Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Away colours are a choice of coloured clothing used in team sports. They are required to be worn by one team during a game between teams that would otherwise wear the same colours as each other, or similar colours; this change prevents confusion for officials and spectators. In most sports, it is the visiting or road team that must change – second-choice kits are known as away kits or change kits in British English, road uniforms in American English; some sports leagues mandate that away teams must always wear an alternative kit, while others state that the two teams' colours should not match. In some sports, conventionally the home team has changed its kit. In most cases, a team wears its away kit only when its primary kit would clash with the colours of the home team. However, sometimes teams wear away colours by choice even in a home game. At some clubs, the away kit has become more popular than the home version. Replica home and away kits are available for fans to buy; some teams have produced third-choice kits, or old-fashioned throwback uniforms.
In North American sports, road teams wear a change uniform regardless of a potential colour clash. "Color vs. color" games are a rarity, having been discouraged in the era of black-and-white television. All road uniforms are white in gridiron football and the National Hockey League, while in baseball, visitors wear grey. In the National Basketball Association and NCAA basketball, home uniforms are white or yellow, visiting teams wear the darker colour. Most teams choose to wear their colour jerseys at home, with the road team changing to white in most cases. White road uniforms gained prominence with the rise of television in the 1950s. A "white vs. color" game was easier to follow in black-and-white. According to Phil Hecken, "until the mid 1950′s, not only was color versus color common in the NFL, it was the norm." Long after the advent of colour television, the use of white jerseys has remained in every game. The NFL's current rules require that a team's home jerseys must be "either white or official team color" throughout the season, "and visiting clubs must wear the opposite".
If a team insists on wearing its home uniforms on the road, the NFL Commissioner must judge on whether their uniforms are "of sufficient contrast" with those of their opponents. The road team might instead wear a third jersey, such as the Seattle Seahawks' "Wolf Grey" alternate. According to the Gridiron Uniform Database, the Cleveland Browns wore white for every home game of the 1955 season; the only times they wore brown was for games at Philadelphia and the New York Giants, when the Eagles and Giants chose to wear white. In 1964 the Baltimore Colts, Cleveland Browns, Minnesota Vikings and Los Angeles Rams wore white for their home games according to Tim Brulia's research; the St. Louis Cardinals wore white for several of their home games, as well as the Dallas Cowboys; until 1964 Dallas had worn blue at home, but it was not an official rule that teams should wear their coloured jerseys at home. The use of white jerseys was introduced by general manager Tex Schramm, who wanted fans to see a variety of opponents' jersey colours at home games.
The Cowboys still wear white at home today. White has been worn at home by the Miami Dolphins, Washington Redskins, Philadelphia Eagles, several other NFL teams. Teams in cities with hot climates choose white jerseys at home during the first half of the season, because light colours absorb and retain less heat in sunlight – as such, the Dolphins, who stay white year-round, will use their coloured jerseys for home night games; every current NFL team except the Seattle Seahawks has worn white at home at some time in its history. During the successful Joe Gibbs era, the Washington Redskins chose to wear white at home in the 1980s and 1990s, including the 1982 NFC Championship Game against Dallas. Since 2001 the Redskins have chosen to wear white jerseys and burgundy jerseys equally in their home games, but they still wear white against the Cowboys; when Gibbs returned from 2004 to 2007, they wore white at home exclusively. In 2007, they wore a white throwback jersey; the Dallas Cowboys' blue jersey has been popularly viewed to be "jinxed" because of defeats at Super Bowl V in 1971, in the 1968 divisional playoffs at Cleveland, Don Meredith's final game as a Cowboys player.
Dallas's only victory in a conference championship or Super Bowl wearing the blue jerseys was in the 1978 NFC Championship game at the Los Angeles Rams. Super Bowl rules changed to allow the designated home team to pick their choice of jersey. White was chosen by the Cowboys, the Redskins, the Pittsburgh Steelers, the Denver Broncos, the New England Patriots; the latter three teams wear colours at home, but Pittsburgh had worn white in three road playoff wins, while Denver cited its previous Super Bowl success in white jerseys, while being 0–4 when wearing orange in Super Bowls. Teams playing against Dallas at home wear their white jerseys to try to invoke the "curse", as when the Philadelphia Eagles hosted the Cowboys in the 1980 NFC Championship Game. Teams including the St. Louis Cardinals and New York Giants followed suit in the 1980s, the Carolina Panthers did so from 1995 until 2006, including two playoff games; the Hous
Bellaria – Igea Marina
Bellaria – Igea Marina is a town and comune in the province of Rimini, northern Italy, with 18,300 inhabitants
U.S. Folgore Caratese A.S.D.
