Reebok is an English footwear and apparel company, subsidiary of German sportsgiant Adidas since 2005. Reebok produces and distributes fitness and CrossFit sportswear including clothing and footwear, it is the official footwear and apparel sponsor for Ultimate Fighting Championship, CrossFit, Spartan Race. In 1958, Reebok was established as a companion company to J. W. Foster and Sons, founded in 1895 in Bolton, England. From 1958 until 1986, all Reebok apparel featured the U. K. flag. The Union Jack is featured on Reebok's "Classic" line of apparel; the company's global headquarters are located in Boston, Massachusetts, U. S. with regional offices in Amsterdam, Hong Kong, Mexico City. In November 2016, Reebok announced they would be moving their headquarters from the Boston suburb of Canton to the innovation and design building in the seaport district of South Boston; the reasons for the move, according to the company, were to be located in an urban environment, more desirable to millennial workers and to “clarify the roles” of United States offices.
The move was completed in the fall of 2018. In 1895, Joseph William Foster at the age of 14 started work in his bedroom above his father's sweet shop in Bolton and designed some of the earliest spiked running shoes. After his ideas progressed, he founded his business'J. W. Foster' in 1900 he joined with his sons and changed the company name to J. W. Foster and Sons. Foster opened a small factory called Olympic Works, became famous among athletes for his "running pumps". For pioneering the use of spikes, the company's revolutionary running pumps appear in the book, Golden Kicks: The Shoes that changed Sport; the company began distributing shoes across the Union Jack flag. They were made famous by 100m Olympic champion Harold Abrahams in the 1924 Summer Olympics held in Paris. In 1958, in Bolton, two of the founder's grandsons and Jeff Foster, formed a companion company "Reebok," having found the name in a South African dictionary won in a running race by Joe Foster as a boy; the name is Afrikaans for a type of African antelope.
In 1979, at the Chicago International Sneaker Trade show an American businessman, Paul Fireman, took notice of Reebok. Fireman was working for team sports and negotiated a deal to license and distribute the Reebok brand in the United States; the division was called Reebok USA Ltd. That year, Fireman introduced three new shoes to the market at $60. By 1981, Reebok reached more than $1.5 million in sales. In 1982, Reebok debuted the Reebok Freestyle aerobics shoe, the first athletic shoe designed for women. Fitness professional Gin Miller became the face of "Step Reebok," the company's aerobics fitness campaign and program; the following year, Reebok's sales were $13 million. The company began expanding from tennis and aerobics shoes to running and basketball throughout the mid to late 1980s, the largest segments of the athletic footwear industry at the time. Fireman bought the British-based parent company in 1984. In 1985, Reebok had its initial public offering on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol RBK.
In 1986, Reebok switched its logo from the Union Jack flag it had since its founding, to the vector logo with an abstract Union Jack streak across a race track. The switch signaled the transition of the company into a performance brand as it began licensing deals with professional athletes in the NBA and NFL. During the 1980s, Reebok began introducing sports clothing and accessories, along with a new line of children's athletic shoes at the end of 1980. By the end of the year, Reebok's sales were about $1 billion. One of the company's most signature technologies, the Reebok Pump, debuted in 1989 with more than 100 professional athletes wearing the footwear by 1992, including Shaquille O'Neal. Reebok named Carl Yankowski president and chief executive officer of the brand in 1998, replacing former president Robert Meers. Yankowski stepped down one year to accept an executive position at another company. Reebok chairman and CEO Paul Fireman took over as president for the first time in 12 years. Reebok signed Venus Williams after winning singles titles at the 2000 Summer Olympics.
In December 2000, Reebok signed a 10-year licensing agreement with the NFL for the exclusive rights to manufacture and sell NFL licensed merchandise, including uniforms and footwear, for all 32 teams. In 2001, Reebok became the exclusive apparel outfitter for the 29 teams in the NBA, 16 WNBA teams for ten years beginning in the 2004-2005 season; the deal added the Reebok vector logo to the 2004 U. S. Olympic basketball team's uniforms. In 2001, Jay Margolis was named as Reebok's president and COO. After launching retail flagship stores in China, London, Los Angeles, New York and Tokyo, Margolis resigned in October 2004. Fireman took over as president after signing a new long-term employment agreement with the Reebok board of directors. In 2003, Reebok became the official uniform and apparel provider for the Canadian Football League, which took effect in 2004. Reebok acquired official National Hockey League sponsor CCM in 2004; the company began manufacturing ice hockey equipment under the Reebok brands.
