Trance Atlantic Air Waves
Trance Atlantic Air Waves, is a side project from Enigma's Michael Cretu. He had worked with Jens Gad on Enigma's 1996 release Le Roi Est Mort, Vive Le Roi! and they once again teamed up for this side project. Only one studio album was released, by Virgin Records. Most of the songs were cover versions but there were three original songs. 1998 — The Energy of Sound 1997 — "Magic Fly" 1998 — "Chase" 1998 — "Crockeett's Theme" Trance Atlantic Air Waves at EnigmaMusic.com Trance Atlantic Air Waves Mini Site
Sequential Circuits Prophet 2000
The Prophet 2000 was a sampler keyboard manufactured by Dave Smith's Sequential Circuits and released in 1985. It was the company's first sampler, despite its low quality and technical limitations by modern standards, marked a shift toward affordable samplers of better quality than its predecessors, it is considered to be one of the earliest multitimbral samplers. Using the technology developed for the 2000, Sequential produced the Prophet 2002, a rack-mounted version of the 2000, the Studio 440, a drum machine and sequencer that used a similar sampler at its core; the Prophet 3000, a rack-mounted elaboration upon the 2000 and 2002, was released in limited quantities prior to the collapse of Sequential. The Prophet 2000 was preceded by early samplers such as the Ensoniq Mirage and the E-mu Emulator, which both helped to introduce samplers into general markets; this was in part due to their incorporation of manipulation techniques familiar to users of analog synthesizers. However, these samplers operated at low fidelity with only 8 bits of depth.
The Emulator II was an expensive machine at the time. The Prophet 2000 introduced a higher audio resolution, at 12 bits, retailed for about GB£2,000, making it affordable; the Prophet 2000 was first demonstrated at the Italian Music Fair in Milan. It was presented in the United Kingdom one month following its introduction. Intended to represent Sequential's first entry into the low-cost digital sampler market, the Prophet 2000 was equipped with 256 kilowords of sample memory, sampling rates of 15.625, 31.250, 41.667 kHz at 12-bit audio resolution. External storage was available through 3.5" diskettes. The Prophet 2000 featured MIDI, 8-voice polyphony, up to 8 layers, an arpeggiator. Despite their technological limitations, early digital samplers like the Prophet 2000 are noted for their warm audio quality as a result of using analog VCFs and VCAs. Feedback was presented through a small LED display, typical for contemporary machines; the Prophet 2000 introduced features to enhance its looping capabilities, which resulted in easier use and reduction in clicking at the end of a loop.
Like Casio CZ synthesizers of the time, the Prophet 2000 was multitimbral, making it possible for multiple samples to be triggered off its keyboard at one time. While playing high frequencies, the Prophet 2000 had a tendency to fall out of tune; this flaw was common in many early Sequential products. Engineer Chris Meyer corrected this issue for the Prophet VS, the first digital synthesizer given the green light by Sequential founder Dave Smith. Due to the success of the Prophet 2000, Sequential introduced a rack-mounted version of the Prophet 2000 a few months after its initial release; the Prophet 2002 expanded the 2000s memory to 512 kilowords. At the time, this memory capacity was remarkable, although it would soon be matched by other products; the 2002 added some features to make the unit more responsive and accessible. One year Sequential increased the Prophet sampler's bit depth to 16 with the rack-mounted Prophet 3000. However, the 3000 was only manufactured in limited quantities as its release coincided with the gradual collapse of Sequential Circuits.