U. S. Folgore Caratese A. S. D. is an Italian association football club, based in Carate Brianza which plays in Serie D group A. The club was founded in 2011 after the merger of U. S. Folgore Verano and U. S. Caratese; the most notable former player of Caratese has been Moreno Torricelli. Folgore Caratese is a satellite team of Novara Calcio; the club serves as a training side for Novara's young talents. The team's colors are blue with white border, it plays at the Stadio XXV Aprile in Carate Brianza, which has a capacity of 3,000. Official Website
A.S.D. Città di Foligno 1928
A. S. D. Città di Foligno 1928 S.r.l. is an Italian association football club, based in Umbria. It plays in Serie D; the club was founded in 1928, but Foligno had football teams since the early'900. Meetings were held with the Czechoslovak military stationed in Foligno during the First World War; the best result Foligno obtained in the Prima Divisione championship in 1933–34 was when it ended in second place in the standings and thereby gained access to the finals for the promotion among the runners-up: the outcome of this season was overturned paradoxically by Federation that condemned the company for unlawful sport to relegation. On 6 May 2007, with a day in advance of the end of the season 2006–2007, Foligno won the Serie C2 Group B and was promoted to Serie C1. In the season 2007–2008 played in Serie C1 Group A. Pierpaolo Bisoli was chosen by the company as the technical coach. On 27 April 2008, by beating 0–2 at Penzo stadium Venezia, gained access to the play-off for promotion to Serie B. In the first game, played in Foligno, the home team beat 1–0 Cittadella.
The second leg, played at Cittadella on 25 May 2008, Foligno was beaten 0–2, losing the promotion to Serie B. In the season 2008/2009 Foligno participates in the Lega Pro Prima Divisione championship Group B; the conduction technique was entrusted to Roberto Cevoli, but with only two wins and a number of draws, was fired on 4 November and was replaced with Paolo Indiani. From January, with a few new signings Foligno becomes stronger, the team seems to catch up, because of a further decline in results, after the defeat against Virtus Lanciano, Marcello Pizzimenti became the new coach replacing Indiani; the Foligno still played against Pistoiese. It was beaten in Pistoia in the first leg 2–1, but obtained salvation after winning the second leg 1–0. On 7 July 2009 Luca Fusi was the new coach for season 2009–2010. At the end of 2009 Fusi signed a contract extension until 30 June 2011, but on 26 April 2010 was sucked. On 9 May 2010, the Foligno thus avoided the play-out, it was a important victory and it was followed by a grand celebration in the streets of the city.
On 13 December 2010 coach Salvatore Matrecano was sacked, Federico Giunti appointed as the new coach. At the end of the championship, Foligno was found in the area play-out against Ternana. Foligno won the first leg at home 1–0. At the second leg of the play-out, played in Terni, the home team was preceding in the score with 1–0 in the second half, but in the extra time Foligno scored the winning goal, which result in a draw, ending the match 1–1, thus retaining its spot in the league. On 29 April 2012 Foligno was defeated 1–0 from Carpi; the result confirmed the mathematical relegation to Lega Pro Seconda Divisione as Foligno finished last in the standings. On 10 July 2015 the sports title was transferred from Foligno Calcio S.r.l. to A. S. D. Città di Foligno 1928 S.r.l.. The team's colours are white. Official site
Associazione Calcio Dilettantistica Legnano referred to as Legnano, is an Italian football club based in Legnano, Lombardy. Founded in 1913, Legnano played three seasons in Serie A and a total of eleven seasons in the top tier of the Italian football league system. Legnano's most recent appearance in Serie A dates back to 1954, whereas in 1957 the club took part for the last time – to date – in a Serie B championship. Since the club have played at their highest at the third tier of the Italian league; the team's colours are white. After financial struggles and bankruptcy in 2010 the club folded and reformed in 2011 as ASD Legnano Calcio 1913; the club were founded in 1913 as Football Club Legnano. Several notable players appeared for Legnano in their early years. Goalkeeper Angelo Cameroni was called up to the Italian national side in 1920. Luigi Allemandi played four seasons with the club from 1921 onwards, until he was bought by Italian giants Juventus, he won the World Cup with Italy at the 1934 FIFA World Cup.
