Ishi was the last known member of the Native American Yahi people from the present-day state of California in the United States. The rest of the Yahi were killed in the California genocide in the 19th century. Ishi, acclaimed as the "last wild Indian" in America, lived most of his life isolated from modern American culture. In 1911, aged 50, he emerged near the foothills of Lassen Peak in Northern California. Ishi, which means "man" in the Yana language, is an adopted name; the anthropologist Alfred Kroeber gave him this name because in the Yahi culture, tradition demanded that he not speak his own name until formally introduced by another Yahi. When asked his name, he said: "I have none, because there were no people to name me," meaning that there was no other Yahi to speak his name on his behalf. Ishi was taken in by anthropologists at the University of California, who both studied him and hired him as a research assistant, he lived most of his remaining five years in a university building in San Francisco.
His life was depicted and discussed in multiple films and books, notably the biographical account Ishi in Two Worlds published by Theodora Kroeber in 1961. In 1865, Ishi and his family were attacked in the Three Knolls Massacre, in which 40 of their tribesmen were killed. Although 33 Yahi survived to escape, cattlemen killed about half of the survivors; the last survivors, including Ishi and his family, went into hiding for the next 44 years. Their tribe was popularly believed to be extinct. Prior to the California Gold Rush of 1848–1855, the Yahi population numbered 404 in California, but the total Yana in the larger region numbered 2,997; the gold rush brought tens of thousands of miners and settlers to northern California, putting pressure on native populations. Gold mining killed fish; the settlers brought new infectious diseases such as smallpox and measles. The northern Yana group became extinct while the central and southern groups and Yahi populations dropped dramatically. Searching for food, they came into conflict with settlers, leading to the latter setting bounties on the natives.
Prices included 5 dollars per head. In 1865, the settlers attacked the Yahi. Richard Burrill wrote, in Ishi Rediscovered: "In 1865, near the Yahi’s special place, Black Rock, the waters of Mill Creek turned red at the Three Knolls Massacre.'Sixteen' or'seventeen' Indian fighters killed about forty Yahi, as part of a retaliatory attack for two white women and a man killed at the Workman’s household on Lower Concow Creek near Oroville. Eleven of the Indian fighters that day were Robert A. Anderson, Hiram Good, Sim Moak, Hardy Thomasson, Jack Houser, Henry Curtis, his brother Frank Curtis, as well as Tom Gore, Bill Matthews, William Merithew. W. J. Seagraves visited the site, but some time after the battle had been fought. Robert Anderson wrote, "Into the stream they leaped. Instead many dead bodies floated down the rapid current." One captive Indian woman named Mariah from Big Meadows, was one of those. The Three Knolls battle is described in Theodora Kroeber’s Ishi in Two Worlds. Since more has been learned.
It is estimated that with this massacre, Ishi's entire cultural group, the Yana/Yahi, may have been reduced to about sixty individuals. From 1859 to 1911, Ishi's remote band became more and more infiltrated by non-Yahi Indian representatives, such as Wintun and Pit River individuals. In 1879, the federal government started Indian boarding schools in California; some men from the reservations became renegades in the hills. Volunteers among the settlers and military troops carried out additional campaigns against the northern California Indian tribes during that period. In late 1908, a group of surveyors came across the camp inhabited by two men, a middle-aged woman, an elderly woman; these were Ishi, his uncle, his younger sister, his mother, respectively. The former three fled while the latter hid herself in blankets to avoid detection, as she was sick and unable to flee; the surveyors ransacked Ishi's mother died soon after his return. His sister and uncle never returned. After the 1908 attack, Ishi spent three more years in the wilderness, alone.
Starving and with nowhere to go, at around the age of 50, on August 29, 1911, Ishi walked out into the Western world. He was captured attempting to forage for meat near Oroville, after forest fires in the area; the local sheriff took the man into custody for his protection. The "wild man" caught the attention of thousands of onlookers and curiosity seekers. Professors at the University of California, Museum of Anthropology—now the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology —read about him and brought him to their facility housed on the University of California, San Francisco campus in an old law school building. Studied by the university, Ishi worked with them as a research assistant and lived in an apartment at the museum for most of the remaining five years of his life. In June 1915, he temporarily lived in Berkeley with the anthropologist Thomas Talbot Waterman and his family. Waterman and Alfred L. Kroeber, director of the museum, studied Ishi over the years and interviewed him at length in an effort to reconstruct Yahi culture.