It is estimated that 250 were produced before Yamaha's acquisition of Sequential. In 1987, Sequential introduced a follow-up to the Prophet 2000, the Studio 440. Instead of a keyboard, the Studio 440 included a sequencer; the 440 made it easier to access the full 512 kilowords of available memory by allowing the creation of samples as long as 12 seconds. Like the Prophet 3000, the Studio 440—and many of Sequential's products—lost sales due to the brand loyalty demanded by its competitors, including Akai Professional, Roland Corporation, Korg. Sequential Circuits Prophet-5, an analog synthesizer in the Prophet series Yamaha A Series sampler
The Oberheim Xpander is an analog synthesizer launched by Oberheim in 1984 and discontinued in 1988. It is a keyboardless, six-voice version of the Matrix-12. Utilizing Oberheim's Matrix Modulation technology, the Xpander combined analog audio generation with the flexibility of digital controls logic; the Xpander "Owner's Manual, First Edition" describes the technology as this: "An analogy to the Matrix Modulation system might be all of those millions of wires that existed on the first modular synthesizers. As cumbersome as all of that wiring was, it allowed the user to connect any input to any output, resulting in sophistication and flexibility unmatched by any programmable synthesizer...until now." Each of the six voices of the Xpander is independent. That is to say, each could be configured to create a different timbre - this is accomplished via the multi-patch mode which will be described below. Starting at waveform generation, each voice has two voltage controlled oscillators; each of, capable of generating sawtooth, pulse, or noise waveforms.
Furthermore, the pulse width can be modulated as well. Although better known for subtractive synthesis, the Xpander is capable of frequency modulation synthesis by modulating VCO #1 with VCO #2. Moving on from the VCOs, the signal passes through a multi-mode voltage controlled filter; the available modes on the filter are: one-, two-, three- and four-pole low pass one-, two and three-pole high pass two- and four-pole band pass two-pole notch three-pole phase shift two- and three-pole high pass plus one-pole low pass two-pole notch plus one-pole low pass three-pole phase shift plus one-pole low passFrom the filter, there are two sequential voltage controlled amplifiers through which the signal must pass. And the audio is delivered to a variety of outputs: mono and six independent outputs. Of those analog audio components, each can be modulated by several different digital controls. ADSR Envelopes - each voice can have up to five envelope generators; each envelope is of the standard Attack-Decay-Sustain-Release model, with the addition of an initial Delay phase, thus making them DADSR envelopes, to be exact.
Low Frequency Oscillators - each voice can have up to five LFOs applied. Each LFO can have a different waveform: square, up-saw, down-saw, random or noise. Additionally, a sampling mode is provided, whereby an independent source is sampled at a set frequency. Lag Generator - the lag function is similar to portamento on traditional synthesizers. However, the lag modulation in the Xpander can be applied to audio signal. Ramp Generators - each voice can have up to four ramp generators. Similar to the attack portion of an ADSR envelope, the ramp generates a linear signal from zero to the user-defined ramp height. Tracking Generators - there are three tracking generators available for each voice; the tracking generator provides a mapping from a control source to a modified output, based on the user-defined settings of the generator. Vince Clarke - On everything by Erasure until 2005. You can hear it clearly on the 12" mix of "Sexuality", for example, at the start, mid and low end parts, he has two of them, used them for the chorus tour in 1991 - 1992, old analog synths.
On early tours the Xpander was introduced as a member of the band as can be heard on live versions of Oh L'amour. Sasha - Whose track "Xpander" was written in homage to the instrument; that supersaw style sound, originated using the Xpander's filtering and multi/unison and stacking capabilities. Nitzer Ebb - Extensive use for basslines on "Belief". Depeche Mode - Have two of them, can be heard on everything from It's Called A Heart and Black Celebration onwards Steve Roach - Everything from Empetus on. Daniel Miller - Has one in the Mute worldwide programming studio Human League - All over the mid 80's period & onward albums Juicy Audio Productions - Stars of Oryeon Album. Film & T. V. work. Hans Zimmer - Sprinkled on various scores for films. Orbital - Everything from the first self-titled album onward Tangerine Dream - Everything from Le Parc onward; the Chemical Brothers - Can be heard in a lot of their music post 1995 Meat Beat Manifesto - In a lot of their remixes Todd Tamanend Clark - From 1985 to the present.
