Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys over a set distance for competition. It is one of the most ancient of all sports, as its basic premise – to identify which of two or more horses is the fastest over a set course or distance – has been unchanged since at least classical antiquity. Horse races vary in format and many countries have developed their own particular traditions around the sport. Variations include restricting races to particular breeds, running over obstacles, running over different distances, running on different track surfaces and running in different gaits. While horses are sometimes raced purely for sport, a major part of horse racing's interest and economic importance is in the gambling associated with it, an activity that in 2008 generated a worldwide market worth around US$115 billion. Horse racing has a long and distinguished history and has been practised in civilisations across the world since ancient times. Archaeological records indicate that horse racing occurred in Ancient Greece, Babylon and Egypt.
It plays an important part of myth and legend, such as the contest between the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. Chariot racing was one of the most popular ancient Greek and Byzantine sports. Both chariot and mounted horse racing were events in the ancient Greek Olympics by 648 BC and were important in the other Panhellenic Games, it continued although chariot racing was dangerous to both driver and horse, which suffered serious injury and death. In the Roman Empire and mounted horse racing were major industries. From the mid-fifteenth century until 1882, spring carnival in Rome closed with a horse race. Fifteen to 20 riderless horses imported from the Barbary Coast of North Africa, were set loose to run the length of the Via del Corso, a long, straight city street. In times, Thoroughbred racing became, remains, popular with aristocrats and royalty of British society, earning it the title "Sport of Kings". Equestrians honed their skills through games and races. Equestrian sports provided entertainment for crowds and displayed the excellent horsemanship needed in battle.
Horse racing of all types evolved from impromptu competitions between drivers. The various forms of competition, requiring demanding and specialized skills from both horse and rider, resulted in the systematic development of specialized breeds and equipment for each sport; the popularity of equestrian sports through the centuries has resulted in the preservation of skills that would otherwise have disappeared after horses stopped being used in combat. There are many different types of horse racing, including: Flat racing, where horses gallop directly between two points around a straight or oval track. Jump racing, or Jumps racing known as Steeplechasing or, in the UK and Ireland, National Hunt racing, where horses race over obstacles. Harness racing, where horses trot or pace while pulling a driver in a sulky. Saddle Trotting, where horses must trot from a starting point to a finishing point under saddle Endurance racing, where horses travel across country over extreme distances ranging from 25 to 100 miles.
Different breeds of horses have developed. Breeds that are used for flat racing include the Thoroughbred, Quarter Horse, Arabian and Appaloosa. Jump racing breeds include the Thoroughbred and AQPS. In harness racing, Standardbreds are used in Australia, New Zealand and North America, when in Europe and French Trotter are used with Standardbred. Light cold blood horses, such as Finnhorses and Scandinavian coldblood trotter are used in harness racing within their respective geographical areas. There are races for ponies: both flat and jump and harness racing. Flat racing is the most common form of racing seen worldwide. Flat racing tracks are oval in shape and are level, although in Great Britain and Ireland there is much greater variation, including figure of eight tracks like Windsor and tracks with severe gradients and changes of camber, such as Epsom Racecourse. Track surfaces vary, with turf most common in Europe, dirt more common in North America and Asia, newly designed synthetic surfaces, such as Polytrack or Tapeta, seen at some tracks.
Individual flat races are run over distances ranging from 440 yards up to two and a half miles, with distances between five and twelve furlongs being most common. Short races are referred to as "sprints", while longer races are known as "routes" in the United States or "staying races" in Europe. Although fast acceleration is required to win either type of race, in general sprints are seen as a test of speed, while long distance races are seen as a test of stamina; the most prestigious flat races in the world, such as the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe, Melbourne Cup, Japan Cup, Epsom Derby, Kentucky Derby and Dubai World Cup, are run over distances in the middle of this range and are seen as tests of both speed and stamina to some extent. In the most prestigious races, horses are allocated the same weight to carry for fairness, with allowances given to younger horses and female horses running against males; these races offer the biggest purses. There is another category of races called handicap races where each horse is assigned a different weight to carry based on its ability.
