Sir Alfred Jules "Freddie" Ayer cited as A. J. Ayer, was an English philosopher known for his promotion of logical positivism in his books Language and Logic and The Problem of Knowledge, he was educated at Eton College and Oxford University, after which he studied the philosophy of logical positivism at the University of Vienna. From 1933 to 1940 he lectured on philosophy at Oxford. During the Second World War Ayer was a Special Operations Executive and MI6 agent, he was Grote Professor of the Philosophy of Mind and Logic at University College London from 1946 until 1959, after which he returned to Oxford to become Wykeham Professor of Logic at New College. He was president of the Aristotelian Society from 1951 to 1952 and knighted in 1970, he was known for his advocacy of humanism, was the second President of the British Humanist Association. Ayer was born in St John's Wood, in north west London, to a wealthy family from continental Europe, his mother, Reine Citroën, was from the Dutch-Jewish family who founded the Citroën car company in France.
His father, Jules Ayer, was a Swiss Calvinist financier. Ayer was educated at Ascham St Vincent's School, a former boarding preparatory school for boys in the seaside town of Eastbourne in Sussex, in which he started boarding at the comparatively early age of seven for reasons to do with the First World War, Eton College, a boarding school in Eton in Berkshire, it was at Eton that Ayer first became known for his characteristic precocity. Although interested in furthering his intellectual pursuits, he was keen on sports rugby, reputedly played the Eton Wall Game well. In the final examinations at Eton, Ayer came second in his year, first in classics. In his final year, as a member of Eton's senior council, he unsuccessfully campaigned for the abolition of corporal punishment at the school, he won a classics scholarship to Oxford. After graduation from Oxford University Ayer spent a year in Vienna, returned to England and published his first book, Language and Logic in 1936; the first exposition in English of Logical Positivism as newly developed by the Vienna Circle, this made Ayer at age 26 the'enfant terrible' of British philosophy.
In the Second World War he served as an officer in the Welsh Guards, chiefly in intelligence. Ayer was commissioned second lieutenant into the Welsh Guards from Officer Cadet Training Unit on 21 September 1940. After the war he returned to Oxford University where he became a fellow and Dean of Wadham College, he thereafter taught philosophy at London University from 1946 until 1959, when he started to appear on radio and television. He was an extrovert and social mixer who liked dancing and attending the clubs in London and New York, he was obsessed with sport: he had played rugby for Eton, was a noted cricketer and a keen supporter of Tottenham Hotspur football team, where he was for many years a season ticket holder. For an academic, Ayer was an unusually well-connected figure in his time, with close links to'high society' and the establishment. Presiding over Oxford high-tables, he is described as charming, but at times he could be intimidating. Ayer was married four times to three women, his first marriage was from 1932–1941 to Renée, who subsequently married philosopher Stuart Hampshire, Ayer's friend and colleague.
In 1960 he married Alberta Constance Wells. Ayer's marriage to Wells was dissolved in 1983 and that same year he married Vanessa Salmon, former wife of politician Nigel Lawson, she died in 1985 and in 1989 he remarried Dee Wells, who survived him. Ayer had a daughter with Hollywood columnist Sheilah Graham Westbrook. From 1959 to his retirement in 1978, Sir Alfred held the Wykeham Chair, Professor of Logic at Oxford, he was knighted in 1970. After his retirement, Ayer taught or lectured several times in the United States, including serving as a visiting professor at Bard College in the fall of 1987. At a party that same year held by fashion designer Fernando Sanchez, Ayer 77, confronted Mike Tyson, forcing himself upon the little-known model Naomi Campbell; when Ayer demanded that Tyson stop, the boxer asked, "Do you know who the fuck I am? I'm the heavyweight champion of the world," to which Ayer replied, "And I am the former Wykeham Professor of Logic. We are both pre-eminent in our field. I suggest that we talk about this like rational men".
Ayer and Tyson began to talk, allowing Campbell to slip out. In 1988, a year before his death, Ayer wrote an article entitled, "What I saw when I was dead", describing an unusual near-death experience. Of the experience, Ayer first said that it "slightly weakened my conviction that my genuine death... will be the end of me, though I continue to hope that it will be." However, a few days he revised this, saying "what I should have said is that my experiences have weakened, not my belief that there is no life after death, but my inflexible attitude towards that belief". Ayer died on 27 June 1989. From 1980 to 1989 Ayer lived at 51 York Street, where a memorial plaque was unveiled on 19 November 1995. In Language and Logic, Ayer presents the verification principle as the only valid basis for philosophy. Unless logical or empirical verification is possible, statements like "God exists" or "charity is good" are not true or untrue but meaningless, may thus be excluded or ignored. Religious language in particular was unverifiable and as such nonsense.
