Fregenae, was a maritime town of ancient Etruria, situated between Alsium and the mouth of the Tiber. The modern Fregene is an Italian hamlet of Fiumicino, in the Metropolitan City of Lazio; as of 2012 its population was of 6,445. Livy mentions Fregenae among the coloniae maritimae; this is confirmed by the Epitome of the 19th book of Livy, though Alsium is not mentioned, the foundation of Fregenae is coupled with that of Brundusium, which Velleius refers to the following year. No subsequent notice of it occurs in history: its marshy and unhealthy situation prevented its rising to prosperity. Hence, though its name is found in Strabo and the Itineraries, it is not noticed by Rutilius in his description of the coast of Etruria, no ruins now mark the site, but the distances given in the Itinerary of 9 M. P. from Alsium, the same from Portus Augusti at the mouth of the Tiber, enable us to fix its position with certainty at a spot now called Fregene in the comune of Fiumicino. The modern town was created in 1928 as part of a large drainage project along the coasts of Lazio, near Maccarese, to create a sea resort.
From the 1970s Fregene grew as part of the urban expansion of Rome metropolitan area. Until 1992 It was part of the municipality of Rome, when Fiumicino was created as an independent municipality. Fregene is located on Tyrrhenian coast, 31 km in north of Fiumicino, near its international airport and the villages of Maccarese and Passo Oscuro, it is 24 km far from 42 from Rome and 55 from Civitavecchia. Nearest railway station is Maccarese-Fregene on Rome-Pisa line. Arrone River Rome-Fiumicino Airport This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray
Football in Italy
Football is the most popular sport in Italy. The Italian national football team is considered to be one of the best national teams in the world, they have won the FIFA World Cup four times, trailing only Brazil, runners-up in two finals and reaching a third place and a fourth place. They have won one European Championship appearing in two finals, finished third at the Confederations Cup, won one Olympic football tournament and two Central European International Cups. Italy's top domestic league, the Serie A, is one of the most popular professional sports leagues in the world and it is depicted as the most tactical national football league. Italy's club sides have won 48 major European trophies, making them the second most successful nation in European football. Serie A hosts three of the world's most famous clubs as Juventus and Inter, all founding members of the G-14, a group which represented the largest and most prestigious European football clubs. Juventus and Inter, along with Roma, Fiorentina and Parma but now Napoli are known as the Seven Sisters of Italian football.
Italian managers are the most successful in European Football in competitions such as the Champions League. More players have won the coveted Ballon d'Or award while playing at a Serie A club than any other league in the world. Other forms of football were played in Italy in ancient times, the earliest of, Harpastum, played during the times of the Roman Empire; this game may have been influential to other forms throughout Europe due to the expansion of the Empire, including Medieval football. From the 16th century onwards, Calcio Fiorentino, another code of football distinct from the modern game, was played in the Piazza Santa Croce in Florence; some famous Florentines were amongst players of the game the Medici family including Piero and Alessandro de' Medici. As well as Popes such as Clement VII, Leo XI and Urban VIII who played the game in the Vatican; the name calcio was adopted for football in Italy. The modern variation of the game was brought to Italy during the 1880s; the title of the first Italian football club is a controversial one, the most cited in popular history is Genoa Cricket and Football Club who were formed as a cricket club to represent England abroad, founded by Englishmen in 1893.
Three years in 1896 a man named James Richardson Spensley arrived in Genoa introducing the football section of the club and becoming its first manager. However, evidence exists to suggest. Edoardo Bosio, a merchant worker in the British textile industry had visited England and experienced the game, he was motivated to help spread football in his homeland. He founded Cricket Club that year while Nobili Torino soon followed; the second club bore the name of noble because it contained the Duke of the Abruzzi and Alfonso Ferrero di Ventimiglia. The two merged in 1891 to form Internazionale Football Club Torino, By 1898 the rival federation FIGC had been formed, with its center in Turin and the first two presidents as Mario Vicary and Luigi D'Ovidio. FIGC created the Italian Football Championship with the four founder clubs being; the first competition of, held at Velodromo Umberto I in Turin on 8 May 1898 and was won by Genoa. While it was common for clubs to compete in both FIGC and FNGI competitions early on, the titles won in the FIGC championship are the only ones recognised by the modern day league.
