Associazione Sportiva Roma referred to as Roma, is an Italian professional football club based in Rome. Founded by a merger in 1927, Roma have participated in the top-tier of Italian football for all of their existence except for 1951–52. Roma have won Serie A three times, in 1941–42, 1982–83 and 2000–01, as well as winning nine Coppa Italia titles and two Supercoppa Italiana titles. In European competitions, Roma won the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup in 1960–61 and were runners-up in the 1983–84 European Cup and the 1990–91 UEFA Cup. Fifteen players have won the FIFA World Cup while playing at Roma: Ferraris and Masetti. Since 1953, Roma have played their home matches at the Stadio Olimpico, a venue they share with city rivals Lazio. With a capacity of over 72,000, it is the second-largest of its kind in Italy, with only the San Siro able to seat more; the club plan to move to a new stadium. The club's home colours are Tyrian purple and gold, which gives Roma their nickname "I Giallorossi"; these colours have been combined with white shorts.
Their club badge features an allusion to the founding myth of Rome. A. S. Roma was founded in the summer of 1927 when Italo Foschi initiated the merger of three older Italian Football Championship clubs from the city of Rome: Roman FC, SS Alba-Audace and Fortitudo-Pro Roma SGS; the purpose of the merger was to give the Italian capital a strong club to rival that of the more dominant Northern Italian clubs of the time. The only major Roman club to resist the merger was Lazio because of the intervention of the army General Vaccaro, a member of the club and executive of Italian Football Federation. All three founding clubs were relegated, but the fascist-aligned FIGC bet over the capacity of the new team to give a stronger representation to the capital of Italy, they were awarded a wild card for the Divisione Nazionale, the Serie A forerunner; the club played its earliest seasons at the Motovelodromo Appio stadium, before settling in the working-class streets of Testaccio, where it built an all-wooden ground Campo Testaccio.
An early season in which Roma made a large mark was the 1930–31 championship, where the club finished as runners-up behind Juventus. Captain Attilio Ferraris, along with Guido Masetti, Fulvio Bernardini and Rodolfo Volk, were important players during this period. After a slump in league form and the departure of high key players, Roma rebuilt their squad adding goalscorers such as the Argentine Enrique Guaita. Under the management of Luigi Barbesino, the Roman club came close to their first title in 1935–36, finishing just one point behind champions Bologna. Roma returned to form after being inconsistent for much of the late 1930s. Roma recorded an unexpected title triumph in the 1941–42 season by winning their first Scudetto title; the 18 goals scored by local player Amedeo Amadei were essential to the Alfréd Schaffer-coached Roma side winning the title. At the time, Italy was involved in World War II and Roma were playing at the Stadio del Partito Nazionale Fascista. In the years just after the war, Roma were unable to recapture their league stature from the early 1940s.
Roma finished in the lower half of Serie A for five seasons in a row, before succumbing to their only relegation to Serie B at the end of the 1950–51 season, around a decade after their championship victory. Under future Italy national team manager Giuseppe Viani, promotion straight back up was achieved. After returning to the Serie A, Roma managed to stabilise themselves as a top half club again with players such as Egisto Pandolfini, Dino Da Costa and Dane Helge Bronée, their best finish of this period was under the management of Englishman Jesse Carver, when in 1954–55, they finished as runners-up after Udinese, who finished second were relegated for corruption. Although Roma were unable to break into the top four during the following decade, they did achieve some measure of cup success, their first honour outside of Italy was recorded in 1960–61 when Roma won the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup by defeating Birmingham City 4–2 in the finals. A few years Roma won their first Coppa Italia trophy in 1963–64 after defeating Torino 1–0.
Their lowest point came during the 1964–65 season, when manager Juan Carlos Lorenzo announced the club could not pay its players and was unlikely to be able to afford to travel to Vicenza to fulfil its next fixture. Supporters kept the club going with a fundraiser at the Sistine Theatre and bankruptcy was avoided with the election of a new club president Franco Evangelisti, their second Coppa Italia trophy was won in 1968–69, when it competed in a small, league-like system. Giacomo Losi set a Roma appearance record in 1969 with 450 appearances in all competitions, a record that would last 38 years. Roma were able to add another cup to their collection in 1972, with a 3–1 victory over Blackpool in the Anglo-Italian Cup. During much of the 1970s, Roma's appearance in the top half of Serie A was sporadic; the best place the club were able to achieve during the decade was third in 1974–75. Notable players who turned out for the club during this period included midfielders Giancarlo De Sisti and Francesco Rocca.