He criticises C. A. Mace's opinion
Darcy's Wild Life was an American-Canadian comedy-drama television series, filmed during 2004–2006, broadcast on Discovery Kids and the Family Channel. The show revolved around Darcy Fields, the daughter of an eccentric actress who decides to move away from Malibu to raise her daughter in a more normal environment. Darcy is slow to adjust to her new home in the country, she gets a job at a local veterinary clinic called Creature Comforts. The show is about the humorous situations Darcy gets into while adjusting to her new surroundings; the show's title is a pun on the word "wildlife", the main theme of the show. The title refers to Darcy's eccentric life dealing with wildlife. Many episodes had titles based on puns, such as "Puppy Love", "Swine Flew the Coop", "Knockin' on Heaven's Doggie Door" or "The Trouble with Truffles". Sara Paxton – Darcy FieldsDarcy is the main character in the show, she loves fashion and doesn't know too much about nature until she moves to what she calls "the middle of nowhere".
She was born in a parking lot of her mother's movie premiere. She is always trying new things in this small little town. Darcy is very girlie at times and her favorite color is pink. Natalie Radford – Victoria FieldsBefore Darcy, Victoria was a famous actress, she owns a farm house. She is Darcy's mother. Andrew Chalmers – Jack AdamsJack is Lindsay's little brother, he craves to be famous and always tries to do something either to get fame. Kerry Michael Saxena – EliEli is a sweet, clumsy boy, whom Lindsay likes, he knows a lot about animals. He is always in some sticky situation. Shannon Collis – Lindsay AdamsShe is one of Darcy's best friends. Lindsay is a hard-working girl, she is the big sister of Jack. She has a crush on Eli, sometimes is in a conflict with Darcy, she dated Tyler in the episode,"My Fair Lindsay". Lindsay's a Straight A Student, her dream is to be Marine Vet. Lindsay and Jack's mom died. Lindsay is the voice of reason for Darcy. Kevin Symons – Dr. Kevin AdamsKevin is a vet at his vet office, Creature Comforts.
He is quite eccentric. He tells disturbing stories about bad incidents with gourmet food, which can annoy Darcy. Melanie Leishman – Kathi GiraldiAnother one of Darcy's best friends, she doesn't always stand up for herself. She is bubbly and rambles on about random subjects, she has a'banjo-shaped' birth mark on her left shoulder, though it is never seen. Daniel Karasik – Layne Haznoy Ashley Leggat – Brittany MacMillan Demetrius Joyette – Colt Brewster Stephanie Chantel Durelli – Kristen Doves Kayla Perlmutter – Chloe McKenna 2006 – Nominated Daytime Emmy Outstanding Performer in a Children's Series – Sara Paxton 2006 – Nominated Young Artist Award Best Young Ensemble Performance in a TV Series 2005 – Nominated Young Artist Award Best Family Television Series 2005 – Best Performance in a TV Series – Leading Young Actress – Sara Paxton "Darcy's Wild Life" – October 2, 2004 "Strange Critters" – October 9, 2004 "A Chick Thing" – October 16, 2004 "Darcy's Mild Life" – October 23, 2004 "Buffalo Gals" – November 6, 2004 "Baron Von Chimpie" – November 13, 2004 "Fan3's Company" – December 4, 2004 "Queen of the Rodeo" – December 11, 2004 "My Fair Lindsay" – December 18, 2004 "Two of Us Riding Nowhere" – January 8, 2005 "Crazy Like a Fox" – January 15, 2005 "The Trouble with Truffles" – February 19, 2005 "Dog Tired" – March 26, 2005 "Puppy Love" – September 10, 2005 "Swine Flew the Coop" – September 17, 2005 "Nature vs. Nurture" – October 1, 2005 "Pig Whisperer" – October 8, 2005 "Bear-Trapped" – October 15, 2005 "Slightly Used" – October 22, 2005 "Pet Adoption Day" – October 29, 2005 "Yes I Can...