Reebok phased out the CCM name on NHL authentic and replica jerseys, using the Reebok logo since 2005. CCM became Reebok-CCM Hockey in 2007. Reebok moved most of its hockey equipment lines to CCM after 2015. In August 2005, Adidas acquired Reebok as a subsidiary, uniting two of the largest sport outfitting companies, but maintaining operations under their separate brand names. Adidas acquired
LEGEA is a sportswear company founded in 1990 by Antonio Acanfora. It is one of the most popular brands among Italian amateur football teams, now expanding to top division professional clubs. LEGEA is technical sponsor of the national team of Montenegro and Gibraltar but is sponsor of top teams such as Palermo, Cosenza calcio, Reggina calcio and Livorno calcio in Italy, Nac Breda and N. E. C. in the Netherlands, TNS and CARMARTHEN TOWN FC in Wales, CD Feirense in Portugal, Lommel United in Belgium, FC CHERNOMORETS and Futbol'nyj Klub L'vivin in Ukrain, C. D. Feirense in Portugal, Spatak subotika in Serbia, NK Celje in Slovenia, LEVADIAKOS and Athlītikī Enōsī Larisas 1964 in Greece, ERMIS ARADIPPOU in Cyprus and many others all around Europe LEGEA was the only Italian brand to sponsor a national team in occasion of the World Cup 2010, the national team of North Korea Legea has a main office in Pompei and many Legea Points throughout Italy, they have distributors in countries throughout Europe, the United States, Australia.
During the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa, Legea sponsored the North Korean soccer team. According to the company, "Many ask us what interest we could have in sponsoring North Korea, whether this could not amount to negative publicity, but we disagree... There is no negative publicity." The following teams wear uniforms manufactured and provided by Legea: Bosnia and Herzegovina Cyprus PBC Lukoil Academic Nuova Napoli Basket Societa Veroli Basket Unione Cestistica Casalpusterlengo Basket Barcellona Orlandina Basket BC Mazembe BC Lugano Tigers RK Metković RK Lovćen Asia Palestine Americas Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesEurope Gibraltar Montenegro Welsh Premier League Schleswig-Holstein-Liga And the worlddons US Montauban Stabia Wasps Polisportiva Partenope Rugby Sora Volley Corigliano San Giustino Volley Pallavolo Matera Bulls ASV Dachau VKS Joker Piła OK Maribor Bassano Hockey 54 Italy Hungeria Grace MSU Sportitalia Football Hub Excludes articles found in Category:Sporting goods manufacturers of Italy.
Sergio Tacchini Legea Italian Alternative Site Legea UK Legea USA Sports Portal – Legea Australia Legea Bulgaria
Lotto Sport Italia
Lotto Sport Italia is an Italian sportswear manufacturer, which produces sporting and casual clothing and footwear. Lotto was established in 1939 by the Caberlotto family in Montebelluna, northern Italy, the world centre of footwear manufacturing. In June 1973, Lotto made its debut as a sports footwear manufacturer. Tennis shoes signaled the beginning of production, followed by models for basketball, volleyball and football. Sports clothing was the company's next venture. In the first ten years, Lotto focused on the Italian market. During its first decade, corporate strategy concentrated on making tennis footwear and clothing, early on sponsored big names from the professional tennis circuit. In the 1980s, Lotto moved on to broaden its business base by competing among the then-small group of manufacturers of football boots and clothing. Lotto began to create its first football boot models and signed major collaboration agreements with internationally renowned players and teams. Tennis players John Newcombe, José Luis Clerc wore the brand's tennis products.
The first sponsorship agreements in football were signed with players and teams, such as Milan, the Dutch national team, Juventus and Spanish club Real Zaragoza. Professional footballers provided input in both the fine-tuning of the products; this involvement together with the athletes' public images helped make the company a leader in tennis and football. During this same period, Lotto expanded into the export market, its international business grew rapidly. Ten years the brand was being distributed in more than 60 countries around the world. In June 1999, the company was taken over by VINAY BMS, a group of local business people who were very active in the sports area; the company was renamed Lotto Sport Italia. Today, Lotto distributes its products in more than 70 countries through independent sports stores, specialty chain stores and large stores with sports departments; the company is pushing the development of corner and flagship stores, which are now widespread in Italy and in other countries.