Nine Inch Nails - Including an Xpander modified for use with external inputs Clarence Jey Die Krupps MNDR - "Feed Me Diamonds" Album Ceephax Acid Crew- Used on multiple tracks. Sota Fujimori Used one in his college years, as well for many musical productions. Ray Lynch Vintage Synth: Oberheim Xpander Oberhem Xpander Owner's Manual, First Edition, June 1984 Oberheim Xpander info and mp3's - Lots of useful information on the synth, pics and mp3 demos of filtering, modulations and so on in a musical context. An ambient piece example of the Xpander being used to provide two parts on the same track Xplorer: a realtime editor for the Oberheim Xpander and Matrix-12
The Korg KARMA music workstation was released in 2001 as a specialised member of the Korg Triton family. KARMA stands for Kay's Algorithmic Real-time Music Architecture; the unit is 16-part multitimbral. Its sound engine is based on the Korg Triton workstation; the center section is made of brushed aluminum, the side cheeks are constructed from plastic. The unit features a 16-track sequencer with a maximum storage of 200,000 events and 200 songs 413 drum sounds 55 drum kits 16 User drum kits Rick Wakeman Phil Collins Herbie Hancock Peter Gabriel Vangelis Yes Pete Townshend Keith Emerson Jean-Michel Jarre Tuomas Holopainen Korg Website Karma-Lab Website - Korg KARMA page Karma-Lab Wiki - Korg KARMA articles Karma-Lab Korg KARMA Video and Audio clips
The Korg M1 is a 16-voice, 8-part multitimbral sample-based synthesizer and music workstation, manufactured by Korg from 1988 to 1995. The M1 features a MIDI sequencer and a wide palette of available sounds, allowing for the production of complete musical arrangements. Outselling the Yamaha DX7 and Roland D-50, the M1 became the top-selling digital synthesizer of its time. In its six-year production period, an estimated 250,000 Korg M1 synthesizers were sold, making the M1 Korg's most successful synthesizer until the release of the Korg Triton; the volume of M1's sales allowed Korg executives to buy back Yamaha's share of the company, a deal which had originated in the mid-1980s. The M1 was so popular that it was produced until the end of 1995, long after its successor T-series was discontinued; the huge success of the M1 lies in the quality of its sounds. Korg expanded on the Sample & Synthesis idea, formally implemented on Korg DSS-1 in 1986: instead of classic analog subtractive synthesis where simple analog waveforms are produced by tone generators it uses overtone-rich complex digital samples of actual acoustic instruments and classic synths of the past, applies full subtractive synthesis processing: filters, LFOs, envelope generators, digital effects, etc.
The resulting sounds were rich and natural. The ability to layer up to 8 different tones on top of each other, split them over the keyboard in any combination, instant realtime access to crucial parameters such as attack, filter cutoff, LFO timing, etc. made the M1 easy to use. Another important aspect to its success is that it was the first synth to offer a drum machine, sequencer and an effects module in a single easy to carry package, it made the one-man-band possible as you could program a drum and chord track and play along yourself on the for the time realistic piano preset. The drums were great for its time and on par with separate units like the Roland R8 or Yamaha RX-5. S&S synthesis, under different names, is used by many major synthesizer manufacturers today; the lower cost of electronic memory and faster processors allow current models to store much higher quality and longer samples, to apply more signal processing. Roland's SuperNatural, Yamaha's AWM and Korg HI are some recent examples of synthesizers that use some form of S&S synthesis.
The M1's synthesizer engine consisted of one or two digital oscillators per patch with sampled acoustic waveforms stored in memory. A total of 16 oscillators were offered; this reduced to. The hard limit is 16 oscillators, so one can use for example a single 8-oscillator detuned unison combination program together with 4 single oscillator drum sounds and 2 dual oscillator programs; the basic sample sound was processed by a simple digital low pass filter, fed into the digital amplifier. Envelopes and LFOs, along with keyboard tracking, were the main controllers for those blocks; because no interaction between the oscillators was provided, multi-oscillator programs ran the oscillators in parallel. The filter did not offer resonance, but the need for a dramatic filter was diminished by the onboard sample library's wide variety of acoustic and exotic sounds; the exciter could be used to mimic filter resonance. The M1's internal 4 MB waveform ROM was a huge amount of memory by 1988 standards, when the typical amount of RAM memory in desktop PCs was 512 or 640 Kbytes.