Maybe" – November 5, 2005 "Cuz in Trouble" – November 12, 2005 "Thanksgiving" – November 19, 2005 "Bird in the Hand, Pain in the Neck" – November 26, 2005 "Knockin' on Heaven's Doggie Door" – December 3, 2005 "Git Along L'il Darcy" – December 10, 2005 "Wolf in the Fold" – January 7, 2006 "Miss Directed" – January 14, 2006 "Love in the Time of Kennel Cough" – January 28, 2006 "Mystery Date" – February 11, 2006 "Trash Talk" – March 4, 2006 "You Can Go Home Again" – March 11, 2006 "Oh for the Love of..." – March 18, 2006 Welcome to Where? A Chick Thing A Fine State of Affairs Scout's Honor The Play's the Thing Go West, Darcy! Super Sweet Sixteen A Dog's Life Darcy's Wild Life on IMDb
Harmonic Grammar is a linguistic model proposed by Geraldine Legendre, Yoshiro Miyata, Paul Smolensky in 1990. It is a connectionist approach to modeling linguistic well-formedness. More Harmonic Grammar has been used to refer more to models of language that use weighted constraints, including ones that are not explicitly connectionist – see e.g. Pater and Potts et al.. Optimality Theory Keller, Frank.. Gradience in grammar: Experimental and computational aspects of degrees of grammaticality... Keller, Frank.. Linear Optimality Theory as a model of gradience in grammar. In G. Fanselow, C. Fery, R. Vogel, & M. Schlesewsky, Gradience in grammar: Generative perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press.. Legendre, Géraldine. Can connectionism contribute to syntax?: Harmonic Grammar, with an application. In M. Ziolkowski, M. Noske, & K. Deaton, Proceedings of the 26th regional meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society. Legendre, Géraldine. Can connectionism contribute to syntax?: Harmonic grammar, with an application.
Report CU-CS-485-90. Computer Science Department, University of Colorado at Boulder. Legendre, Géraldine. Harmonic Grammar: A formal multi-level connectionist theory of linguistic well-formedness: Theoretical foundations. In Proceedings of the twelfth annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cambridge, MA: Lawrence Erlbaum. Legendre, Géraldine. Harmonic Grammar: A formal multi-level connectionist theory of linguistic well-formedness: Theoretical foundations. Report CU-CS-465-90. Computer Science Department, University of Colorado at Boulder. Legendre, Géraldine. Harmonic Grammar: A formal multi-level connectionist theory of linguistic well-formedness: An application. In Proceedings of the twelfth annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cambridge, MA: Lawrence Erlbaum. Legendre, Géraldine. Harmonic Grammar: A formal multi-level connectionist theory of linguistic well-formedness: An application. Report CU-CS-464-90. Computer Science Department, University of Colorado at Boulder. Legendre, Géraldine.
Distributed recursive structure processing. Report CU-CS-514-91. Computer Science Department, University of Colorado at Boulder. Legendre, Géraldine. Unifying syntactic and semantic approaches to unaccusativity: A connectionist approach. In Proceedings of the 17th Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. Berkeley.. Legendre, Géraldine; the Optimality Theory–Harmonic Grammar connection. In P. Smolensky & G. Legendre, The harmonic mind: From neural computation to Optimality-Theoretic grammar.. Pater, Joe.. Weighted Constraints in Generative Linguistics. Cognitive Science 33: 999-1035. Potts, Joe Pater, Karen Jesney, Rajesh Bhatt and Michael Becker.. Harmonic Grammar with Linear Programming: From linear systems to linguistic typology. Phonology 27: 77-117. Prince, Alan.. Anything goes. In ed. T. Honma, M. Okazaki, T. Tabata, & S. Tanaka, New century of phonology and phonological theory. Tokyo: Kaitakusha.. Prince, Alan. Connectionism and harmony theory in linguistics. Report CU-CS-600-92. Computer Science Department, University of Colorado at Boulder.
Prince, Alan. Optimality Theory: Constraint interaction in generative grammar. RuCCS Technical Report 2, Rutgers University. Piscateway, NJ: Rutgers University Center for Cognitive Science... Smolensky, Paul.. On the proper treatment of connectionism; the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 11, 1-23. Smolensky, Paul.. Tensor product variable binding and the representation of symbolic structures in connectionist networks. Artificial Intelligence, 46, 159-216. Smolensky, Paul; the harmonic mind: From neural computation to Optimality-Theoretic grammar. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Smolensky, Paul. Principles for an integrated connectionist/symbolic theory of higher cognition. Report CU-CS-600-92. Computer Science Department, University of Colorado at Boulder. Smolensky, Paul. Integrating connectionist and symbolic computation for the theory of language. Computer Science Department Report CU-CS-628-92. Computer Science Department, University of Colorado at Boulder.. Smolensky, Paul.