Lotto today distributes its products in over 110 different countries, through independent sports article stores, specialized chain-stores and large stores with specialized sports departments. Special emphasis is placed on monobrand stores as well as shop-in-shops. Excludes articles found in Category:Sporting goods manufacturers of Italy. Sergio Tacchini Lotto Sport Italia
Lombardy is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of 23,844 square kilometres. About 10 million people, forming one-sixth of Italy's population, live in Lombardy and about a fifth of Italy's GDP is produced in the region, making it the most populous and richest region in the country and one of the richest regions in Europe. Milan, Lombardy's capital, is the largest metropolitan area in Italy; the word Lombardy comes from Lombard, which in turn is derived from Late Latin Longobardus, derived from the Proto-Germanic elements *langaz + *bardaz. Some sources derive the second element instead from Proto-Germanic *bardǭ, *barduz, related to German Barte. During the early Middle Ages "Lombardy" referred to the Kingdom of the Lombards, a kingdom ruled by the Germanic Lombards who had controlled most of Italy since their invasion of Byzantine Italy in 568; as such "Lombardy" and "Italy" were interchangeable. The Kingdom was divided between Longobardia Major in the north and Langobardia Minor in the south, which were until the 8th century separated by the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna and the Papacy.
During the late Middle Ages, after the fall of the northern part of the Kingdom to Charlemagne, the term shifted to mean Northern Italy.. The term was used until around 965 in the form Λογγοβαρδία as the name for the territory covering modern Apulia which the Byzantines had recovered from the Lombard rump Duchy of Benevento. With a surface of 23,861 km2, Lombardy is the fourth-largest region of Italy, it is bordered by Switzerland and by the Italian regions of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont. Three distinct natural zones can be easily distinguished in Lombardy: mountains and plains—the latter being divided in Alta and Bassa; the orography of Lombardy is characterised by the presence of three distinct belts: a northern mountainous belt constituted by the Alpine relief, a central piedmont area of pebbly soils of alluvial origin, the Lombard section of the Padan plain in the southernmost part of the region. The most important mountainous area is an Alpine zone including the Lepontine and Rhaetian Alps, the Bergamo Alps, the Ortler Alps and the Adamello massif.
The plains of Lombardy, formed by alluvial deposits, can be divided into the Alta—an upper, permeable ground zone in the north and a lower zone—and the Bassa—dotted by the so-called line of fontanili, spring waters rising from impermeable ground. Inconsistent with the three distinctions above made is the small subregion of Oltrepò Pavese, formed by the Apennine foothills beyond the Po River; the mighty Po river marks the southern border of the region for a length of about 210 km. In its progress it receives the waters of the Ticino River, which rises in the Bedretto valley and joins the Po near Pavia; the other streams which contribute to the great river are, the Olona, the Lambro, the Adda, the Oglio and the Mincio. The numerous lakes of Lombardy, all of glacial origin, lie in the northern highlands. From west to east these are Lake Maggiore, Lake Lugano, Lake Como, Lake Iseo, Lake Idro Lake Garda, the largest in Italy. South of the Alps lie the hills characterised by a succession of low heights of morainic origin, formed during the last Ice Age and small fertile plateaux, with typical heaths and conifer woods.