He described family units, naming patterns, the ceremonies that he knew. Much tradition had been lost when he was growing up, as there were few older survivors in his group, he showed the techniques by which they were made. Ishi provided valuable in
Hoboken, New Jersey
Hoboken is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 50,005, having grown by 11,428 from 38,577 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 5,180 from the 33,397 in the 1990 Census. Hoboken is part of the New York metropolitan area and is the site of Hoboken Terminal, a major transportation hub for the tri-state region. Hoboken was first settled as part of the New Netherland colony in the 17th century. During the early 19th century the city was developed by Colonel John Stevens, first as a resort and as a residential neighborhood. Part of Bergen Township and North Bergen Township, it became a separate township in 1849 and was incorporated as a city in 1855. Hoboken is the location of the first recorded game of baseball and of the Stevens Institute of Technology, one of the oldest technological universities in the United States. Located on the Hudson Waterfront, the city was an integral part of the Port of New York and New Jersey and home to major industries for most of the 20th century.
It is well known for being the birthplace and hometown of American singer Frank Sinatra, one of the most popular and most influential musical artists of the 20th century, there are parks and streets located in the city that are named for him. The character of the city has changed from a blue collar town to one of upscale shops and condominiums. On October 29, 2012, Hoboken was devastated by the storm surge and high winds associated with Hurricane Sandy, leaving 1,700 homes flooded and causing $100 million in damage after the storm "filled up Hoboken like a bathtub". In June 2014, the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development allocated $230 million to Hoboken as part of its Rebuild by Design initiative, adding levees, green roofs, retention basins and other infrastructure to help the low-lying riverfront city protect itself from ordinary flooding and build a network of features to help Hoboken survive storms that arrive once every 500 years; the name "Hoboken" was chosen by Colonel John Stevens when he bought land, on a part of which the city still sits.
The Lenape tribe of Native Americans referred to the area as the "land of the tobacco pipe", most to refer to the soapstone collected there to carve tobacco pipes, used a phrase that became "Hopoghan Hackingh". Like Weehawken, its neighbor to the north and Harsimus to the south, Hoboken had many variations in the folks-tongue. Hoebuck, old Dutch for high bluff and referring to Castle Point, was used during the colonial era and spelled as Hobuck, Hobock and Hoboocken. However, in the nineteenth century, the name was changed to Hoboken, influenced by Flemish Dutch immigrants and a folk etymology had emerged linking the town of Hoboken to the similarly-named Hoboken district of Antwerp. Today, Hoboken's unofficial nickname is the "Mile Square City", but it covers about 1.25 square miles of land and an area of 2 square miles when including the under-water parts in the Hudson River. During the late 19th/early 20th century the population and culture of Hoboken was dominated by German language speakers who sometimes called it "Little Bremen", many of whom are buried in Hoboken Cemetery, North Bergen.
Hoboken was an island, surrounded by the Hudson River on the east and tidal lands at the foot of the New Jersey Palisades on the west. It was a seasonal campsite in the territory of the Hackensack, a phratry of the Lenni Lenape, who used the serpentine rock found there to carve pipes; the first recorded European to lay claim to the area was Henry Hudson, an Englishman sailing for the Dutch East India Company, who anchored his ship the Halve Maen at Weehawken Cove on October 2, 1609. Soon after it became part of the province of New Netherland. In 1630, Michael Reyniersz Pauw, a burgemeester of Amsterdam and a director of the Dutch West India Company, received a land grant as patroon on the condition that he would plant a colony of not fewer than fifty persons within four years on the west bank of what had been named the North River. Three Lenape sold the land, to become Hoboken for 80 fathoms of wampum, 20 fathoms of cloth, 12 kettles, six guns, two blankets, one double kettle and half a barrel of beer.