In the following years, the tournament was structured into regional groups with the winners of each group participating in a playoff with the eventual winners being declared champions. Until to 1904 the tournament was dominated by Genoa. Between 1905 and 1908 a Final Group among regional champions was contested to award the title and the Spensley Cup. Juventus won his first title and Spensley Cup in 1905, but the two following championships were won by Milan. In November 1907, the FIF organised two championships in the same season: Italian Championship, the main tournament where only Italian players were allowed to play; the majority of big clubs withdrew from both the championships in order to protest against the autarchical policy of the FIF. The Federal Championship was won by Juventus against Doria, while The Italian Championship 1908 and Coppa Buni were won by Pro Vercelli, beating Juventus, Doria and US Milanese. However, the Federal Championship won by Juventus was forgotten by FIGC, due to the boycott made by the dissident clubs.
In 1909 season, the two different championships were organised again, with Coppa Obe
Metropolitan City of Rome Capital
Metropolitan City of Rome Capital is an area of local government at the level of metropolitan city in the Lazio region of the Republic of Italy. It comprises the territory of the city of Rome and 121 other municipalities in the suburbs of the city. With more than 4.3 millions inhabitants, it is the largest metropolitan city in Italy. It was established on 1 January 2015 by the terms of Law 142/1990 and by Law 56/2014, it supersedes the Province of Rome. The Metropolitan City of Rome Capital is headed by the Metropolitan Mayor and governed by the Metropolitan Council. Virginia Raggi has been the incumbent mayor since 20 June 2016. Metro municipalities were given administrative powers equivalent to those of a province; this was done to improve the performance of local administration and to cut local spending by better coordinating the municipalities in providing basic services and environment protection. In this policy framework, the Mayor of Rome is designated to exercise the functions of Metropolitan mayor, presiding over a Metropolitan Council formed by 24 mayors of municipalities within the Metro.
The first Metropolitan Council of the City was elected on 5 October 2014: There are 121 sub-divisions or comunes of Metropolitan City of Rome Capital. The comunes with the largest populations are listed below; the Metropolitan City of Rome Capital covers one-third of the territory of Lazio. It occupies the flat area of the Roman and the Tiber Valley to the mountains and dell'Aniene Lucretili Sabini and, in addition to the mountainous regions of the Tolfa and Monti Sabatini to the north-west, the area of the mountains Tiburtini Prenestini Simbruini and east, the area of the Colli Albani and the northern foothills of the mountains, high Lepine Sacco valley to the south-east; the western boundary of the province is represented by the Tyrrhenian Sea on which spread to about 130 kilometres from the coast near Rome from Civitavecchia to Torre Astura. In the territory there are several lakes all of volcanic origin, which are concentrated in the north-west of the mountains and Sabatini in the south-east of the Colli Albani.
The Metropolitan City of Rome Capital is the centre of a radial network of roads that follow the lines of the ancient Roman roads which began at the Capitoline Hill and connected Rome with its empire. Today Rome is circled, by the ring-road. Due to its location in the centre of the Italian peninsula, Rome is the principal railway node for central Italy. Rome's main railway station, Termini, is one of the largest railway stations in Europe and the most used in Italy, with around 400 thousand travellers passing through every day; the second-largest station in the city, Roma Tiburtina, has been redeveloped as a high-speed rail terminus. Rome is served by three airports; the intercontinental Leonardo da Vinci International Airport is Italy's chief airport, is located within the nearby Fiumicino, south-west of Rome. The older Rome Ciampino Airport is a joint military airport, it is referred to as "Ciampino Airport", as it is located beside Ciampino, south-east of Rome. A third airport, the Roma-Urbe Airport, is a small, low-traffic airport located about 6 km north of the city centre, which handles most helicopter and private flights.
Although the city has its own quarter on the Mediterranean Sea, this has only a marina and a small channel-harbour for fisher boats. The main harbour which serves Rome is Port of Civitavecchia, located about 62 km northwest of the city. A 3-line metro system called. Construction on the first branch started in the 1930s; the line had been planned to connect the main railway station with the newly planned E42 area in the southern suburbs, where the 1942 World Fair was supposed to be held. The event never took place because of war, but the area was partly redesigned and renamed EUR in the 1950s to serve as a modern business district; the line was opened in 1955, it is now the south part of the B Line. The A line opened in 1980 from Ottaviano to Anagnina stations extended in stages to Battistini. In the 1990s, an extension of the B line was opened from Termini to Rebibbia; this underground network is reliable as it is short. The A and B lines intersect at Roma Termini station. A new branch of the B line opened on 13 June 2012 after an estimated building cost of €500 million.
