The Mitropa Cup called the La Coupe de l'Europe Centrale or Central European Cup, was one of the first international major European football cups for club sides. After World War II in 1951 a replacement tournament named Zentropa Cup was held, but just for one season, the Mitropa Cup name was revived, again in 1958 the name of the tournament changed to Danube Cup but only for one season; the tournament declined and was discontinued after 1992. Mitropa Cup had 51 editions in history, including a different format edition held in 1960 and won by Hungary; the most successful club is Vasas with 6 titles. A first "International" competition for football clubs was founded in 1897 in Vienna; the Challenge Cup was invented by John Gramlick Sr. a co-founder of the Vienna Cricket and Football-Club. In this cup competition all clubs of the Austro-Hungarian Empire that would not meet could take part, though almost only clubs from the Empire's three major cities Vienna and Prague participated; the Challenge Cup was carried out until the year 1911 and is today seen as the predecessor to the Mitropa Cup and the European Cup and Champions League.
The last winner of the cup was Wiener Sport-Club, one of the oldest and most traditional football clubs of Austria where the cup still remains. The idea of a European cup competition was shaped after World War I which brought the defeat and collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire; the centre of this idea were the Central European countries that, at this time, were still leading in continental football. In the early 1920s they introduced professional leagues. Austria started in 1924, followed by Hungary in 1925 and Czechoslovakia in 1926. In order to strengthen the dominance of these countries in European football and to financially support the professional clubs, the introduction of the Mitropa Cup was decided at a meeting in Venice on 17 July, following the initiative of the head of the Austrian Football Association, Hugo Meisl. Moreover, the creation of a European Cup for national teams - that unlike the Challenge Cup and the Mitropa Cup would not be annual - was part of the agreement; the first matches were played on 14 August 1927.
The competition was between the top professional teams of Central Europe. Two teams each from Austria, Hungary and Yugoslavia entered, competing in a knock-out competition; the countries involved could either send their respective league winners and runners-up, or league winners and cup winners to take part. The first winners were AC Sparta Prague. In 1929 Italian teams replaced the Yugoslavian ones; the competition was expanded to four teams from each of the competing countries in 1934. Other countries were invited to participate - Switzerland in 1936, Romania and Yugoslavia in 1937. Austria was withdrawn from the competition following the Anschluss in 1938. In 1939, prior to the start of WW II, the cup involved only eight teams; the level of the competing nations is shown by Italy's two World Cup titles, Czechoslovakia's and Hungary's World Cup final, Austria's and Yugoslavia's semi-finals. Out of the eleven different teams competing in the first three World Cups, five were part of the Mitropa Cup.
A tournament was started in 1940, but abandoned before the final match due to World War II. Again, only eight teams three each from Hungary and Yugoslavia and two from Romania. Hungarian Ferencváros and Romanian Rapid qualified for the final, but did not meet because the northern part of Transylvania was ceded to Hungary from Romania. Notes Note: The 1960 edition is not included in the list because was not won by a club, it was won by a nation. Additionally, a "Mitropa Super Cup" was contested in 1989 between the winners of 1988 and 1989. Notes Central European International Cup Balkans Cup Challenge Cup European Railways Cup Latin Cup
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Alessandro "Billy" Costacurta is an Italian football manager and a former professional defender, who played as a Centre back. Throughout his club career, Costacurta spent over twenty years with Milan between 1986 and 2007, as well as a brief season-long spell on loan at Monza, he is best known for his role alongside Franco Baresi, Paolo Maldini and Mauro Tassotti, forming one of the greatest defences in Serie A and European football during the late 1980s and 1990s, under the success of managers Arrigo Sacchi and Fabio Capello. He operated as a central defender, was a leading exponent of the position, receiving International acclaim, winning 7 Serie A titles and 5 Champions League/European Cup trophies throughout his career, along with many other trophies. Costacurta retired from professional football at the age of 41, on 19 May 2007. In his final match for Milan, he scored a goal from a penalty in a 3–2 defeat against Udinese, becoming the oldest goalscorer in Serie A. Along with his Milan teammates, Costacurta was an important member of the Italian national side during the 1990s.
