Nola is a town and a municipality in the Metropolitan City of Naples, southern Italy. It lies on the plain between Mount Vesuvius and the Apennines, it is traditionally credited as the diocese. Excavations at Nola-Croce del Papa have uncovered extensive evidence of a small village abandoned at the time of the Avellino Eruption in the 17th century BC; this powerful eruption from Mount Vesuvius caused the inhabitants to leave behind a wide range of pottery and other artifacts. The foundations of their buildings are preserved in imprints among the mud left by the eruption. Nola was one of the oldest cities with its most ancient coins bearing the name Nuvlana, it was said to have been founded by the Ausones, who were occupying the city by c. 560 BC. It once vied in luxury with Capua. During the Roman invasion of Naples in 328 BC, Nola was occupied by the Oscans in alliance with the Samnites. Amid the Samnite War, the Romans took the town in 311 BC. Under Roman rule, the city was the site of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd Battles of Nola during Hannibal's invasion of Italy amid the Second Punic War.
On two occasions, it was defended by Marcellus. It fell by treason to the Samnites during the Social War, it was stormed by Spartacus during his failed slave revolt. The emperor Augustus died there on 19 August AD 14, in the same room his father died in 72 years earlier. Augustus and Vespasian settled colonies in the area. In the Roman road network, Nola lay between Lower Nocera on the Via Popilia. A branch road ran from it to Avellino. Though a relative backwater, Nola retained its status as a municipium, its own institutions, the use of the Oscan language, it was divided into pagi, the names of some of which are preserved: Pagus Agrifanus, Lanitanus. The discoveries of the pavement of the ancient city have not been noted with sufficient care to recover most of the plan, but a large number of Grecian vases were made at Nola, using its fine yellow clay and a shining black glaze, they are decorated with red figures. Following the rise of Christianity, it became a bishopric. One bishop, the Christian senator Paulinus, is traditionally credited with the introduction of the use of bells to Christian worship.
His small handbells were subsequently known as nolas for his seat and the larger tower bells as campanas from the surrounding area. Revered as a saint, Paulinus's relics turned the town into a site of Christian pilgrimage. Nola was sacked by Alaric in 410 and by the Vandals under Gaiseric in 453, it was captured by Manfred of Sicily in the 13th century. Under Charles of Anjou, it was held by Guy de Montfort as the County of Nola, it was inherited by his eldest daughter's Orsini husband and held by members of their family. The 1460 Battle of Nola is noteworthy for the clever stratagem by which John, duke of Calabria, defeated Ferdinand, king of Naples, who fled the field with only 20 followers. Ferdinand, was supported by Pope Pius II, the duke of Milan, the Albanian lord Skanderbeg. With his wife Isabella wooing John's major supporters away, the king recovered his domain over the next decade. Nola itself subsequently lost its importance after its repeated destruction by earthquakes in the 15th and 16th centuries.
The nearby Cicala Castle was the birthplace of Giordano Bruno. In 1820, General Pepe's revolution began in Nola; the sculptor Giovanni Merliano was a native of the city. Nola is a suburb of Naples. In the 1990s to the 2000s, a waste management crisis broke out in the city as a result of illegal dumping by the Camorra. Majority of the waste was dumped in the region between Nola and Marigliano, referred to as the "Triangle of Death". A 2004 study by Alfredo Mazza published in The Lancet Oncology revealed that deaths by cancer in the area are much higher than the European average. Although Roman ruins—including an amphitheater and temple to Augustus—survived as long as the 16th century, they were plundered for building material and few signs remain. A few tombs are preserved, results from excavations are displayed at the Archaeological Museum. Other sites include: Nola Cathedral: a Gothic church St Thomas's Old Cathedral Orsini Palace San Biago's, a late-Renaissance church decorated with polychrome marble and 17th-century Neapolitan paintings The local seminary, which preserves the Cippus Abellanus Oscan inscriptions Cicala Castle Giordano Bruno monument Augustus, founder of the Roman Empire, died at Nola 19 August AD 14 St Felix of Nola St Paulinus of Nola, senator and theologian Luigi Tansillo Giovanni Merliano, whose work is well represented in the cathedral Ambrogio Leo, a doctor Nicola Antonio Stigliola, a philosopher Giordano Bruno, who referred to himself as the Nolano and his work as Nolana filosofia Nicola Napolitano, brigand Two fairs are held in Nola: one on 14 June and another on 12 November.