B1 has four stations over a distance of 3.9 km. A third line, the C line, is under construction with an estimated cost of €3 billion and will have 30 stations over a distance of 25.5 km. It will replace the existing Termini-Pantano rail line, it will feature full driverless trains. The first section with 15 stations connecting Pantano with the quarter of Centocelle in the eastern part of the city, opened on 9 November 2014; the end of the work was scheduled in 2015, but archaeological findings delay underground construction work. A fourth line, D line, is planned, it will have 22 stations over a distance of 20 km. The first section was projected to open in 2015 and the final sections before 2035, but due to the city's financial crisis the project has been put on hold. Https://facebook.com/CittametropolitanaRomaCapitale
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Frosinone Calcio is an Italian football club based in Frosinone, Lazio. The club was founded in 1912 under the name Unione Sportiva Frusinate, but it was born on 19 September 1928. Following cancellation by the Italian Football Federation, it was refounded in 1990. In the 2014–15 season the club played in Serie B for the sixth time in its history; the club earned its first promotion to the top flight Serie A in the 2015–16 season, but were relegated back down to Serie B after just one season. In the 2018–19 season it was promoted to Serie A for a second time. After a long tradition of playing in Serie C, in recent years, following the historic promotion which took place in the 2005–06 season, the club participated in five consecutive seasons in Serie B, after the two teams in Rome, the third most notable team of the region of Lazio. In its history Frosinone have won at a national level, two championships of Serie C2 and two of Serie D. On 16 May 2015, the Ciociari, with a 3–1 win over Crotone, secured their first, historic promotion to Serie A.
The true original football club in the city of Frosinone was Bellator Frusinate, founded in the thirties by a group of citizens. The colours of the team were red and blue which were changed to the current yellow and blue. Bellator Frusinate managed to reach the National First Division in 1934; the figure of president Emilio Frongasse was crucial in this period. In the half of the thirties, Bellator Frusinate disbanded, was replaced by FF. GG. Frosinone which played its football in an interprovincial tournament. All the championships were suspended during the Second World War and the football club Frusinate disappeared; the rebirth of Frosinone occurred in the 1945–1946 championship, the team competed in the Seconda Categoria championship and rose to Prima Categoria the following year, following an excellent championship season, managed to gain promotion into Serie C-Lego Centro. From 1948–49 to 1951–52, the Canarini competed in the Promozione-Interregionale della Lega Centro championship, were included in the new Quarta Serie championship during the summer of 1952.
From 1952 to 1958, for six consecutive years, the Canarini competed in the Quarta Serie Championship, with their highest finish being fourth place, achieved in 1953. The most significant match this time was against Cosenza on 24 November 1957. Cosenza were playing for promotion but Frosinone took the lead with three minutes remaining; the referee, struck by a Cosenza player, was booed until the end of the game. Several episodes of violence took place and the game was transformed into a "western". After leaving the stadium, the referee was chased for a few kilometers by some Frosinone supporters. Cosenza forwarded the CAF overturned the result of the match. Frosinone expressed their resentment against the Lega for the injustice suffered and threatened to withdraw from the league. Following this, Frosinone missed the return fixture in Cosenza and other penalties by the Lega were imposed; the most important people of this time were the presidents Domenico Ferrante and Angelo Cristofaro, a former coach Genta and players Azzoni, Diglio and Spinato.
In 1958, U. S. Frosinone was founded, competing in both the Seconda Promozione championships. Football returned to Frosinone in 1963 when president Cristofari together with Dante Spaziani and Augusto Orsini, announced the formation of Sporting Club Frosinone. In Serie D, Frosinone always finished among the top positions, in 1966 won promotion to Serie C after an encounter with Latina; the following year, the canarini were relegated back to Serie D, where in 1967–68 they came third fifth and second. The leading figures at the club during this period were the Stirpe brothers, coaches De Angelis and Rambone and players Benvenuto, Caputi, Da Col, Del Sette and Trentini. In 1970–71, under club president Marocco, boasted the national record for the best defence and again managed promotion to Serie C, where the canarini played out four good seasons and their star player Massimo Palanca entered the football firmament, top goalscorer of the central group of Serie C in 1974 and later was successful representing Catanzaro in Serie A.