A minor mountainous area, the Oltrepò Pavese, lies south of the Po, in the Apennines range. In the plains, intensively cultivated for centuries, little of the original environment remains; the most commons trees are elm, sycamore, poplar and hornbeam. In the area of the foothills lakes, grow olive trees and larches, as well as varieties of subtropical flora such as magnolias, acacias. Numerous species of endemic flora in the Prealpine area include some kinds of saxifrage, the Lombard garlic, groundsels bellflowers and the cottony bellflowers; the highlands are characterised by the typical vegetation of the whole range of the Italian Alps. At a lower levels oak woods or broadleafed trees grow. Shrubs such as rhododendron, dwarf pine and juniper are native to the summital zone. Lombardy counts many protected areas: the most important are the Stelvio National Park, with alpine wildlife: red deer, roe deer, chamois, foxes and golden eagles. L
Adidas AG is a multinational corporation and headquartered in Herzogenaurach, that designs and manufactures shoes and accessories. It is the largest sportswear manufacturer in Europe, the second largest in the world, after Nike, it is the holding company for the Adidas Group, which consists of the Reebok sportswear company, TaylorMade golf company, Runtastic, an Austrian fitness technology company and 8.33% of German football club Bayern Munich. Adidas' revenue for 2016 was listed at €19.29 billion. The company was started by Adolf Dassler in his mother's house. Dassler assisted in the development of spiked running shoes for multiple athletic events. To enhance the quality of spiked athletic footwear, he transitioned from a previous model of heavy metal spikes to utilising canvas and rubber. Dassler persuaded U. S. sprinter Jesse Owens to use his handmade spikes at the 1936 Summer Olympics. In 1949, following a breakdown in the relationship between the brothers, Adolf created Adidas, Rudolf established Puma, which became Adidas' business rival.
Adidas' logo is three stripes, used on the company's clothing and shoe designs as a marketing aid. The branding, which Adidas bought in 1952 from Finnish sports company Karhu Sports, became so successful that Dassler described Adidas as "The three stripes company"; the brand name is uncapitalized and is stylized with a lower case "a". Adidas was founded by Adolf "Adi" Dassler who made sports shoes in his mother's scullery or laundry room in Herzogenaurach, Germany after his return from World War I. In July 1924, his older brother Rudolf joined the business, which became Dassler Brothers Shoe Factory; the electricity supply in Herzogenaurach was unreliable, so the brothers sometimes had to use pedal power from a stationary bicycle to run their equipment. Dassler assisted in the development of spiked running shoes for multiple athletic events. To enhance the quality of spiked athletic footwear, he transitioned from a previous model of heavy metal spikes to utilising canvas and rubber. In 1936, Dassler persuaded U.
S. sprinter Jesse Owens to use his hand made spikes at the 1936 Summer Olympics. Following Owens' four gold medals, the name and reputation of Dassler shoes became known to the world's sportsmen and their trainers. Business was successful and the Dasslers were selling 200,000 pairs of shoes every year before World War II; the Dolbury factory, used for production of anti-tank weapons during the Second World War, was nearly destroyed in 1945 by US forces, but was spared when Dassler's wife, convinced the GIs that the company and its employees were only interested in manufacturing sports shoes. American occupying forces subsequently became major buyers of the Dassler brothers' shoes; the brothers split up in 1947 after relations between them had broken down, with Rudolf forming a new firm that he called Ruda – from Rudolf Dassler rebranded Puma, Dassler forming a company formally registered as Adidas AG from Adi Dassler on 18 August 1949. Although it is a popular urban myth that the name is an acronym for All Day I Dream About Sports, that phrase is a "backronym".
Puma SE and Adidas entered into a bitter business rivalry after the split. Indeed, the town of Herzogenaurach was divided on the issue, leading to the nickname "the town of bent necks"—people looked down to see which shoes strangers wore; the town's two football clubs were divided: ASV Herzogenaurach club was supported by Adidas, while 1 FC Herzogenaurach endorsed Rudolf's footwear. When handymen were called to Rudolf's home, they would deliberately wear Adidas shoes. Rudolf would tell them to pick out a pair of free Pumas; the two brothers were never reconciled and although both are now buried in the same cemetery, they are spaced as far apart as possible. In 1948, the first football match after World War II, several members of the West German national football team wore Puma boots, including the scorer of West Germany's first post-war goal, Herbert Burdenski. Four years at the 1952 Summer Olympics, 1500 metres runner Josy Barthel of Luxembourg won Puma's first Olympic gold in Helsinki, Finland.