Beside the weight they carry, horses' performance can be influenced by position relative to the inside barrier, gender and training. Jump racing in Gr
William Kissam Vanderbilt
William Kissam Vanderbilt I was an American heir, businessman and horsebreeder. Born into the Vanderbilt family, he managed his family's railroad investments. William Kissam Vanderbilt I was born on December 1849, in New Dorp, Staten Island in New York, his parents were Maria Louisa Kissam and William Henry Vanderbilt, the eldest son of Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt, an heir to his fortune and a prominent member of the Vanderbilt family, the richest American after he took over his father's fortune in 1877 until his own death in 1885. He was the third of eight children born to his parents, his siblings were Cornelius Vanderbilt II, Margaret Louisa Vanderbilt, Emily Thorn Vanderbilt, Florence Adele Vanderbilt, Frederick William Vanderbilt, Eliza Osgood Vanderbilt and George Washington Vanderbilt II. Vanderbilt inherited $55 million. From his father, he managed his family railroad investments. In 1879, after taking over P. T. Barnum's Great Roman Hippodrome, on railroad property by Madison Square Park, he renamed the facility Madison Square Garden.
Vanderbilt was one of the founders of The Jockey Club. He was a shareholder and president of the Sheepshead Bay Race Track in Brooklyn, New York and the owner of a successful racing stable. In 1896, he built the American Horse Exchange at 50th Broadway. In 1911 he leased it the Shubert Organization who transformed it into the Winter Garden Theatre. After his divorce from Alva, he moved to France where he built a château and established the Haras du Quesnay horse racing stable and breeding farm near Deauville in France's famous horse region of Lower Normandy. Among the horses he owned was the U. S. Racing Hall of Fame filly Maskette, purchased from Castleton Farm in Lexington, Kentucky for broodmare services at his French breeding farm. Vanderbilt's horses won a number of important races in France including: Critérium de Maisons-Laffitte: Prestige, Montrose II Critérium de Saint-Cloud: Illinois II, Marigold Grand Critérium: Prestige, Montrose II Grand Prix de Deauville: Turenne, Maintenon Grand Prix de Paris: Northeast, Brumelli Grand Prix de Saint-Cloud: Maintenon, Sea Sick, Oversight Poule d'Essai des Poulains: McKinley Prix de Guiche: Negofol, McKinley Prix de la Forêt: Prestige, Montrose II, Pétulance Prix du Jockey Club: Maintenon, Sea Sick, Tchad Prix Eugène Adam: Alpha, Maintenon Prix Boiard: Prestige, Maintenon et Tchad Prix Jean Prat: Prestige Prix Kergorlay: Turenne, Sea Sick Prix Lagrange: Prestige Prix Morny: Prestige, Messidor III et Manfred Prix Robert Papin: Prestige, Montrose II, Gloster Prix La Rochette: Schuyler, Brume, Pétulance Prix Royal-Oak: Maintenon, Reinhart On April 20, 1875, Vanderbilt married his first wife, Alva Erskine Smith, born in 1853 in Mobile, Alabama, to Murray Forbes Smith, a commission merchant, Phoebe Ann Desha, daughter of US Representative Robert Desha.
Together, they had three children: Consuelo Vanderbilt William Kissam Vanderbilt II Harold Stirling Vanderbilt Alva coerced Consuelo into marrying Charles Spencer-Churchill, 9th Duke of Marlborough on November 6, 1895. Alva divorced Vanderbilt in March 1895, at a time when divorce was rare among the elite, received a large financial settlement reported to be in excess of $10 million; the grounds for divorce were allegations of Vanderbilt's adultery. Alva remarried to one of their old family friends, Oliver Hazard Perry Belmont, on January 11, 1896. In 1903, Vanderbilt married daughter of banker Oliver Harriman, she was a widow to sportsman Samuel Stevens Sands and to Lewis Morris Rutherfurd, Jr. a son of the astronomer Lewis Morris Rutherfurd. Her second husband died in Switzerland in 1901, she had two sons by two daughters by her second marriage. She had no children by Vanderbilt. Like other prominent Vanderbilts, he built magnificent houses, his residences included Idle Hour on Long Island and Marble House, designed by Richard Morris Hunt, in Newport, Rhode Island.