The M1 was controlled by a 16 bit NEC V50 CPU running at 16 MHz. Input from the keyboard was handled by a custom subprocessor. I/O to the control panel and large 40X2 LCD display was handled by another custom PIO chip. An A/D converter handled input from the analog aftertouch sensor; the wave samples were played by a custom tone generator chip with further processing by two custom digital filter chips, followed by a digital effects chip. A 16 bit PCM54 D/A converter followed. Waveform ROM contained sounds which are still in use today the compressed acoustic piano and synth basses, realistic vocal samples and acceptable drum kits. For the first time and exotic sounds from world locales were offered as standard. Two presets from the M1 were used extensively in 90s house music, namely "Piano16" and "Organ2." The M1 offered the ability to combine up to eight programs to play on various key and velocity zones. This arrangement is called a'Combi,' and allowed more complex sounds to be assembled and played via keyboard or MIDI.
The integrated MIDI sequencer allowed up to eight polyphonic tracks to play internal or MIDI sounds simultaneously. The sequencer memory could be shared with the user sound area, allowing 100 user "Program" sounds and 100 user "Combination" sounds with 4,400 sequencer notes or a reduced 50 Program and 50 Combination user sounds with 7700 notes; the sequencer's pattern structure permitted memory saving by using patterns for repetitive regions. Though paltry by current standards, the M1's sequencer offered full track editing and quantization, making it possible to produce high-quality songs within the machine; the combination of the patches with the sequencer functionality led to the M1's near ubiquitous presence in late'80s
Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH is a German musical software and hardware company based in Hamburg with satellite offices in Siegburg and London. It develops music recording and editing software, notably Cubase and Nuendo, it designs audio recording and MIDI hardware interfaces and controllers and iOS music apps including Cubasis. Steinberg created several industry standard music technologies including the Virtual Studio Technology format for plug-ins and the ASIO protocol. Steinberg is a wholly owned subsidiary of Yamaha; the company was founded in 1984 by Manfred Rürup in Hamburg. As early exponents and fans of the MIDI protocol, the two developed Pro 16, a MIDI sequencing application for the Commodore 64 and soon afterwards, Pro 24 for the Atari ST platform; the ST had built-in MIDI ports which helped to increase interest in the new technology across the music world. In 1989 Steinberg released Cubase for Atari, versions for the Mac and Windows platforms would follow soon afterwards, it became a popular MIDI sequencer, used in studios around the globe.
Steinberg Media Technologies AG had a revenue of 25 millions DM in 1999. It had 180 employees in 2000. A planned entry on the Neuer Markt of the Deutsche Börse failed; the company had a revenue of 20 millions in 2001 and 130 employees in 2002. In 2003 Steinberg was acquired by Pinnacle Systems and shortly after that, by Yamaha in 2004. With its new mother company Yamaha, Steinberg expanded design and production of its own hardware, since 2008 it has created a range of audio and MIDI interface hardware including the UR, MR816, CC and CI series. In 2012, Steinberg launched its first iOS sequencer, which has seen regular updates since then. Steinberg has won a number of industry awards including several MIPA awards, accolades for Cubasis and its CMC controllers amongst others. In 2012, Steinberg acquired the previous development team behind the notation software, Sibelius, to begin development on a new, professional scoring software named Dorico. Cubase was released in 1989 as a MIDI sequencer. Digital audio recording followed in 1992 with Cubase Audio, followed by VST support in 1999 which made it possible for third-party software programmers to create and sell virtual instruments for Cubase.