These transactions, variously dated as July 12, 1630 and November 22, 1630, represent the earliest known conveyance for the area. Pauw failed to settle the land, he was obliged to sell his holdings back to the Company in 1633, it was acquired by Hendrick Van Vorst, who leased part of the land to Aert Van Putten, a farmer. In 1643, north of what would be known as Castle Point, Van Putten built a house and a brewery, North America's first. In series of Indian and Dutch raids and reprisals, Van Putten was killed and his buildings destroyed, all residents of Pavonia were ordered back to New Amsterdam. Deteriorating relations with the Lenape, its isolation as an island, or long distance from New Amsterdam may have discouraged more settlement. In 1664, the English took possession of New Amsterdam with little or no resistance, in 1668 they confirmed a previous land patent by Nicolas Verlett. In 1674–75 the area became part of East Jersey, the province was divided into four administrative districts, Hoboken becoming part of Bergen County, where it remained until the creation of Hudson County on February 22, 1840.
English-speaking settlers interspersed with the Dutch, but it remained scarcely populated and agrarian. Event
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
The Philolexian Society of Columbia University is one of the oldest college literary and debate societies in the United States, the oldest student group at Columbia. Founded in 1802, the Society aims to "improve its members in Oratory and Forensic Discussion." The name Philolexia is Greek for "love of discourse," and the society's motto is the Latin word Surgam, meaning "I shall rise." The society traces its roots to a literary society founded by Alexander Hamilton in the 1770s. Philolexian has been called the "oldest thing at Columbia except the College itself," and it has been an integral part of Columbia from the beginning, providing the institution with everything from its colors, Philolexian Blue, to some of its most solemn traditions and many of its most noted graduates. Members are admitted after a selective evaluation process and are sworn to secrecy thereafter. Philolexian is one of many literary societies that flourished at the nation's early colonial colleges. Before fraternities and other extracurriculars became common, these groups—which bore Greek or Latin names—were the sole source of undergraduate social life.
Indeed, it was not unusual for two or more groups to coexist at one institution in competition. Surviving examples include Institute of 1770 of Harvard University. Yale University has a number of student literary and political societies with similar purposes, the most notable being the Elizabethan Club and the Yale Political Union. Columbia's first such society was formed in the 1770s, when the school was still known as King's College. After the Revolution, a similar group known as the Columbia College Society for Progress in Letters was formed. C. and Daniel D. Tompkins, vice president of the United States under James Monroe; the group became extinct in 1795. Building on these earlier efforts, Philolexian was established on May 17, 1802. Among its earliest members were future Columbia president Nathaniel Fish Moore, Alexander Hamilton's son, James Alexander Hamilton, U. S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York. To accommodate freshmen, who were ineligible for admission, the Peithologian Society was formed four years later.
For most of the next 100 years, Peithologian would serve as Philolexian's primary literary rival. For most of the 19th century, Philo engaged in a wide range of literary activities, including debates within and without the society, essay writing and hosting speeches by eminent men of the city. In 1852, at the organization's semi-centennial celebration, alumni raised a prize fund of over $1,300 to endow annual awards in three categories: Oratory and Essay. In the 20th century, Philo broadened its range of activities as it became a training ground for essayist Randolph Bourne, poet A. Joyce Kilmer, statesman V. K. Wellington Koo, all prize winners in their time at Philo. In 1910 the society took a decidedly dramatic turn when it commenced a 20-year stretch of annual theatre productions, ranging from Elizabethan comedies to contemporary works. Many of the older productions, by the likes of Ben Jonson, Nicholas Udall, Robert Greene, were North American debuts. Oscar-winning screenwriter Sidney Buchman got a start playing Shakespeare's Richard II for a Philo production.
Although Philolexian members during the Great Depression included such figures as future Pulitzer Prize-winning poet John Berryman and publisher Robert Giroux and noted Trappist monk and humanist Thomas Merton, the economic hardships of the period curtailed the group's activities. By the late 1930s, according to former society president Ralph de Toledano, the organization was devoted to drinking wine and listening to jazz. Philo ceased to function by the beginning of World War II, but in 1943, at the behest of Columbia history professor and former Philo president Jacques Barzun, several undergraduates competed for the Philolexian Centennial Washington Prize, an oratory competition endowed by J. Ackerman Coles, bestowed on the society on the occasion of its centennial in 1902; this short-lived revival was followed by another wartime incarnation. By 1952, due to waning interest and, according to some, the infamous presidency of poet Allen Ginsberg, the society entered a 10-year period of dormancy.