From 1975 to 1978 the canarini played in Serie D, reaching promotion to Serie C2 in 1976–77. In 1977–78, Frosinone were again relegated back to Serie D and remained there until 1982; the club's key protagonists of the seventies were the presidents Marocco and Battista, coaches Giuseppe Banchetti and Giuseppe Lupi and players Brunello, Dal Din, Masiello, Vescovi and, as mentioned earlier, Massimo Palanca. Frosinone started the next decade in the best possible way. In 1980–81, the Canarini were promoted to Serie C2 without losing a game. Among the professionals, Frosinone managed good placements and produced new talent such as Gabbriellini, Perrotti and De Paola. Despite a precarious financial condition, Frosinone led by president Di Vito and coach Alberto Mari were promoted to Serie C1. In 1987 -- 88 season the Canarini finished mid-table, they returned to Serie C2 the next season however despite a good start. Goalkeeper Marco Cari and coach Alberto Mari were suspended for a football related betting offence.
Among the most important players during the 1980s were Davato, Atzori, Di Liso, Bellini and Edoardo Artistico Poli, who began an enviable football career. In the summer of 1990
Casale Foot Ball Club A. S. D. is an Italian football club, based in Piedmont. The club plays in Serie D; the team's nickname nerostellati refers to the team’s colours of black with a white star on the heart. When the club was founded in 1909 Casale was at the geographical centre of the new footballing movement in Italy. Genoa, Pro Vercelli, Internazionale Torino and Alessandria were all leading clubs in the Italian football league system and Casale soon joined their number. In May 1913 Casale became the first Italian club to defeat an English professional team when they beat Reading F. C. 2–1. Reading won all the other games on this tour, defeating Genoa, Pro Vercelli and the Italian national team. In the following season Casale won their only national title. Italian football was organized on a regional basis and the national championship was divided into three stages. Casale topped the Ligurian-Piedmontese division and proceeded, along with second-placed Genoa, to compete in a division comprising the top northern teams.
Having won that division, Casale defeated central-southern champions Lazio 7–1, 0–2 in the two-leg final. After World War I Casale remained in the top division for a couple of decades, representing what had been the cradle of early Italian football. With the development of professionalism, Casale was progressively relegated to lower divisions, 1934 being their last year in Serie A; the club was refounded twice, in 1993 and 2013, when it was refounded with the present, original name used from 1909 to 1925 and 1929 to 1935. Heated rivalry between the fans Casale and Alessandria. See Category:Casale F. B. C. PlayersFive players who appeared in the scudetto-winning team of 1913–14 played in the Italian national team, all making their international debuts between 1912 and 1914: Luigi Barbesino Giovanni Gallina Angelo Mattea Giuseppe Parodi Amedeo Varese Casale’s biggest star, was the full back Umberto Caligaris whose career with the club ran from 1919 to 1928. During this period he made 37 appearances for the Azzurri.
He represented Italy in the 1924 Olympics and won a bronze medal at the 1928 Summer Olympics before leaving Casale for Juventus. His total of 59 caps stood as a record for many years. Eraldo Monzeglio to represent Italy on numerous occasions, including the 1934 and 1938 World Cups, made his Serie A debut with Casale in 1924–25; the following season, however he moved to Bologna F. C. 1909. Serie A Winners: 1913–14Serie B Winners: 1929–30Serie C Winners: 1937–38Coppa Italia Dilettanti Winners: 1998–99 For 1913: Il Calcio a Casale M.to
Società Sportiva Lazio referred to as Lazio, is an Italian professional sports club based in Rome, most known for its football activity. The society, founded in 1900, plays in the Serie A and have spent most of their history in the top tier of Italian football. Lazio have been Italian champions twice, have won the Coppa Italia six times, the Supercoppa Italiana four times, both the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup and UEFA Super Cup on one occasion; the club had their first major success in 1958. In 1974, they won their first Serie A title; the 1990s have been the most successful period in Lazio's history, seeing them win the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup and UEFA Super Cup in 1999, the Serie A title in 2000, reaching their first UEFA Cup final in 1998. Due to a severe economic crisis in 2002 that forced president Sergio Cragnotti out of the club along with several star players being sold, Lazio's success in the league declined. In spite of the lower funds, the club has won three Coppa Italia titles since then.