Steinberg bundled its own VST instruments and effects with Cubase, as well as continuing to develop standalone instruments as well. Atari support ended and Cubase became a Mac and Windows DAW, with feature parity across both platforms; the WaveLab audio editing and mastering suite followed in 1995 for Windows, the VST and ASIO protocols – open technologies that could be used by any manufacturer – were first released in 1997. WaveLab would come to the Mac in 2010. In 2000 the company released Nuendo, a new DAW targeted at the broadcast and media industries. 2001 saw the release of a dedicated software sampler. A complete rewrite of Cubase in 2002 was necessary due to its legacy code, no longer maintainable, leading to a name change to Cubase SX, ditching older technology and using the audio engine from Nuendo. Since this time and Nuendo have shared many core technologies. Cubase comes in three versions – Elements and Pro. With the growing popularity of mobile devices, Steinberg develops apps for iOS including Cubasis, a featured DAW for iPad with plug-ins, full audio and MIDI recording and editing and many other professional features.
It creates standalone apps including the Nanologue synth and LoopMash. In 2016 Steinberg released a professional music notation and scoring suite. Cubase Dorico Nuendo WaveLab Sequel Cubasis Remix HALion HALion Sonic HALion Symphonic Orchestra Groove Agent The Grand Padshop Retrologue Dark Planet Hypnotic Dance Triebwerk Iconica Steinberg AXR4 – 28x24 Thunderbolt 2 Audio Interface with 32-Bit Integer Recording and RND SILK Steinberg UR824 – 24x24 USB 2.0 audio interface with 8x D-PREs, 24-bit/192 kHz, on board DSP, zero latency monitoring, advanced integration. Their top of the line USB audio interface Steinberg CC121 – Advanced Integration Controller Steinberg CI2 – Advanced Integration Controller Steinberg MR816 CSX – Advanced Integration DSP Studio Steinberg MR816 X – Advanced Integration DSP Studio Steinberg UR44 – 6x4 USB 2.0 audio interface with 4x D-PREs, 24-bit/192 kHz support & MIDI I/O Steinberg UR22mkII – 2x2 USB 2.0 audio interface with 2x D-PREs, 24-bit/192 kHz support & MIDI I/O Steinberg UR12 – 2x2 USB 2.0 audio interface with 1x D-PREs, 24-bit/192 kHz support Steinberg Key eLicenser Pro 16 Trackstar Pro 24 The Ear Twelve MusiCal Cubeat Cubase Lite SoundWorks series - Sample editors for the Akai S900, Ensoniq Mirage, E-mu Emax and Sequential Prophet 2000 SynthWorks series - Patch editor/librarians for the Yamaha DX7, DX7II, TX7 and TX81z, Roland D50 and MT32 and Ensoniq ESQ-1 Cubase SX Cubase VST Avalon - sample editor for Atari V-Stack ReCycle - Windows/Mac sample editor Plex D'cota Hypersonic X-phraze Model-E Virtual Guitarist Virtual Bassist MIDEX-8 - USB MIDI interface MIDEX-3 - USB MIDI interface MIDEX+ - Atari MIDI interface Steinberg Amiga MIDI interface Steinberg Media Interface 4 - USB MIDI interface Avalon 16 DA Converter - AD Converter for Atari SMP-24 - SMPTE/MIDI processor Timelock - SMPTE processor Topaz - Computer controlled recorder Steinberg have introduced several industry-standard software protoc
The Minimoog is an analog synthesizer first manufactured by Moog Music between 1970 and 1981. In the 1960s, synthesizers—in the form of large and complex modular synthesizers—were inaccessible to most musicians; the Minimoog was designed as an affordable, simplified instrument which combined the most useful components in a single device. It was the first synthesizer sold in retail stores, it was first popular with progressive rock and jazz musicians and found wide use in disco, pop and electronic music. After the sale of Moog Music, production of the Minimoog stopped in the early 1980s. In 2002, after founder Robert Moog regained the rights to the Moog brand and bought the company, the Minimoog Voyager, an updated version, was released. In 2016, the company, now rebranded as Moog Music, released a new version of the original Minimoog. In the 1960s, RA Moog Co manufactured Moog modular synthesizers, which helped bring electronic sounds to music but remained inaccessible to ordinary people; the modular synthesizers were difficult to use and required users to connect components manually with patch cables to create sounds.