Hunt designed Vanderbilt's 660 Fifth Avenue mansion. In 1907, Vanderbilt and his second wife built Château Vanderbilt, a Louis XIII style manor house along with three thoroughbred race tracks in Carrières-sous-Poissy, an hour outside Paris and on the route to Deauville, famous for its horse racing. Vanderbilt was a co-owner of the yacht Defender, which won the 1895 America's Cup and owned the large steam yacht Consuelo. Vanderbilt was a president of the New Theatre, he was a member of the Jekyll Island Club aka The Millionaires Club. Vanderbilt made significant charitable contributions to Vanderbilt University, a private university in Nashville, Tennessee named for his grandfather. Vanderbilt died in Paris, France on July 22, 1920, his remains were brought home and interred in the Vanderbilt family vault in the Moravian Cemetery in New Dorp, Staten Island, New York. Vanderbilt's portrait, painted by F. W. Wright from an original painting by Richard Hall between 1911 and 1921, was donated to Vanderbilt University in 1921.
In World War II, the United States liberty ship SS William K
Lexington, consolidated with Fayette County and denoted as Lexington-Fayette, is the second-largest city in Kentucky and the 60th-largest city in the United States. By land area, Lexington is the 28th largest city in the United States. Known as the "Horse Capital of the World," it is the heart of the state's Bluegrass region, it has a nonpartisan mayor-council form of government, with 12 council districts and three members elected at large, with the highest vote-getter designated vice mayor. In the 2017 U. S. Census Estimate, the city's population was 321,959, anchoring a metropolitan area of 512,650 people and a combined statistical area of 856,849 people. Lexington ranks 10th among US cities in college education rate, with 39.5% of residents having at least a bachelor's degree. It is the location of the Kentucky Horse Park, The Red Mile and Keeneland race courses, Rupp Arena, Transylvania University, the University of Kentucky, Bluegrass Community and Technical College; this area of fertile soil and abundant wildlife was long occupied by varying tribes of Native Americans.
European explorers began to trade with them, but settlers did not come in large numbers until the late 18th century. Lexington was founded by European Americans in June 1775, in what was considered Fincastle County, Virginia, 17 years before Kentucky became a state. A party of frontiersmen, led by William McConnell, camped on the Middle Fork of Elkhorn Creek at the site of the present-day McConnell Springs. Upon hearing of the colonists' victory in the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, they named their campsite Lexington, it was the first of many American places to be named after the Massachusetts town. The risk of Native American uprisings against colonialism delayed permanent settlement for four years. In 1779, during the American Revolutionary War, Col. Robert Patterson and 25 companions came from Fort Harrod and erected a blockhouse, they built a stockade, establishing a settlement known as Bryan's Station. In 1780, Lexington was made the seat of Virginia's newly organized Fayette County.
Colonists defended it against the British Army and allied Shawnee uprising in 1782, during the last part of the American Revolutionary War. The town was chartered on May 1782, by an act of the Virginia General Assembly; the First African Baptist Church was founded c. 1790 by Peter Durrett, a Baptist preacher and slave held by Joseph Craig. Durrett helped guide "The Travelling Church", a group migration of several hundred pioneers led by the preacher Lewis Craig and Captain William Ellis from Orange County, Virginia to Kentucky in 1781, it is the third-oldest in the United States. In 1806, Lexington was a rising city of the vast territory to the west of the Appalachian Mountains. In the early 19th century, planter John Wesley Hunt became the first millionaire west of the Alleghenies; the growing town was devastated by a cholera epidemic in 1833, which had spread throughout the waterways of the Mississippi and Ohio valleys: 500 of 7,000 Lexington residents died within two months, including nearly one-third of the congregation of Christ Church Episcopal.