The Festival of the Lilies is held on 22 the Sunday beforehand, honoring St Paulinus. It lasts seven days, til the next Sunday. Eight lilies and a boat are covered with papier-mache from the city's art shops. On the last day of the festival, the huge lilies are carried through the town on residents' shoulders along a route, followed for more than a thousand years; each repre
Santa Maria Capua Vetere
Santa Maria Capua Vetere is a town and comune in the province of Caserta, part of the region of Campania. Though it is not connected with the Civitas Capuana, the town is a medieval place and its proximity to the Roman amphitheatre led the inhabitants to change its name in Santa Maria Capua Vetere, where Capua Vetere means Old Capua. For the history of ancient Capua, see Capua Antica. In the area several settlements of the Villanovan culture were present in pre-historical times, these were enlarged by the Oscans and Etruscans. In the 4th century BCE Capuae was the largest city in Italy after Rome; the city was damaged by Vandal ravages but recovered and became the seat of an independent Lombard principate. However, during the struggle of the succession to the Duchy of Benevento, it was destroyed by a band of Saracens in 841 CE; the survivors fled and founded the modern Capua in the site of the ancient River port of Casilinum. What is now Santa Maria Capua Vetere started to grow when several countryside residences appeared around the old Christian basilicas of Santa Maria Maggiore, San Pietro in Corpo and Sant'Erasmo in Capitolio.
King Robert of Anjou made Santa Maria Maggiore one of his summer residences. The town was known as Santa Maria Maggiore until 1861. For information about main ancient landmarks in the comune of Santa Maria Capua Vetere, see Main sights in Capua; the main other landmark of Santa Maria Capua Vetere is the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, according to the tradition, by Pope Symmachus in the 5th century. The church had a single nave, but was enlarged by Lombard Prince Arechis II of Benevento in 787. Another renovation was carried out in 1666 by Cardinal Robert Bellarmine, with the addition of two further aisles. Marcello Trotta, was born here. Errico Malatesta was an Italian anarchist and political activist and revolutionary. Frank Matano, Italian actor and voice actor. Murcia, Spain Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli Bishopric of Capua "Santa Maria Capua Vetere". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
U.S. Folgore Caratese A.S.D.
U. S. Folgore Caratese A. S. D. is an Italian association football club, based in Carate Brianza which plays in Serie D group A. The club was founded in 2011 after the merger of U. S. Folgore Verano and U. S. Caratese; the most notable former player of Caratese has been Moreno Torricelli. Folgore Caratese is a satellite team of Novara Calcio; the club serves as a training side for Novara's young talents. The team's colors are blue with white border, it plays at the Stadio XXV Aprile in Carate Brianza, which has a capacity of 3,000. Official Website
Campania is a region in Southern Italy. As of 2018, the region has a population of around 5,820,000 people, making it the third-most-populous region of Italy. Located on the Italian Peninsula, with the Mediterranean Sea to the west, it includes the small Phlegraean Islands and Capri for administration as part of the region. Campania was part of Magna Græcia. During the Roman era, the area maintained a Greco-Roman culture; the capital city of Campania is Naples. Campania is rich in culture in regard to gastronomy, architecture and ancient sites such as Pompeii, Oplontis, Aeclanum and Velia; the name of Campania itself is derived from Latin, as the Romans knew the region as Campania felix, which translates into English as "fertile countryside" or "happy countryside". The rich natural sights of Campania make it important in the tourism industry along the Amalfi Coast, Mount Vesuvius and the island of Capri; the original inhabitants of Campania were three defined groups of the Ancient peoples of Italy, who all spoke the Oscan language, part of the Italic family.
During the 8th century BC, people from Euboea in Greece, known as Cumaeans, began to establish colonies in the area around the modern day province of Naples. Another Oscan tribe, the Samnites, moved down from central Italy into Campania. Since the Samnites were more warlike than the Campanians, they took over the cities of Capua and Cumae, in an area, one of the most prosperous and fertile in the Italian Peninsula at the time. During the 340s BC, the Samnites were engaged in a war with the Roman Republic in a dispute known as the Samnite Wars, with the Romans securing rich pastures of northern Campania during the First Samnite War; the major remaining independent Greek settlement was Neapolis, when the town was captured by the Samnites, the Neapolitans were left with no other option than to call on the Romans, with whom they established an alliance, setting off the Second Samnite War. The Roman consul Quintus Publilius Filo recaptured Neapolis by 326 BC and allowed it to remain a Greek city with some autonomy as a civitas foederata while aligned with Rome.
