constructed in the shinmei-zukuri, kasuga-zukuri, sumiyoshi-zukuri, taisha-zukuri styles. They are always paired with the chigi. Chigi Shinto architecture Shinto shrine The Glossary of Shinto for terms concerning Shinto and Shinto architecture
East Asian hip-and-gable roof
In East Asian architecture, the hip-and-gable roof consists of a hip roof that slopes down on all four sides and integrates a gable on two opposing sides. It is constructed with two large sloping roof sections in the front and back while each of the two sides is constructed with a smaller roof section; the style has spread across East Asia. The original style and similar styles are found in the traditional architecture of Japan, Vietnam, Tibet, Sri Lanka and Kalmykia, it influenced the style of the bahay na bato of the Philippines. It is known as xiēshān in Chinese, irimoya in Japanese, paljakjibung in Korean. Irimoya arrived from China to Japan in the 6th century; the style was used in the main and lecture halls of a Buddhist temple compound. It started to be used for the honden at shrines during the Japanese Middle Ages, its gable is right above the moya, or core, while the hip covers the hisashi, a veranda-like aisle surrounding the core on one or more sides. It is still in wide use in Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines in Japan, in palaces and folk dwellings.
In the last case, it is called moya-zukuri. In Sri Lanka, a style known as the Kandyan roof bears many similarities to the original East Asian hip-and-gable roof; the Kandyan roof is used for religious, royal buildings. Its roots however lie in the traditions of the "Sri Lankan village". Gablet roof
A sandō in Japanese architecture is the road approaching either a Shinto shrine or a Buddhist temple. Its point of origin is straddled in the first case by a Shinto torii, in the second by a Buddhist sanmon, gates which mark the beginning of the shrine's or temple territory; the word dō can refer both to a path or road, to the path of one's life's efforts. There can be stone lanterns and other decorations at any point along its course. A sandō can be called a front sandō, if it is the main entrance, or a rear sandō if it is a secondary point of entrance to the rear; the famous Omotesandō district in Tokyo, for example, takes its name from the nearby main access path to Meiji Shrine where an ura-sandō used to exist. Shendao, a decorated road to a grave of an emperor or another dignitary in China