London Ferrill, second preacher of First African Baptist, was one of three clergy who stayed in the city to serve the suffering victims. Additional cholera outbreaks occurred in the early 1850s. Cholera was spread by people using contaminated water supplies, but its transmission was not understood in those years; the wealthier people would flee town for outlying areas to try to avoid the spread of disease. Planters held slaves for use as field hands, laborers and domestic servants. In the city, slaves worked as domestic servants and artisans, although they worked with merchants, in a wide variety of trades. Plantations raised commodity crops of tobacco and hemp, thoroughbred horse breeding and racing became established in this part of the state. In 1850, one-fifth of the state's population were slaves, Lexington had the highest concentration of slaves in the entire state, it had a significant population of free blacks, who were of mixed race. By 1850, First African Baptist Church, led by London Ferrill, a free black from Virginia, had a congregation of 1,820 persons, the largest of any, black or white, in the entire state.
Many of 19th-century America's leading political and military figures spent part of their lives in the city, including U. S. President Abraham Lincoln and Confederate President Jefferson Davis. S. Senator and Vice President John C. Breckinridge. S. Senator, Secretary of State Henry Clay, who had a plantation nearby. Lincoln's wife Mary Todd Lincoln was born and raised in Lexington, the couple visited the city several times after their marriage in 1842. During the 19th century, migrants moved from central Kentucky to Missouri, they established their traditional crops and livestock in Middle Tennessee and an area of Missouri along the Missouri River. While Kentucky stayed in the Union during the American Civil War, the residents of different regions of the state had divided loyalties. In 1935 during the Great Depression, the Addiction Research Center was created as a small research unit at the U. S. Public Health Service Hospital in Lexington. Founded as one of the first drug rehabilitation clinics in the nation, the ARC was affiliated with a federal prison.
Expanded as the first alcohol and drug rehabilitation hospital i
Standard Oil Co. Inc. was an American oil producing, transporting and marketing company and monopoly. Established in 1870 by John D. Rockefeller and Henry Flagler as a corporation in Ohio, it was the largest oil refinery in the world of its time, its history as one of the world's first and largest multinational corporations ended in 1911, when the U. S. Supreme Court ruled, in a landmark case. Standard Oil dominated the oil products market through horizontal integration in the refining sector in years vertical integration; the Standard Oil trust streamlined production and logistics, lowered costs, undercut competitors. "Trust-busting" critics accused Standard Oil of using aggressive pricing to destroy competitors and form a monopoly that threatened other businesses. Rockefeller ran the company as its chairman, until his retirement in 1897, he remained the major shareholder, in 1911, with the dissolution of the Standard Oil trust into 34 smaller companies, Rockefeller became the richest man in the world, as the initial income of these individual enterprises proved to be much bigger than that of a single larger company.
Its successors such as ExxonMobil or Chevron are still among the companies with the largest income worldwide. By 1882, his top aide was John Dustin Archbold. After 1896, Rockefeller disengaged from business to concentrate on his philanthropy, leaving Archbold in control. Other notable Standard Oil principals include Henry Flagler, developer of the Florida East Coast Railway and resort cities, Henry H. Rogers, who built the Virginian Railway. Standard Oil's pre-history began in 1863 as an Ohio partnership formed by industrialist John D. Rockefeller, his brother William Rockefeller, Henry Flagler, chemist Samuel Andrews, silent partner Stephen V. Harkness, Oliver Burr Jennings, who had married the sister of William Rockefeller's wife. In 1870, Rockefeller incorporated Standard Oil in Ohio. Of the initial 10,000 shares, John D. Rockefeller received 2,667. Rockefeller chose the "Standard Oil" name as a symbol of the reliable "standards" of quality and service that he envisioned for the nascent oil industry.