He made 59 appearances for Italy, scoring 2 goals, he participated in two World Cups, as well as a European Championship in 1996. With Italy, he managed to reach the 1994 World Cup Final, lost against Brazil on penalties. Alessandro Costacurta was affectionally known to his fans as "Billy", due to his thin physique in his youth, his notable skill at basketball. A Milan youth side product, during his professional career Costacurta would go on to play for the senior club for over 20 seasons, after a brief spell on loan at Monza in Serie C1 during the 1986–87 season. Costacurta was a young member of the senior squad during the 1985–86 season, but failed to make a single appearance. Before being sent to Monza on loan, Costacurta would make his Milan debut in the Coppa Italia during the 1986–87 season, but would not make his Serie A debut with Milan until the following year, under Arrigo Sacchi. Costacurta made his first Serie A appearance on 25 October 1987 against Hellas Verona on the sixth matchday of the season.
Milan would go on to win the match 1–0, as well as the Serie A title, but Costacurta received limited playing opportunities that season, due to the presence of the more experienced Filippo Galli in his position. Overall, Costacurta managed 7 appearances in Serie A, one appearance in the Coppa Italia that season; the 1988–89 season would see Costacurta gain more playing opportunities and appear more for the club, as he would feature in Milan's 3–1 win over Sampdoria in the 1988 Supercoppa Italiana. He would make 26 appearances in Serie A that season, would win his first European Cup title after Milan defeated Steaua București 4–0 at the Camp Nou, Barcelona. Costacurta played the first 74 minutes of the final before being substituted by Filippo Galli. During the 1989–90 Season, Costacurta won his second consecutive European Cup with Milan, defeating Benfica 1–0 in the final in Vienna, he featured in Milan's Intercontinental Cup win in Tokyo over Atlético Nacional, in the European Supercup victory over Johan Cruyff's Barcelona.
Costacurta scored his first goal in Serie A during that season, in a 3–1 away defeat to Milanese rivals Internazionale in the Derby della Madonnina. Milan would reach the Coppa Italia final that season. In Sacchi's final season at the club, Costacurta would become a starting centreback alongside Franco Baresi, as well as full-backs Mauro Tassotti and Paolo Maldini, in Sacchi's four-man defensive line, regarded as one of the greatest defences of all-time. Costacurta would make 25 appearances in Serie A that season, he would win his second consecutive Intercontinental Cup and European Super Cup trophies. Under Capello's Milan, Costacurta continued to be a permanent member of the starting line-up, he won four Serie A titles, a Champions League title in 1994, an UEFA Super Cup in 1994, as well as three consecutive Italian Supercups in 1992, 1993 and 1994. Milan managed to reach three consecutive Champions League finals between 1992–93 and 1994–95. However, Costacurta missed the 1994 Champions League final win over Barcelona on 18 May because of a suspension, having been sent-off in the semi-final match against Monaco.
Costacurta helped Milan to win the 1991–92 Serie A title undefeated, as Milan went on an Italian record of 58 matches unbeaten. He played a key role in Milan's defensive line in the 1993–94 title, by only conceding 15 goals all season, as Milan finished the season with the best defence in Italy. Following Capello's departure after the 1995–96 title win, as well as the aging and retirement of certain key players, Milan faced dark times in their history. Milan were defeated in the 1996 Italian Supercup Final by 1995–96 Coppa Italia winners Fiorentina, the 1996–97 and 1997–98 seasons were negative, as Milan failed to qualify for Europe on both occasions; these fruitless seasons saw Milan undergo several managerial changes, including Tabárez, the unsuccessful returns of Sacchi and Capello. However, through his leadership in defence, would help Milan reach the 1998 Coppa Italia Final, losing out to Lazio. With the arrival of Alberto Zaccheroni during the 1998–99 season, Costacurta continued to be a key member of the starting line-up, featured in Zaccheroni's new three-man defence alongside Maldini and Luigi Sala.
Costacurta was named Milan's vice-captain that season, behind Maldin
A third jersey, alternate jersey, third kit, third sweater or alternate uniform is a jersey or uniform that a sports team wear in games instead of its home outfit or its away outfit when the colors of two competing teams' other uniforms are too similar to play easily. Alternate jerseys are a means for professional sports organizations to generate revenue, by sales to fans. Of North American sports leagues, the NFL generates $1.2 billion annually in jersey sales, with the NBA second selling $900 million annually. Another use of the alternate uniform is for identifying with causes, like the Central Coast Mariners wear an alternate pink kit on pink ribbon day. Extra alternate uniforms or fourth/fifth kits are not used, but are sometimes required when teams' other uniforms cause color clashes, or the uniforms are unavailable to use. In cases where teams have worn more than three kits in the same season, the extra kits were recycled from previous seasons. Third-choice jerseys or uniforms are used in all four Major professional sports leagues in the United States sports leagues, with the exception being college sports.