At the 1960 Summer Olympics, Puma paid German sprinter Armin Hary to wear Pumas in the 100 meter sprint final. Hary had worn Adidas before and asked Adolf for payment; the German won gold in Pumas, but laced up Adidas for the medals ceremony, to the shock of the two Dassler brothers. Hary hoped to cash in from both. In 1952, following the 1952 Summer Olympics, Adidas acquired its signature 3-stripe logo from the Finnish athletic footwear brand Karhu Sports, for two bottles of whiskey and the equivalent of 1600 euros. After a period of trouble following the death of Adolf Dassler's son Horst Dassler in 1987, the company was bought in 1989 by French industrialist Bernard Tapie, for ₣1.6 billion, which Tapie borrowed. Tapie was at the time a famous specialist of rescuing bankrupt companies, an expertise on which he built his fortune. Tapie decided to move production offshore to Asia, he hired Madonna for promotion. He sent, from Christchurch, New Zealand, a shoe sales representative to Germany and met Adolf Dassler's descendants and was sent back with a few items to promote the company there.
In 1992, unable to pay the loan interest, Tapie mandated the Crédit Lyonnais bank to sell Adidas, the bank subsequently
Goalkeeper (association football)
The goalkeeper shortened to keeper or goalie, is one of the major positions of association football. It is the most specialised position in the sport; the goalkeeper's primary role is to prevent the opposing team from scoring. This is accomplished by the goalkeeper moving into the path of the ball and either catching it or directing it away from the vicinity of the goal line. Within the penalty area goalkeepers are able to use their hands, making them the only players on the field permitted to handle the ball; the special status of goalkeepers is indicated by them wearing different coloured kits from their teammates. The back-pass rule prevents goalkeepers handling direct passes back to them from teammates. Goalkeepers perform goal kicks, give commands to their defense during corner kicks and indirect free kicks, marking. Goalkeepers play an important role in directing on field strategy as they have an unrestricted view of the entire pitch, giving them a unique perspective on play development.
The goalkeeper is the only required position of a team. If they are injured or sent off, a substitute goalkeeper has to take their place, otherwise an outfield player must take the ejected keeper's place in goal. In order to replace a goalkeeper, sent off, a team substitutes an outfield player for the backup keeper, they play the remainder of the match with nine outfield players. If a team does not have a substitute goalkeeper, or they have used all of their permitted substitutions for the match, an outfield player has to take the dismissed goalkeeper's place and wear the goalkeeper shirt; the squad number for a first choice goalkeeper is number 1, although they may wear any jersey number between 1 and 99. Association football, like many sports, has experienced many changes in tactics resulting in the generation and elimination of different positions. Goalkeeper is the only position, certain to have existed since the codification of the sport. In the early days of organised football, when systems were limited or non-existent and the main idea was for all players to attack and defend, teams had a designated member to play as the goalkeeper.
The earliest account of football teams with player positions comes from Richard Mulcaster in 1581 and does not specify goalkeepers. The earliest specific reference to keeping goal comes from Cornish Hurling in 1602. According to Carew: "they pitch two bushes in the ground, some eight or ten foot asunder. One of these is appointed by lots, to the one side, the other to his adverse party. There is assigned for their guard, a couple of their best stopping Hurlers". Other references to scoring goals begin in English literature in the early 16th century. In a 1613 poem, Michael Drayton refers to "when the Ball to throw, And drive it to the Gole, in squadrons forth they goe", it seems inevitable that wherever a game has evolved goals, some form of goalkeeping must be developed. David Wedderburn refers to what has been translated from Latin as to "keep goal" in 1633, though this does not imply a fixed goalkeeper position; the word "goal-keeper" is used in the novel Tom Brown's School Days. The author is here referring to an early form of rugby football: You will see in the first place, that the sixth-form boy, who has the charge of goal, has spread his force so as to occupy the whole space behind the goal-posts, at distances of about five yards apart.
The word "goal-keeper" appeared in the Sheffield Rules of 1867, but the term did not refer to a designated player, but rather to "that player on the defending side who for the time being is nearest to his own goal". The goal-keeper, thus defined, did not enjoy any special handling privileges; the FA's first Laws of the Game of 1863 did not make any special provision for a goalkeeper, with any player being allowed to catch or knock-on the ball. Handling the ball was forbidden in 1870; the next year, 1871, the laws were amended to introduce the goalkeeper and specify that the keeper was allowed to handle the ball "for the protection of his goal". The restrictions on the ability of the goalkeeper to handle the ball were changed several times in subsequent revisions of the laws: 1871: the keeper may handle the ball only "for the protection of his goal". 1873: the keeper may not "carry" the ball. 1883: the keeper may not carry the ball for more than two steps. 1887: the keeper may not handle the ball in the opposition's half.
