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A. G. Spalding

Albert Goodwill Spalding was an American pitcher and executive in the early years of professional baseball, the co-founder of A. G. Spalding sporting goods company, he was born and raised in Byron, Illinois yet graduated from Rockford Central High School in Rockford, Illinois. He played major league baseball between 1871 and 1878. Spalding set a trend. After his retirement as a player, Spalding remained active with the Chicago White Stockings as president and part-owner. In the 1880s, he took players on the first world tour of baseball. With William Hulbert, Spalding organized the National League, he called for the commission that investigated the origins of baseball and credited Abner Doubleday with creating the game. He wrote the first set of official baseball rules. Having played baseball throughout his youth, Spalding first played competitively with the Rockford Pioneers, a youth team, which he joined in 1865. After pitching his team to a 26–2 victory over a local men's amateur team, he was approached at the age of 15 by another squad, the Cleveland Forest Citys, for whom he played for two years.

In the autumn of 1867 he accepted a $40 per week contract, nominally as a clerk, but to play professionally for the Chicago Excelsiors, not an uncommon arrangement used to circumvent the rules of the time, which forbade the hiring of professional players. Following the formation of baseball's first professional organization, the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players in 1871, Spalding joined the Boston Red Stockings and was successful. William Hulbert, principal owner of the Chicago White Stockings, did not like the loose organization of the National Association and the gambling element that influenced it, so he decided to create a new organization, which he dubbed the National League of Baseball Clubs. To aid him in this venture, Hulbert enlisted the help of Spalding. Playing to the pitcher's desire to return to his Midwestern roots and challenging Spalding's integrity, Hulbert convinced Spalding to sign a contract to play for the White Stockings in 1876. Spalding coaxed teammates Deacon White, Ross Barnes and Cal McVey, as well as Philadelphia Athletics players Cap Anson and Bob Addy, to sign with Chicago.

This was all done under complete secrecy during the playing season because players were all free agents in those days and they did not want their current club and the fans to know they were leaving to play elsewhere the next year. News of the signings by the Boston and Philadelphia players leaked to the press before the season ended and all of them faced verbal abuse and physical threats from the fans of those cities, he was "the premier pitcher of the 1870s", leading the league in victories for each of his six full seasons as a professional. During each of those years he was his team's only pitcher. In 1876, Spalding won 47 games as the prime pitcher for the White Stockings and led them to win the first-ever National League pennant by a wide margin. In 1877, Spalding began to use a glove to protect his catching hand. People had used gloves but they were not popular, Spalding himself was skeptical of wearing one at first. However, once he began donning gloves, he influenced other players to do so.

Spalding retired from playing baseball in 1878 at the age of 27, although he continued as president and part owner of the White Stockings and a major influence on the National League. Spalding's.796 career winning percentage is the highest by a baseball pitcher, far exceeding the second-best.690. In the months after signing for Chicago and Spalding organized the National League by enlisting the two major teams in the East and the four other top teams in what was considered to be the West known as the jungle. Joining Chicago were the leading teams from Cincinnati, St. Louis; the owners of these western clubs accompanied Hulbert and Spalding to New York where they secretly met with owners from New York City, Philadelphia and Boston. Each signed the league's constitution, the National League was born. "Spalding was thus involved in the transformation of baseball from a game of gentlemen athletes into a business and a professional sport." Although the National Association held on for a few more seasons, it was no longer recognized as the premier organization for professional baseball.

It faded out of existence and was replaced by myriad minor leagues and associations around the country. In 1886, with Spalding as President of the franchise, the Chicago White Stockings, began holding spring training in Hot Springs, which subsequently has been called the "birthplace" of spring training baseball; the location and the training concept was the brainchild of Spalding and his player/manager Cap Anson, who saw that the city and the natural springs created positives for their players. They first played in an area called the Hot Springs Baseball Grounds. Many other teams began training in Hot Springs and other locations. In 1905, after Henry Chadwick wrote an article saying that baseball grew from the British sports of cricket and rounders, Spalding called for a commission to find out the real source of baseball; the commission called for citizens who knew anything about the founding of baseball to send in letters. After three years of searching, on December 30, 1907, Spa

Bhatsa Dam

Bhatsa Dam, is an earthfill and gravity dam on Bhatsa river near Shahapur, Thane district in state of Maharashtra in India. The height of the dam above lowest foundation is 88.5 m while the length is 959 m. The volume content is 18.25 km3 and gross storage capacity is.97615 km3. Irrigation - Bhatsa dam has Right bank canal and Left bank canal for irrigation. However, only Right bank canal is functional. Water supply - Bhatsa dam is the major source of water for MCGM and TMC; the water for both the municipal corporations is pumped from Pise Dam, 50km away from Bhatsa dam on Bhatsa river. Water for Khardi and 5 nearby villages is pumped from the downstream side of the dam. Hydroelectric powerplant - It has a capacity of 15MW. List of dams and reservoirs in Maharashtra List of dams and reservoirs in India

Carl Diener

Carl Diener was an Austrian geographer and paleontologist. In 1883 he received his doctorate from the University of Vienna, where his instructors included Eduard Suess and Melchior Neumayr. In 1893 he changed his venia legendi from geography to geology, a subject that he became an associate professor of in 1897. In 1906 he was named a full professor of paleontology at the University of Vienna, he is best remembered for his faunistic investigations of the Alps. He conducted important research on his numerous travels worldwide — Syria and Lebanon, the Pyrenees, the Himalayas, the Urals and the Caucasus, North America, et al. In 1895, with Wilhelm Heinrich Waagen, he proposed the Anisian Stage as a replacement for the "Alpine Muschelkalk", he was an avid mountaineer, for a number of years was president of the Österreichischer Alpenverein. He was a member of the Alpine Club in London. With Viktor Uhlig, Rudolf Hoernes and Eduard Suess, he was co-author of the four-part Bau und bild Österreichs, of which Diener wrote Part 2: Bau und bild der Ostalpen und des Karstgebietes.

He made major contributions to the paleontological bibliography, Fossilium Catalogus. Diener's other noteworthy written efforts include: Libanon. Grundlinien der physischen geographie und geologie von Mittel-Syrien, 1886 – Lebanon: Outlines of physical geography and geology of central Syria. Der Gebirgsbau der Westalpen, 1891 – The mountain structure of the western Alps. Triadische Cephalopodenfaunen der ostsibirischen Küstenprovinz, 1895 – Triassic cephalopodic fauna of the east Siberian coastal region. Mittheilungen über einige Cephalopodensuiten aus der Trias der Südalpen, 1901 – On some cephalopod groups from the Triassic strata of the southern Alps. "Triassic faunae of Kashmir", 1913. Paläontologie und Abstammungslehre, 1920 – Paleontology and evolutionary theory. Ammonoidea permiana, 1921 – Permian Ammonoidea. Cnidaria triadica, 1921 – Triassic Cnidaria. Lamellibranchiata triadica, 1923 – Triassic Lamellibranchiata. Grundzüge der Biostratigraphie, 1925 – Outline of biostratigraphy