Third kits are commonplace in professional European association football and in some professional European rugby union clubs. Alternate jerseys are common in Australia's two biggest domestic leagues, the Australian Football League and National Rugby League. For home and away jerseys in North America, historical convention has dictated the colors used by teams in a given league. Teams have one jersey, in a team color, another jersey, white and accented with a team color. "White at home" is the convention in baseball, minor league professional hockey, college hockey. "White while away" is the convention in football, major league professional hockey, professional lacrosse. Association football does not have a "white at a "white while away" convention; the NHL enforces the color/white rule strictly. In minor league hockey, the rules are set in both the AHL and ECHL where the team wears white jerseys at home during one half of the season wears the color jerseys during the other half at home, vice versa on the road.
In the NFL, the rules state that the home team has the first choice of color, with the visiting team forced to choose a contrasting color. Starting with their uniform contract with Nike that begins with the 2017-2018 season, the NBA has abolished the color/white rule. Instead, each team will designate whether their white uniform, now dubbed the "Association Edition," or their colored uniform, called the "Icon Edition," will be the home uniform, with the other becoming their designated away uniform. In American sports, throwback jerseys are only used for special team games and not for the "third" purpose. In American football a third jersey may be a throwback uniform based on designs the team used in the past. In association football, meanwhile, it is more a radically different design; the NFL was the last of the major professional sports leagues to adopt the third jersey rule in 2002, with the only exceptions being the 1994 season, when teams issued a throwback uniform in honor of the league's 75th Anniversary.
The NFL rule stated that a team may wear their third jersey only once a year, after one year this restriction was increased to twice a year. Some teams have exceeded the limit. There are no rules on wearing alternate pants. Teams are only permitted to wear alternate jerseys once in playoff games. In the past, rules allowed for teams to wear their third jersey two times in the regular season and once in the preseason until 2010. In 2011 teams were no longer allowed to wear their third jersey in the preseason. However, there have been some exceptions since 2011; some teams will use one of their third jersey allotments against a particular division opponent each year. For instance, the Los Angeles Chargers would wear their popular alternate powder blue jerseys at home against the Oakland Raiders, while the Houston Texans were known to wear their alternate "Battle Red" uniforms at home against the Jacksonville Jaguars, the Pittsburgh Steelers wore their throwbacks from 2007-2011 at home against the archrival Baltimore Ravens.
The New York Giants were known to wear their alternate red jerseys at home against the Dallas Cowboys until the red jerseys were retired in 2009. The Los Angeles Rams have worn their throwback uniform against the San Francisco 49ers in recent years; the Washington Redskins wear their alternative uniform on home games to commemorate their annual homecoming game once a year since 2012. When wearing their third jerseys if the team is wearing a throwback uniform, the team may theme the field around the uniforms; when the New York Jets, for instance, wore their 1960–1962 "Titans of New York" throwbacks at home, they painted the field in the Titans blue-and-gold color scheme. In addition, the Tampa Bay Buccaneers dressed the field up in Orange when they wore thei
Luca D'Angelo is an Italian football manager and former professional footballer. He is the manager of Pisa. D'Angelo began his playing career at Chieti in the late 1980s. Following his retirement, he began his coaching career on 2009 with Rimini youth team. Next season he has been named first-team manager of the Serie D side Rimini. In November 2013, he replaced Egidio Notaristefano as manager of the Lega Pro side Alessandria. In July 2015, he signed a one-year contract for the 2015-16 season with Lega Pro side Fidelis Andria. After finishing the season at 7th place, on May 7th he announced that he wouldn't renewed his contract with the club; as of the 2016-2017 season is the new coach of Bassano Virtus. On 24 June 2018, he became the new manager of Pisa. Career on Legaserieb.it Luca D'Angelo at Soccerway
Diego Pablo Simeone known as El Cholo, is an Argentine football manager and former player, who played as a midfielder, is the manager for Atletico Madrid. Simeone is considered to be a legendary figure in the history of Atletico Madrid, due to his achievements as a player and manager with them. In his club career that started in 1987, Simeone played in Argentina and Spain for Vélez Sarsfield, Sevilla, Atlético Madrid, Internazionale and Racing Club, he won a domestic double with Atlético Madrid in 1996, the UEFA Cup with Inter in 1998 winning another domestic double with Lazio in 2000, as well as the 1999 UEFA Super Cup and the 2000 Supercoppa Italiana. Simeone was capped over 100 times for the Argentina national team and represented the country at the 1994, 1998 and 2002 FIFA World Cups, in four editions of the Copa América, winning the tournament in 1991 and 1993, he won the FIFA Confederations Cup in 1992, a silver medal at the 1996 Summer Olympic games. As a manager, Simeone has coached Argentine sides Racing Club, Estudiantes de La Plata, River Plate, San Lorenzo and Italian club Catania before joining Spanish club Atlético Madrid in 2011.