The dawning of a newly successful era in Roma's footballing history was brought in with another Coppa Italia victory, they defeated Torino on penalties to win the 1979–80 edition. Roma would reach heights in the league which they had not touched since the 1940s by narrowly an
Lieutenant Harold Koch Boysen was a World War I flying ace credited with five aerial victories. Boysen joined the Royal Flying Corps in June 1917. After training, he was assigned to 66 Squadron to fly a Sopwith Pup, he would not have any success until the unit re-equipped with Sopwith Camels and transferred fronts from France to northern Italy. He scored a victory in December 1917. In January 1918, he crashed while landing in a fog, was injured. Upon recovery, he scored four more times in May 1918, including one win shared with Lieutenant Christopher McEvoy. List of World War I flying aces from the United States American Aces of World War I. Norman Franks, Harry Dempsey. Osprey Publishing, 2001. ISBN 1-84176-375-6, ISBN 978-1-84176-375-0
Crawshay Bailey Junior was one of the great landowners of Wales towards the end of the 19th century. The son and namesake of industrialist and iron-master Crawshay Bailey, he inherited all of his father's lands and properties, some 12,248 acres in Wales alone, he did not take on his father's iron manufacturing business, instead he devoted himself towards developing his landed estates. He built his family seat at Maindiff and was an important benefactor to the area. Although his father, Crawshay Bailey Snr, was married to Anne Moore, Crawshay Bailey Jnr was borne by Sarah Baker, a servant in the Bailey household, he was Bailey's only son. Upon inheriting his father's estate in 1872, Bailey Jnr moved into a house at Maindiff, just outside Abergavenny. However, it failed to embody his new found wealth and status so in 1875 he built a new mansion, Maindiff Court, leading to him being dubbed locally the'Squire of Maindiff'; the grand three-storey house had a 2-storey porch with a single storey portico extending from it, headed by a balustrade and supported on Corinthian columns.
The house was demolished in the 1930s to make way for Maindiff Court Hospital In 1873, Bailey married Elizabeth, Countess Bettina, daughter of the Count Metaxa. Together they had two daughters and Augusta. Bailey became an popular figure in the Abergavenny area owing to his "benevolent and genial nature" and generous support of charitable institutions and projects in the town. Maindiff Court acquired a reputation for "unbounded hospitality"; the Bailey's threw garden parties for their tenants and their families and his wife made themselves at home among the locals and all were made welcome to explore the house and gardens. A luxurious spread was provided and music and dancing went on until nightfall. Testament to Bailey's popularity, the town celebrated the marriage of his eldest daughter in 1884 by decorating the streets with flags and banners. Crowds of thousands gathered in Abergavenny to welcome the newlyweds. A marching band lead the procession of carriages carrying the happy couple and the rest of the Bailey family from the railway station through the town and on to Maindiff Court, where they were greeted by a choir of local schoolchildren.
Afterwards the crowd which had followed the procession adjourned to an adjoining field where the Bailey's provided refreshments and that evening entertainment in the form of a pyrotechnic display consisting of fireworks and bonfires lit on the surrounding hills. A similar celebration took place in 1888 for the marriage of Bailey's other daughter. In Abergavenny and the surrounding area Bailey's benevolence can be still be appreciated. In 1883 he leased the land established Bailey Park, he opened the park to the public. In 1894 when the lease came to an end, the town purchased the park freehold with monies raised from the Bailey family. Bailey was a staunch supporter of the church. In 1877 he helped raise £11,000 for the restoration of St Mary's church, Abergavenny. In 1879 he covered the £2000 cost of rebuilding St David's church in Llanddewi Skirrid, where he and his mother are buried, he was responsible for the construction of the village hall in Llanddewi Skirrid and a lodge for the widow of the vicar there.
He funded refurbishments to St Faith's church, Llanfoist where his father is buried. Bailey died in 1887 after suffering a quick decline in his health. In the months leading up to his death he had become a recluse, living in Monkstown, Dublin in the hope that the sea air would remedy his declining health. At the time of his death he had become estranged from his family, after abruptly leaving them to travel the world, during which time he made little attempt to contact anybody back home, his death came as a shock to the townspeople of Abergavenny who held him in high esteem and were unaware of his declining health