They were sensitive to temperature and humidity, cost tens of thousands of dollars. Most were owned by universities or record labels, used to create soundtracks or jingles. Moog engineer Bill Hemsath wondered if the company could create a smaller, more reliable synthesizer, he created a prototype, the Min A, by sawing a keyboard in half and wiring several modules into a small cabinet. Moog president Robert Moog felt the prototype was fun, but did not see a market for it. Hemsath and other engineers, Moog, created several more prototypes, adding features such as the suitcase design to aid portability. In early 1970, Moog Co began losing money. While Moog was away, the engineers, fearing they would lose their jobs if the company closed, developed a version of Hemsath's miniature synthesizer, the Minimoog Model D. Moog chastised them, but came to see the potential in the Model D and authorized its production; the engineers could not get the power supply to stabilise properly, which meant that the Minimoog's three oscillators were never synchronized.
Although unintentional, this created the synthesizer's "rich" sound. Its voltage-controlled filter was unique, allowing users to shape sounds to create "everything from blistering, funky bass blurps... to spacey whistle lead tones". The Minimoog was the first synthesizer to feature a pitch wheel, which allows players to bend the note of the synthesizer as a guitarist or saxophonist does, allowing for more expressive playing. Future synthesizers incorporated their own pitch wheels. According to David Borden, one of the first users of the Minimoog, "If had patented, he would have been an wealthy man." Moog Co released the first Minimoog in 1971. Moog said the Minimoog was "conceived as a session musician's axe, something a guy could carry to the studio, do a gig and walk out. We thought we'd sell maybe 100 of them." Moog hired engineer and musicologist David Van Koevering to travel demonstrating Minimoogs to musicians and music stores. Van Koevering's friend Glen Bell, founder of Taco Bell, allowed him to use a building on a private island Bell owned in Florida.
Van Koevering used the building to host an event he billed as "Island of Electronicus", a "pseudo-psychedelic experience that brought counterculture to straight families and connected it with the sound of the Minimoog". The Minimoog was in continuous production for thirteen years and over 12,000 were made, it was the first synthesiser sold in retail stores. Despite the success, Moog Co could not afford to meet demand, nor had credit for a loan, Moog sold the company. Production of the Minimoog stopped in the early 1980s and the company ceased all production in 1993. In 2002, Robert Moog bought the company. In 2002, Moog Co released the Moog Voyager, an updated version of the Minimoog that sold more than 14,000 units, more than the original Minimoog. In 2016, Moog Music began manufacturing an updated version of the Model D. Moog announced the end of Model D production in June 2017. Numerous companies, including Arturia and Behringer, have developed clones and software emulations of the Minimoog.
In 2018, Moog Music released the Minimoog Model D app for iOS. According to TJ Pinch, author of Analog Days, the Minimoog was "the first synthesizer to become a'classic'". Wired described it as "the most famous synthesizer in music history... a ubiquitous analog keyboard that can be heard in countless pop, hip-hop, techno tracks from the 1970s, 80s, 90s". It was important for its portability. David Borden, an associate of Moog, said that the Minimoog "took the synthesizer out of the studio and put it into the concert hall". According to the Guardian, "Tweaked now so that the synthesiser could reliably perform as either a melodic lead or propulsive bass instrument, the Minimoog changed everything... the Moogs oozed character. Their sound could be quirky and cute, or pulverising, but it was always identifiable as Moog."The Minimoog changed the dynamics of rock bands. For the first time, keyboardists could play lead solos in the style of lead guitarists, or play synthesised basslines popular in funk, as in the track "Flash Light" by Parliament.
Wakeman said: "For the first time you could go on and give the guitarist a run for his money...a guitarist would say,'Oh shoot, he's got a Minimoog', so they're looking for eleven on their volume control - it's the only way they can compete." Wakeman said