In the early years, John D. Rockefeller dominated the combine, he distributed power and the tasks of policy formation to a system of committees, but always remained the largest shareholder. Authority was centralized in the company's main office in Cleveland, but decisions in the office were made in a cooperative way; the company grew through acquisitions. After purchasing competing firms, Rockefeller shut down those he believed to be inefficient and kept the others. In a seminal deal, in 1868, the Lake Shore Railroad, a part of the New York Central, gave Rockefeller's firm a going rate of one cent a gallon or forty-two cents a barrel, an effective 71% discount from its listed rates in return for a promise to ship at least 60 carloads of oil daily and to handle load and unload on its own. Smaller companies decried such deals as unfair because they were not producing enough oil to qualify for discounts. Standard's actions and secret transport deals helped its kerosene price to drop from 58 to 26 cents from 1865 to 1870.
Rockefeller used the Erie canal as a cheap alternative form of transportation - in the summer months when it was not frozen - to ship his refined oil from Cleveland to New York City. In the winter months his only options were the three trunk lines - the Erie Railroad and the New York Central Railroad to New York City, the Pennsylvania Railroad to Philadelphia. Competitors disliked the company's business practices. Standard Oil, being formed well before the discovery of the Spindletop oil field and a demand for oil other than for heat and light, was well placed to control the growth of the oil business; the company was perceived to control all aspects of the trade. In 1872, Rockefeller joined the South Improvement Co. which would have allowed him to receive rebates for shipping and drawbacks on oil his competitors shipped. But when this deal became known, competitors convinced the Pennsylvania Legislature to revoke South Improvement's charter. No oil was shipped under this arrangement. Using effective tactics widely criticized, it absorbed or destroyed most of its competition in Cleveland in less than two months and throughout the northeastern United States.
A. Barton Hepburn was directed by the New York State Legislature in 1879 to investigate the railroads' practice of giving rebates within the state. Merchants without ties to the oil industry had pressed for the hearings. Prior to the committee's investigation, few knew of the size of Standard Oil's control and influence on unaffiliated oil refineries and pipelines - Hawke cites that only a dozen or so within Standard Oil knew the extent of company operations; the committee counsel, Simon Sterne, questioned representatives from the Erie Railroad and the New York Central Railroad and discovered that at least half of their long-haul traffic granted rebates, that much of this traffic came from Standard Oil. The committee shifted focus to Standard Oil's operations. John Dustin Archbold, as president of Acme Oil Company, denied that Acme was associated with Standard Oil, he admitted to being a director of Standard Oil. The committee's final report scolded the railroads for their rebate
Gallup, New Mexico
Gallup is a city in McKinley County, New Mexico, United States, with a population of 21,678 as of the 2010 census. A substantial percentage of its population is Native American, with residents from the Navajo and Zuni tribes. Gallup is the county seat of McKinley County and the most populous city between Flagstaff and Albuquerque, along the historic U. S. Route 66; the city was founded in 1881 as a railhead for the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad, named after David Gallup, a paymaster for the railroad. It is on the Trails of one of the designated New Mexico Scenic Byways; because of the nearby rugged terrain, it was a popular location in the 1940s and 1950s for Hollywood Westerns. Gallup was founded in 1881 as a railhead for the Pacific Railroad; the city was named after a paymaster for the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad. During World War II, the city fought to prevent 800 Japanese American residents from being placed in wartime internment, the only New Mexico city to do so. Gallup is known as the "Heart of Indian Country" because it is on the edge of the Navajo reservation and is home to members of many other tribes as well.