1901: the keeper may handle the ball for any purpose. 1912: the keeper may handle the ball only in the penalty area. 1931: the keeper may take up to four steps while carrying the ball. 1992: the keeper may not handle the ball after it has been deliberately kicked to him/her by a team-mate. 1997: the keeper may not handle the ball for more than six seconds. Goalkeepers played between the goalposts and had limited mobility, except when trying to save opposition shots. Throughout the years, the role of the goalkeeper has evolved, due to the changes in systems of play, to become more active; the goalkeeper is the only player in association football allowed to use their han
Football in Italy
Football is the most popular sport in Italy. The Italian national football team is considered to be one of the best national teams in the world, they have won the FIFA World Cup four times, trailing only Brazil, runners-up in two finals and reaching a third place and a fourth place. They have won one European Championship appearing in two finals, finished third at the Confederations Cup, won one Olympic football tournament and two Central European International Cups. Italy's top domestic league, the Serie A, is one of the most popular professional sports leagues in the world and it is depicted as the most tactical national football league. Italy's club sides have won 48 major European trophies, making them the second most successful nation in European football. Serie A hosts three of the world's most famous clubs as Juventus and Inter, all founding members of the G-14, a group which represented the largest and most prestigious European football clubs. Juventus and Inter, along with Roma, Fiorentina and Parma but now Napoli are known as the Seven Sisters of Italian football.
Italian managers are the most successful in European Football in competitions such as the Champions League. More players have won the coveted Ballon d'Or award while playing at a Serie A club than any other league in the world. Other forms of football were played in Italy in ancient times, the earliest of, Harpastum, played during the times of the Roman Empire; this game may have been influential to other forms throughout Europe due to the expansion of the Empire, including Medieval football. From the 16th century onwards, Calcio Fiorentino, another code of football distinct from the modern game, was played in the Piazza Santa Croce in Florence; some famous Florentines were amongst players of the game the Medici family including Piero and Alessandro de' Medici. As well as Popes such as Clement VII, Leo XI and Urban VIII who played the game in the Vatican; the name calcio was adopted for football in Italy. The modern variation of the game was brought to Italy during the 1880s; the title of the first Italian football club is a controversial one, the most cited in popular history is Genoa Cricket and Football Club who were formed as a cricket club to represent England abroad, founded by Englishmen in 1893.
Three years in 1896 a man named James Richardson Spensley arrived in Genoa introducing the football section of the club and becoming its first manager. However, evidence exists to suggest. Edoardo Bosio, a merchant worker in the British textile industry had visited England and experienced the game, he was motivated to help spread football in his homeland. He founded Cricket Club that year while Nobili Torino soon followed; the second club bore the name of noble because it contained the Duke of the Abruzzi and Alfonso Ferrero di Ventimiglia. The two merged in 1891 to form Internazionale Football Club Torino, By 1898 the rival federation FIGC had been formed, with its center in Turin and the first two presidents as Mario Vicary and Luigi D'Ovidio. FIGC created the Italian Football Championship with the four founder clubs being; the first competition of, held at Velodromo Umberto I in Turin on 8 May 1898 and was won by Genoa. While it was common for clubs to compete in both FIGC and FNGI competitions early on, the titles won in the FIGC championship are the only ones recognised by the modern day league.
In the following years, the tournament was structured into regional groups with the winners of each group participating in a playoff with the eventual winners being declared champions. Until to 1904 the tournament was dominated by Genoa. Between 1905 and 1908 a Final Group among regional champions was contested to award the title and the Spensley Cup. Juventus won his first title and Spensley Cup in 1905, but the two following championships were won by Milan. In November 1907, the FIF organised two championships in the same season: Italian Championship, the main tournament where only Italian players were allowed to play; the majority of big clubs withdrew from both the championships in order to protest against the autarchical policy of the FIF. The Federal Championship was won by Juventus against Doria, while The Italian Championship 1908 and Coppa Buni were won by Pro Vercelli, beating Juventus, Doria and US Milanese. However, the Federal Championship won by Juventus was forgotten by FIGC, due to the boycott made by the dissident clubs.
In 1909 season, the two different championships were organised again, with Coppa Obe