The Second Samnite War ended with the Romans controlling southern Campania and additional regions further to the south. Campania was a full-fledged part of the Roman Republic by the end of the 4th century BC, valued for its pastures and rich countryside, its Greek language and customs made it a centre of Hellenistic civilization, creating the first traces of Greco-Roman culture. During the Pyrrhic War the battle took place in Campania at Maleventum in which the Romans, led by consul Curius Dentatus, were victorious, they renamed the city Beneventum, which grew in stature until it was second only to Capua in southern Italy. During the Second Punic War in 216 BC, Capua, in a bid for equality with Rome, allied with Carthage; the rebellious Capuans were isolated from the rest of Campania. Naples resisted Hannibal due to the imposing walls. Capua was starved into submission in the Roman retaking of 211 BC, the Romans were victorious; the rest of Campania, with the exception of Naples, adopted the Latin language as official and was Romanised.
As part of the Roman Empire, with Latium, formed the most important region of the Augustan divisions of Italia. In ancient times Misenum, at the extreme northern end of the bay of Naples, was the largest base of the Roman navy, since its port was the base of the Classis Misenensis, the most important Roman fleet, it was first established as a naval base in 27 BC by Marcus Agrippa, the right-hand man of the emperor Augustus. Roman Emperors chose Campania as a holiday destination, among them Claudius and Tiberius, the latter of whom is infamously linked to the island of Capri, it was during this period that Christianity came to Campania. Two of the apostles, St. Peter and St. Paul, are said to have preached in the city of Naples, there were several martyrs during this time; the period of relative calm was violently interrupted by the epic eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 which buried the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. With the Decline of the Roman Empire, its last emperor, Romulus Augustus, was put in a manor house prison near Castel dell'Ovo, Naples, in 476, ushering in the beginning of the Middle Ages and a period of uncertainty in regard to the future of the area.
The area had many duchies and principalities during the Middle Ages, in the hands of the Byzantine Empire and the Lombards. Under the Normans, the smaller independent states were brought together as part of the Kingdom of Sicily, before the mainland broke away to form the Kingdom of Naples, it was during this period that elements of Spanish and Aragonese culture were introduced to Campania. After a period as a Norman kingdom, the Kingdom of Sicily passed to the Hohenstaufens, who were a powerful Germanic royal house of Swabian origins; the University of Naples Federico II was founded by Frederick II in the city, the oldest state university in the world, making Naples the intellectual centre of the kingdom. Conflict between the Hohenstaufen house and the Papacy, led in 1266 to Pope Innocent IV crowning Angevin Dynasty duke Charles I as the king. Charles moved the capital from Palermo to Naples where he resided at the Castel Nuovo. During this period, much Gothic architec
Football in Italy
Football is the most popular sport in Italy. The Italian national football team is considered to be one of the best national teams in the world, they have won the FIFA World Cup four times, trailing only Brazil, runners-up in two finals and reaching a third place and a fourth place. They have won one European Championship appearing in two finals, finished third at the Confederations Cup, won one Olympic football tournament and two Central European International Cups. Italy's top domestic league, the Serie A, is one of the most popular professional sports leagues in the world and it is depicted as the most tactical national football league. Italy's club sides have won 48 major European trophies, making them the second most successful nation in European football. Serie A hosts three of the world's most famous clubs as Juventus and Inter, all founding members of the G-14, a group which represented the largest and most prestigious European football clubs. Juventus and Inter, along with Roma, Fiorentina and Parma but now Napoli are known as the Seven Sisters of Italian football.
Italian managers are the most successful in European Football in competitions such as the Champions League. More players have won the coveted Ballon d'Or award while playing at a Serie A club than any other league in the world. Other forms of football were played in Italy in ancient times, the earliest of, Harpastum, played during the times of the Roman Empire; this game may have been influential to other forms throughout Europe due to the expansion of the Empire, including Medieval football. From the 16th century onwards, Calcio Fiorentino, another code of football distinct from the modern game, was played in the Piazza Santa Croce in Florence; some famous Florentines were amongst players of the game the Medici family including Piero and Alessandro de' Medici. As well as Popes such as Clement VII, Leo XI and Urban VIII who played the game in the Vatican; the name calcio was adopted for football in Italy. The modern variation of the game was brought to Italy during the 1880s; the title of the first Italian football club is a controversial one, the most cited in popular history is Genoa Cricket and Football Club who were formed as a cricket club to represent England abroad, founded by Englishmen in 1893.
Three years in 1896 a man named James Richardson Spensley arrived in Genoa introducing the football section of the club and becoming its first manager. However, evidence exists to suggest. Edoardo Bosio, a merchant worker in the British textile industry had visited England and experienced the game, he was motivated to help spread football in his homeland. He founded Cricket Club that year while Nobili Torino soon followed; the second club bore the name of noble because it contained the Duke of the Abruzzi and Alfonso Ferrero di Ventimiglia. The two merged in 1891 to form Internazionale Football Club Torino, By 1898 the rival federation FIGC had been formed, with its center in Turin and the first two presidents as Mario Vicary and Luigi D'Ovidio. FIGC created the Italian Football Championship with the four founder clubs being; the first competition of, held at Velodromo Umberto I in Turin on 8 May 1898 and was won by Genoa. While it was common for clubs to compete in both FIGC and FNGI competitions early on, the titles won in the FIGC championship are the only ones recognised by the modern day league.