U. S. Route 66 passed through Gallup, the town's name is mentioned in the lyrics of the song of the same name. In 2003, the U. S. and New Mexico Departments of Transportation renumbered US Highway 666, the city's other major highway, as Route 491. Former Governor Bill Richardson pushed for the number changed because "666" is associated with Satan and Devil worship, thus it was considered "cursed" or a "Beast" to some locals; the situation was exacerbated by the high death toll on the highway, a result of high rates of drivers under the influence of alcohol or drugs, budget shortfalls among both the New Mexico Department of Transportation and state and local law enforcement agencies. Gallup has a modestly lively night time culture downtown, Indian dances during summertime nights, art crawls, small museums including a Navajo Code Talk museum. Gallup commissioned a number of murals highlighting local culture and contributions dot downtown. Being the largest city between Flagstaff and Albuquerque, Gallup claims many notable buildings, places and people.
The historic El Rancho Hotel & Motel has hosted a numerous array of movie stars including John Wayne, Ronald Reagan, Humphrey Bogart, Spencer Tracy, Katharine Hepburn, Joan Crawford, Kirk Douglas, Doris Day, Gregory Peck, Burt Lancaster. The rugged terrain surrounding Gallup was popular with Hollywood filmmakers during the 1940s and 50s for the on-location shooting of Westerns. Actors and film crews would stay at that hotel during filming. Films made in Gallup include Billy the Kid, The Sea of Grass, Four Faces West, Only the Valiant, Ace in the Hole, Escape from Fort Bravo, A Distant Trumpet, The Hallelujah Trail. Other movies shot here are Superman. Gallup is sometimes called the "Indian Capital of the World", for its location in the heart of Native American lands, the presence of Navajo, Zuni and other tribes. 1/3 of the city's population has Native American roots. Gallup's nickname references the huge impact of the Native American cultures found in and around the city. In 2013, Gallup was named by Rand McNally as the "Most Patriotic Small Town in America 2013."
Gallup is located at 35°31′41″N 108°44′33″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.4 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 20,209 people, 6,810 households, 4,869 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,513.7 people per square mile. There were 7,349 housing units at an average density of 550.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 35.2% White, 43.8% Native American, 2.0% Asian, 1.2% African American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 12.0% from other races, 5.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 31.7% of the population. There were 6,810 households out of which 41.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.3% were married couples living together, 19.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.5% were non-nuclear families. 23.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.85 and the average family size was 3.39.
In the city, the population was spread out with 32.7% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, 8.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.2 males. It has close proximity to Native American reservations, historic lack of economic development in addition to many mine closures in the last century; as a result of these mine closures, Gallup has a large socioeconomic poor population. The median income for a household in the city was $34,868, the median income for a family was $39,197. Males had a median income of $33,380 versus $24,441 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,789. About 16.6% of families and 20.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.8% of those under age 18 and 16.8% of those age 65 or over. Crime is a serious problem in Gallup. In 2012, violent crime was nearly five times the national average.
As a result, the city has the highest violent crime rate in the state of New Mexico. According to an article published in November 2014, "Gallup saw 463 violent crimes last year including murder, rape and aggravated assault. That’s an elev
Morristown, New Jersey
Morristown is a town and the county seat of Morris County, New Jersey, United States. Morristown has been called "the military capital of the American Revolution" because of its strategic role in the war for independence from Great Britain. Today this history is visible in a variety of locations throughout the town that collectively make up Morristown National Historical Park. According to British colonial records, the first permanent European settlement at Morristown occurred in 1715, when a settlement was founded as New Hanover by migrants from New York and Connecticut. Morris County was created on March 1739, from portions of Hunterdon County; the county, Morristown itself, was named for the popular Governor of the Province, Lewis Morris, who championed benefits for the colonists. Morristown was incorporated as a town by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on April 6, 1865, within Morris Township, it was formally set off from the township in 1895; as of the 2010 United States Census, the town's population was 18,411, reflecting a decline of 133 from the 18,544 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 2,355 from the 16,189 counted in the 1990 Census.