Current president Claudio Lotito took charge of the club in 2004 after two years of a vacuum after Cragnotti's departure. Lazio's traditional kit colours are sky white shorts with white socks. Sky blue socks have been interchangeably used as home colours, their home is the 70,634 capacity Stadio Olimpico in Rome, which they share with A. S. Roma until 2020, when the latter will leave for the Stadio della Roma. Lazio have a long-standing rivalry with Roma, with whom they have contested the Derby della Capitale since 1929. Despite not having any parent–subsidiary relation with the male and female professional team, the founding of Società Sportiva Lazio allowed for the club that participates in over 40 sports disciplines in total, more than any other sports association in the world. Società Podistica Lazio was founded on 9 January 1900 in the Prati district of Rome; until 1910, the club played at an amateur level until it joined the league competition in 1912 as soon as the Italian Football Federation began organising championships in the center and south of Italy, reached the final of the national championship playoff three times, but never won, losing in 1913 to Pro Vercelli, in 1914 to Casale and in 1923 to Genoa 1893.
In 1927, Lazio was the only major Roman club which resisted the Fascist regime's attempts to merge all the city's teams into what would become A. S. Roma the same year; the club played in the first organised Serie A in 1929 and, led by legendary Italian striker Silvio Piola, achieved a second-place finish in 1937 – its highest pre-war result. The 1950s produced a mix of mid and upper table results with a Coppa Italia win in 1958. Lazio was relegated for the first time in 1961 to the Serie B, but returned in the top flight two years later. After a number of mid-table placements, another relegation followed in 1970–71. Back to Serie A in 1972–73, Lazio emerged as surprise challengers for the Scudetto to Milan and Juventus in 1972–73, only losing out on the final day of the season, with a team comprising captain Giuseppe Wilson, as well as midfielders Luciano Re Cecconi and Mario Frustalupi, striker Giorgio Chinaglia, head coach Tommaso Maestrelli. Lazio improved such successes the following season, ensuring its first title in 1973–74.
However, tragic deaths of Re Cecconi and Scudetto trainer Maestrelli, as well as the departure of Chinaglia, would be a triple blow for Lazio. The emergence of Bruno Giordano during this period provided some relief as he finished League top scorer in 1979, when Lazio finished eighth. Lazio were forcibly relegated to Serie B in 1980 due to a remarkable scandal concerning illegal bets on their own matches, along with Milan, they remained in Italy's second division for three seasons in what would mark the darkest period in Lazio's history. They would manage a last-day escape from relegation the following season; the 1984–85 season would prove harrowing, with a pitiful 15 points and bottom place finish. In 1986, Lazio was hit with a nine-point deduction for a betting scandal involving player Claudio Vinazzani. An epic struggle against relegation followed the same season in Serie B, with the club led by trainer Eugenio Fascetti only avoiding relegation to the Serie C after play-off wins over Taranto and Campobasso.
This would prove a turning point in the club's history, with Lazio returning to Serie A in 1988 and, under the careful financial management of Gianmarco Calleri, the consolidation of the club's position as a solid top-flight club. The arrival of Sergio Cragnotti in 1992 changed the club's history due to his long-term investments in new players to make the team a Scudetto competitor. A notable early transfer during his tenure was the capture of English midfielder Paul Gascoigne from Tottenham Hotspur for £5.5 million. Gascoigne's transfer to Lazio is credited with the increase of interest in Serie A in the United Kingdom during the 1990s. Cragnotti broke transfer records in pursuit of players who were considered major stars – Juan Sebastián Verón for £18 million, Christian Vieri for £19 million and breaking the world transfer record, albeit only for a matter of weeks, to sign Hernán Crespo from Parma for £35 million. Lazio were Serie A runners-up in 1995, third in 1996 and fourth in 1997 losing the championship just by one point to Milan on the last championship's match in 1999 before, with the likes of Siniša Mihajlović, Alessandro Nesta, Marcelo Salas and Pavel Nedvěd in the side, winning its se