In the following years, the tournament was structured into regional groups with the winners of each group participating in a playoff with the eventual winners being declared champions. Until to 1904 the tournament was dominated by Genoa. Between 1905 and 1908 a Final Group among regional champions was contested to award the title and the Spensley Cup. Juventus won his first title and Spensley Cup in 1905, but the two following championships were won by Milan. In November 1907, the FIF organised two championships in the same season: Italian Championship, the main tournament where only Italian players were allowed to play; the majority of big clubs withdrew from both the championships in order to protest against the autarchical policy of the FIF. The Federal Championship was won by Juventus against Doria, while The Italian Championship 1908 and Coppa Buni were won by Pro Vercelli, beating Juventus, Doria and US Milanese. However, the Federal Championship won by Juventus was forgotten by FIGC, due to the boycott made by the dissident clubs.
In 1909 season, the two different championships were organised again, with Coppa Obe
Luparense F.C. (football)
Luparense Football Club is an Italian association football in San Martino di Lupari in the Province of Padua. It is the same club; the club was founded in 1933 and refounded in 1952. It have played as Unione Sportiva Luparense in Serie C and Serie D. June 22, 2015 A. S. D. Radio Birikina merged with A. S. D. Luparense Football Club, the local club of futsal changing its name in the current, it plays with the team B after the moving of "S. S. D. Atletico San Paolo Padova", now Luparense San Paolo F. C. in the same city. The team's colors are blue. Official website of Luparense F. C
Associazione Calcio Dilettantistica Legnano referred to as Legnano, is an Italian football club based in Legnano, Lombardy. Founded in 1913, Legnano played three seasons in Serie A and a total of eleven seasons in the top tier of the Italian football league system. Legnano's most recent appearance in Serie A dates back to 1954, whereas in 1957 the club took part for the last time – to date – in a Serie B championship. Since the club have played at their highest at the third tier of the Italian league; the team's colours are white. After financial struggles and bankruptcy in 2010 the club folded and reformed in 2011 as ASD Legnano Calcio 1913; the club were founded in 1913 as Football Club Legnano. Several notable players appeared for Legnano in their early years. Goalkeeper Angelo Cameroni was called up to the Italian national side in 1920. Luigi Allemandi played four seasons with the club from 1921 onwards, until he was bought by Italian giants Juventus, he won the World Cup with Italy at the 1934 FIFA World Cup.
Legnano first gained access to Serie A for the 1930–31 season. The first match at the top level of Italian football was the shocking 2–1 defeat of Italy's oldest club, Genoa C. F. C. For Legnano, they finished at the bottom of the table that season and were relegated. S. Roma, a 2–1 defeat of S. S. C. Napoli in Naples. In the 1935–1936 season, the club changed their name to Associazione Calcio Legnano. Left-winger Emilio Caprile was called up by the azzurri, to play in two international games during 1948, he became the first Legnano player to score for Italy with a goal in each match. After their last relegation in from Serie A in 1953–54, the club have declined. First they came close to promotion back into the league with a 3rd position in B, but two years they were relegated down to Serie C. Legnano spent 18 years in a row competing in Serie C, only able to finish as high as 5th in that time. 1974–75 saw the club slump down to Serie D. Giovanni Mari took over as club president in 1979 and under him, Legnano would achieve the championship of Serie C2.
This was the first time A. C. Legnano had finished first position in any league since 1919; the club's stadium was named Stadio Giovanni Mari in honour of the man. Following bankruptcy in 2010, Legnano subsequently folded, it was refounded on July 15, 2011, as A. S. D. Legnano Calcio was admitted to Group N of Prima Categoria Lombardy in the 2011 -- 12 season; the club was promoted to Group A of Promozione Lombardy. The club had a successive second promotion after finishing as champions of Group A of Promozione Lombardy next season and was promoted to Group A of Eccellenza Lombardy. On May 7, 2015, A. S. D. Legnano Calcio 1913 re-acquired the name Associazione Calcio Legnano, they were eliminated in the play-offs. They were qualified for the play-offs again, they defeated Torviscosa with 4–1 aggregate in semifinal and Sankt Georgen with 4–3 aggregate in final and were promoted to Serie D. Over the years Legnano has had chairmen or presidential figures.