Legnano first gained access to Serie A for the 1930–31 season. The first match at the top level of Italian football was the shocking 2–1 defeat of Italy's oldest club, Genoa C. F. C. For Legnano, they finished at the bottom of the table that season and were relegated. S. Roma, a 2–1 defeat of S. S. C. Napoli in Naples. In the 1935–1936 season, the club changed their name to Associazione Calcio Legnano. Left-winger Emilio Caprile was called up by the azzurri, to play in two international games during 1948, he became the first Legnano player to score for Italy with a goal in each match. After their last relegation in from Serie A in 1953–54, the club have declined. First they came close to promotion back into the league with a 3rd position in B, but two years they were relegated down to Serie C. Legnano spent 18 years in a row competing in Serie C, only able to finish as high as 5th in that time. 1974–75 saw the club slump down to Serie D. Giovanni Mari took over as club president in 1979 and under him, Legnano would achieve the championship of Serie C2.
This was the first time A. C. Legnano had finished first position in any league since 1919; the club's stadium was named Stadio Giovanni Mari in honour of the man. Following bankruptcy in 2010, Legnano subsequently folded, it was refounded on July 15, 2011, as A. S. D. Legnano Calcio was admitted to Group N of Prima Categoria Lombardy in the 2011 -- 12 season; the club was promoted to Group A of Promozione Lombardy. The club had a successive second promotion after finishing as champions of Group A of Promozione Lombardy next season and was promoted to Group A of Eccellenza Lombardy. On May 7, 2015, A. S. D. Legnano Calcio 1913 re-acquired the name Associazione Calcio Legnano, they were eliminated in the play-offs. They were qualified for the play-offs again, they defeated Torviscosa with 4–1 aggregate in semifinal and Sankt Georgen with 4–3 aggregate in final and were promoted to Serie D. Over the years Legnano has had chairmen or presidential figures.
Casale Foot Ball Club A. S. D. is an Italian football club, based in Piedmont. The club plays in Serie D; the team's nickname nerostellati refers to the team’s colours of black with a white star on the heart. When the club was founded in 1909 Casale was at the geographical centre of the new footballing movement in Italy. Genoa, Pro Vercelli, Internazionale Torino and Alessandria were all leading clubs in the Italian football league system and Casale soon joined their number. In May 1913 Casale became the first Italian club to defeat an English professional team when they beat Reading F. C. 2–1. Reading won all the other games on this tour, defeating Genoa, Pro Vercelli and the Italian national team. In the following season Casale won their only national title. Italian football was organized on a regional basis and the national championship was divided into three stages. Casale topped the Ligurian-Piedmontese division and proceeded, along with second-placed Genoa, to compete in a division comprising the top northern teams.
Having won that division, Casale defeated central-southern champions Lazio 7–1, 0–2 in the two-leg final. After World War I Casale remained in the top division for a couple of decades, representing what had been the cradle of early Italian football. With the development of professionalism, Casale was progressively relegated to lower divisions, 1934 being their last year in Serie A; the club was refounded twice, in 1993 and 2013, when it was refounded with the present, original name used from 1909 to 1925 and 1929 to 1935. Heated rivalry between the fans Casale and Alessandria. See Category:Casale F. B. C. PlayersFive players who appeared in the scudetto-winning team of 1913–14 played in the Italian national team, all making their international debuts between 1912 and 1914: Luigi Barbesino Giovanni Gallina Angelo Mattea Giuseppe Parodi Amedeo Varese Casale’s biggest star, was the full back Umberto Caligaris whose career with the club ran from 1919 to 1928. During this period he made 37 appearances for the Azzurri.
He represented Italy in the 1924 Olympics and won a bronze medal at the 1928 Summer Olympics before leaving Casale for Juventus. His total of 59 caps stood as a record for many years. Eraldo Monzeglio to represent Italy on numerous occasions, including the 1934 and 1938 World Cups, made his Serie A debut with Casale in 1924–25; the following season, however he moved to Bologna F. C. 1909. Serie A Winners: 1913–14Serie B Winners: 1929–30Serie C Winners: 1937–38Coppa Italia Dilettanti Winners: 1998–99 For 1913: Il Calcio a Casale M.to