The area was inhabited by the Lenni Lenape Native Americans for up to 6,000 years prior to exploration of Europeans. The first European settlements in this portion of New Jersey were established by the Swedes and Dutch in the early 17th century, when a significant trade in furs existed between the natives and the Europeans at temporary posts, it became part of the Dutch colony of New Netherland, but the English seized control of the region in 1664, granted to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton, as the Province of New Jersey. Morristown was settled around 1715 by English Presbyterians from Southold, New York on Long Island and New Haven, Connecticut as the village of New Hanover; the town's central location and road connections led to its selection as the seat of the new Morris County shortly after its separation from Hunterdon County on March 15, 1739. The village and county were named for Lewis Morris, the first and sitting royal governor of a united colony of New Jersey.
By the middle of the 18th century, Morristown had 250 residents, with two churches, a courthouse, two taverns, two schools, several stores, numerous mills and farms nearby. George Washington first came to Morristown in May 1773, two years before the Revolutionary War broke out, traveled from there to New York City together with John Parke Custis and Lord Stirling. In 1777, General George Washington and the Continental Army marched from the victories at Trenton and Princeton to encamp near Morristown from January to May. Washington had his headquarters during that first encampment at Jacob Arnold's Tavern located at the Morristown Green in the center of the town. Morristown was selected for its strategic location, it was between Philadelphia and New York and near New England while being protected from British forces behind the Watchung Mountains. It was chosen for the skills and trades of the residents, local industries and natural resources to provide arms, what was thought to be the ability of the community to provide enough food to support the army.
The churches were used for inoculations for smallpox. That first headquarters, Arnold's Tavern, was moved.5 miles south of the green onto Mount Kemble Avenue to become All Souls Hospital in the late 19th century. It suffered a fire in 1918, the original structure was demolished, but new buildings for the hospital were built directly across the street. From December 1779 to June 1780 the Continental Army's second encampment at Morristown was at Jockey Hollow. Washington's headquarters in Morristown was located at the Ford Mansion, a large mansion near what was the'edge of town.' Ford's widow and children shared the house with Martha Washington and officers of the Continental Army. The winter of 1780 was the worst winter of the Revolutionary War; the starvation was complicated by extreme inflation of lack of pay for the army. The entire Pennsylvania contingent mutinied and 200 New Jersey soldiers attempted to emulate them. During Washington's second stay, in March 1780, he declared St. Patrick's Day a holiday to honor his many Irish troops.
Martha Washington traveled from Virginia and remained with her husband each winter throughout the war. The Marquis de Lafayette came to Washington in Morristown to inform him that France would be sending ships and trained soldiers to aid the Continental Army; the Ford Mansion, Jockey Hollow, Fort Nonsense are all preserved as part of Morristown National Historical Park managed by the National Park Service, which has the distinction among historic preservationists of being the first National Historical Park established in the United States. During Washington's stay, Benedict Arnold was court-martialed at Dickerson's Tavern, on Spring Street, for charges related to profiteering from military supplies at Philadelphia, his admonishment was made public, but Washington promised the hero, Arnold, to make it up to him. Alexander Hamilton courted and wed Elizabeth Schuyler at a residence where Washington's personal physician was billeted. Locally known as the Schuyler-Hamilton House, the Dr. Jabez Campfield House is listed on both the New Jersey and National Register of Historic Places.