He won the Argentine Primera División both with Estudiantes and River Plate, has had his biggest managerial success with Atletico Madrid, winning the La Liga, the Copa del Rey, two UEFA Europa Leagues, two UEFA Super Cups, being the runners-up of the UEFA Champions League twice. When Simeone was 14, his youth coach Victorio Spinetto nicknamed him "Cholo", as his energetic play reminded him of former Boca Juniors player and Argentine international Carmelo Simeone who possessed the nickname. After starting his career with Vélez Sarsfield, Simeone moved to Italian Serie A club Pisa in 1990; the club was relegated in his first season and, after it failed to gain promotion the following year, Simeone was sold to Sevilla in the Spanish Primera División. Simeone played two seasons in Seville. At Atlético, he was part of the team which won the double of the Liga title and Copa del Rey during the 1995–96 season. In 1997, Simeone returned to Serie A with Internazionale and played two full seasons, winning the 1997–98 UEFA Cup in a side spearheaded by Ronaldo up front.
In 1999, Simeone joined fellow Argentines Néstor Sensini, Matías Almeyda, Hernán Crespo and Juan Sebastián Verón at Sven-Göran Eriksson's Lazio. The side had gone close to the Scudetto in the season before Simeone's arrival and he helped deliver the championship after a season, where Juventus led the standings by two points going into the last day. A Juve loss at rainy Perugia coupled with Lazio's comfortable home win over Reggina at the Stadio Olimpico ensured Simeone's first Serie A title. After winning the double in Spain, he would add the Italian double as Lazio edged out Inter to claim the 1999–2000 Coppa Italia, he went on to play three more seasons in Rome, which included more last day drama as Simeone's goal against former club Inter on the last day of the 2001–02 campaign ruined his old employers' title dream. Simeone returned to Atlético Madrid in 2003. In total, he played in 165 matches for Atlético, scoring 31 goals. In 2005, he left Europe to finish his playing career in Argentina with Racing Club.
In 1992, Simeone represented the Argentina under-23 team at the 1992 CONMEBOL Pre-Olympic Tournament in Paraguay, which saw Argentina fail to qualify for the 1992 Summer Olympics. For the Argentina senior team, Simeone amassed 106 caps, the first coming in 1988. Simeone won the 1993 editions of the Copa América with Argentina, he played in the 1998 and 2002 FIFA World Cups. He was a member of the team that won the silver medal at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, as one of the three over-23 players allowed per squad; as a midfielder, Simeone scored 11 goals for his country, including one in the final of the 1992 King Fahd Cup. During the 1998 World Cup, England's David Beckham was sent off for kicking Simeone in retaliation for a foul. Simeone said he simulated the injury from the kick in order to get Beckham sent off. Sports Illustrated was critical of the Argentinian's theatrics in that incident, stating Simeone first delivered a "heavy-handed challenge" on Beckham and "fell like a ton of bricks" when Beckham retaliated.
In the following match, against the Netherlands, Simeone was injured by a tackle from Arthur Numan during his team's defeat. In the 2002 World Cup, his last, Argentina was eliminated in the group stage, which included a 1–0 loss to England in which Beckham converted a penalty. Simeone said he was "embarrassed" at having surpassed Diego Maradona as Argentina's most capped player, though Simeone has since been surpassed by Roberto Ayala, Javier Mascherano, Javier Zanetti and Lionel Messi. Simeone was regarded as a tenacious, hard-working and complete two-way midfielder, mobile, good in the air and capable both of winning balls and starting attacking plays having a penchant for scoring several goals himself; this enabled him to play anywhere in midfield throughout his career, although he was deployed in the centre in a box-to-box or defensive midfield role. A talented yet combative player, he was known for his leadership, tactical versatility, intelligence and stamina, although he was praised by pundits for his technique and passing range.