The Morristown Green has a statue commemorating the meeting of George Washington, the young Marquis de LaFayette, young Alexander Hamilton depicting them discussing forthcoming aid of French tall ships and troops being sent by King Louis XVI of France to aid the Continental Army. Morristown's Burnham Park has a statue of the "Father of the American Revolution", Thomas Paine, who wr
University of California, Los Angeles
The University of California, Los Angeles is a public research university in Los Angeles. It became the Southern Branch of the University of California in 1919, making it the third-oldest undergraduate campus of the 10-campus University of California system, it offers 337 graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. UCLA enrolls about 31,000 undergraduate and 13,000 graduate students and had 119,000 applicants for Fall 2016, including transfer applicants, making the school the most applied-to of any American university; the university is organized into six undergraduate colleges, seven professional schools, four professional health science schools. The undergraduate colleges are the College of Science; as of 2017, 24 Nobel laureates, three Fields Medalists, five Turing Award winners, two Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force have been affiliated with UCLA as researchers, or alumni. Among the current faculty members, 55 have been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, 28 to the National Academy of Engineering, 39 to the Institute of Medicine, 124 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
The university was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1974. UCLA is considered one of the country's Public Ivies, meaning that it is a public university thought to provide a quality of education comparable with that of the Ivy League. In 2018, US News & World Report named UCLA the best public university in the United States. UCLA student-athletes compete as the Bruins in the Pac-12 Conference; the Bruins have won 126 national championships, including 116 NCAA team championships, more than any other university except Stanford, who has won 117. UCLA student-athletes and staff won 251 Olympic medals: 126 gold, 65 silver, 60 bronze. UCLA student-athletes competed in every Olympics since 1920 with one exception and won a gold medal in every Olympics the U. S. participated in since 1932. In March 1881, the California State Legislature authorized the creation of a southern branch of the California State Normal School in downtown Los Angeles to train teachers for the growing population of Southern California.
The Los Angeles branch of the California State Normal School opened on August 29, 1882, on what is now the site of the Central Library of the Los Angeles Public Library system. The facility included an elementary school where teachers-in-training could practice their technique with children; that elementary school is related to the present day UCLA Lab School. In 1887, the branch campus became independent and changed its name to Los Angeles State Normal School. In 1914, the school moved to a new campus on Vermont Avenue in East Hollywood. In 1917, UC Regent Edward Augustus Dickson, the only regent representing the Southland at the time, Ernest Carroll Moore, Director of the Normal School, began to lobby the State Legislature to enable the school to become the second University of California campus, after UC Berkeley, they met resistance from UC Berkeley alumni, Northern California members of the state legislature, Benjamin Ide Wheeler, President of the University of California from 1899 to 1919, who were all vigorously opposed to the idea of a southern campus.
However, David Prescott Barrows, the new President of the University of California, did not share Wheeler's objections. On May 23, 1919, the Southern Californians' efforts were rewarded when Governor William D. Stephens signed Assembly Bill 626 into law, which transformed the Los Angeles Normal School into the Southern Branch of the University of California; the same legislation added the College of Letters and Science. The Southern Branch campus opened on September 15 of that year, offering two-year undergraduate programs to 250 Letters and Science students and 1,250 students in the Teachers College, under Moore's continued direction. Under University of California President William Wallace Campbell, enrollment at the Southern Branch expanded so that by the mid-1920s the institution was outgrowing the 25 acre Vermont Avenue location; the Regents searched for a new location and announced their selection of the so-called "Beverly Site"—just west of Beverly Hills—on March 21, 1925 edging out the panoramic hills of the still-empty Palos Verdes Peninsula.
After the athletic teams entered the Pacific Coast conference in 1926, the Southern Branch student council adopted the nickname "Bruins", a name offered by the student council at UC Berkeley. In 1927, the Regents renamed the Southern Branch the University of California at Los Angeles. In the same year, the state broke ground in Westwood on land sold for $1 million, less than one-third its value, by real estate developers Edwin and Harold Janss, for whom the Janss Steps are named; the campus in Westwood opened to students in 1929. The original four buildings were the College Library, Royce Hall, the Physics-Biology Building, the Chemistry Building, arrayed around a quadrangular courtyard on the 400 acre campus; the first undergraduate classes on the new campus were held in 1929 with 5,500 students. After lobbying by alumni, faculty and community leaders, UCLA was permitted to award the master's degree in 1933, the doctorate in 1936, against continued resistance from UC Berkeley. A timeline of the history can be found on its website, as well