Simeone once described his style as "holding a knife between his teeth". His main inspirations as a player were Brazilian midfielder Falcão and German midfielder Lothar Matthäus. Simeon
Pisa is a city and comune in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its leaning tower, the city of over 91,104 residents contains more than 20 other historic churches, several medieval palaces, various bridges across the Arno. Much of the city's architecture was financed from its history as one of the Italian maritime republics; the city is home of the University of Pisa, which has a history going back to the 12th century and has the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, founded by Napoleon in 1810, its offshoot, the Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, as the best-sanctioned Superior Graduate Schools in Italy. The origin of the name, Pisa, is a mystery. While the origin of the city had remained unknown for centuries, the Pelasgi, the Greeks, the Etruscans, the Ligurians had variously been proposed as founders of the city. Archaeological remains from the fifth century BC confirmed the existence of a city at the sea, trading with Greeks and Gauls.
The presence of an Etruscan necropolis, discovered during excavations in the Arena Garibaldi in 1991, confirmed its Etruscan origins. Ancient Roman authors referred to Pisa as an old city. Strabo referred Pisa's origins to king of Pylos, after the fall of Troy. Virgil, in his Aeneid, states that Pisa was a great center by the times described; the Virgilian commentator Servius wrote that the Teuti, or Pelops, the king of the Pisaeans, founded the town 13 centuries before the start of the common era. The maritime role of Pisa should have been prominent if the ancient authorities ascribed to it the invention of the naval ram. Pisa took advantage of being the only port along the western coast between Ostia. Pisa served as a base for Roman naval expeditions against Ligurians and Carthaginians. In 180 BC, it became a Roman colony as Portus Pisanus. In 89 BC, Portus Pisanus became a municipium. Emperor Augustus fortified the colony into an important port and changed the name as Colonia Iulia obsequens.
Pisa was founded on the shore, but due to the alluvial sediments from the Arno and the Serchio, whose mouth lies about 11 km north of the Arno's, the shore moved west. Strabo states, it is located 9.7 km from the coast. However, it was a maritime city, with ships sailing up the Arno. In the 90s AD, a baths complex was built in the city. During the last years of the Western Roman Empire, Pisa did not decline as much as the other cities of Italy due to the complexity of its river system and its consequent ease of defence. In the seventh century, Pisa helped Pope Gregory I by supplying numerous ships in his military expedition against the Byzantines of Ravenna: Pisa was the sole Byzantine centre of Tuscia to fall peacefully in Lombard hands, through assimilation with the neighbouring region where their trading interests were prevalent. Pisa began in this way its rise to the role of main port of the Upper Tyrrhenian Sea and became the main trading centre between Tuscany and Corsica and the southern coasts of France and Spain.
After Charlemagne had defeated the Lombards under the command of Desiderius in 774, Pisa went through a crisis, but soon recovered. Politically, it became part of the duchy of Lucca. In 860, Pisa was captured by vikings led by Björn Ironside. In 930, Pisa became the county centre within the mark of Tuscia. Lucca was the capital but Pisa was the most important city, as in the middle of 10th century Liutprand of Cremona, bishop of Cremona, called Pisa Tusciae provinciae caput, a century the marquis of Tuscia was referred to as "marquis of Pisa". In 1003, Pisa was the protagonist of the first communal war in Italy, against Lucca. From the naval point of view, since the 9th century, the emergence of the Saracen pirates urged the city to expand its fleet. In 828, Pisan ships assaulted the coast of North Africa. In 871, they took part in the defence of Salerno from the Saracens. In 970, they gave strong support to Otto I's expedition, defeating a Byzantine fleet in front of Calabrese coasts; the power of Pisa as a maritime nation began to grow and reached its apex in the 11th century, when it acquired traditional fame as one of the four main historical maritime republics of Italy.
At that time, the city was a important commercial centre and controlled a significant Mediterranean merchant fleet and navy. It expanded its powers in 1005 through the sack of Reggio Calabria in the south of Italy. Pisa was in continuous conflict with the Saracens, who had their bases in Corsica, for control of the Mediterranean. In 1017, Sardinian Giudicati were militarily supported by Pisa, in alliance with Genoa, to defeat the Saracen King Mugahid, who had settled a logistic base in the north of Sardinia the year before; this victory gave Pisa supremacy in the Tyrrhenian Sea. When the Pisans subsequently ousted the Genoese from Sardinia, a new conflict and rivalry was born between these mighty marine republics. Between 1030 and 1035, Pisa went on to defeat several rival towns in Sicily and conquer Carthage in North Africa. In 1051–1052, the admiral Jacopo Ciurini conquered Corsica, p