Another brief revival in 1962, spearheaded by members of the Columbia chapter of Alpha Delta Phi, was followed by an longer period of inactivity. In 1985, the society was revived in its current incarnation; the society celebrated the 25th anniversary of its revival, dubbed "Resurgam 25," in October 2010, with a reception and meeting for students, alu
The Arapaho are a tribe of Native Americans living on the plains of Colorado and Wyoming. They were close allies of the Cheyenne tribe and loosely aligned with the Lakota and Dakota. By the 1850s, Arapaho bands formed two tribes: the Northern Southern Arapaho. Since 1878, the Northern Arapaho have lived with the Eastern Shoshone on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming and are federally recognized as the Arapahoe Tribe of the Wind River Reservation; the Southern Arapaho live with the Southern Cheyenne in Oklahoma. Together, their members are enrolled as Arapaho Tribes, it is uncertain. Europeans may have derived it from the Pawnee word for "trader", iriiraraapuhu, or it may have been a corruption of a Crow word for "tattoo"; the Arapahoe autonym is Inun-ina. They refer to their tribe as Hinono'eiteen; the Cheyenne called them Hetanevoeo/Hetanevo ` eo'o. The Caddo called them Detseka'yaa, the Wichita Nia'rhari's-kûrikiwa'ahûski, the Comanche Saria Tʉhka / Säretika, all names signifying "dog-eaters".
The Pawnee and other tribes referred to them with names signifying "dog-eaters". The Northern Arapahoe, who called themselves Nank'haanseine'nan or Nookhose'iinenno, were known as Baantcline'nan or Bo'oociinenno to the Southern Arapahoe, whereas the latter were called by their northern kin Nawathi'neha or Noowunenno'; the Northern Arapaho were known as BSakuune'na'. The Cheyenne adapted the Arapahoe terms and referred to the Northern Arapahoe as Vanohetan or Vanohetaneo / Váno'étaneo'o and to the Southern Arapahoe as Nomsen'nat or Nomsen'eo; the Arapaho recognize five main divisions among their people, each speaking a different dialect and representing as many distinct but cognate tribes. Through much of Arapaho history, each tribal nation maintained a separate ethnic identity, although they came together and acted as political allies; each spoke mutually intelligible dialects. Dialectically, the Haa'ninin, Beesowuunenno', Hinono'eino were related. Arapaho elders claimed that the Hánahawuuena dialect was the most difficult to comprehend of all the dialects.
In his classic ethnographic study, Alfred Kroeber identified these five nations from south to north: Nanwacinaha'ana, Nawathi'neha or Nanwuine'nan / Noowo3iineheeno'. Their now-extinct language dialect – Nawathinehena – was the most divergent from the other Arapaho tribes. Hánahawuuena, Hananaxawuune'nan or Aanû'nhawa, occupying territory adjacent to, but further north of the Nanwacinaha'ana, spoke the now extinct Ha'anahawunena dialect. Hinono'eino or Hinanae'inan spoke the Arapaho language. Beesowuunenno', Baasanwuune'nan or Bäsawunena resided further north of the Hinono'eino, their war parties used temporary brush shelters similar to the dome-shaped shade or Sweat lodge of the Great Lakes Algonquian peoples. They are said to have migrated from their former territory near the Lakes more than the other Arapaho tribes, they spoke the now extinct Besawunena dialect. Haa'ninin, A'aninin or A'ani, the northernmost tribal group. In Blackfoot they were called Atsina. After they separated, the other Arapaho peoples, who considered them inferior, called them Hitúnĕna or Hittiuenina.
They speak the nearly extinct Gros Ventre language dialect, there is evidence that the southern Haa'ninin tribal group, the Staetan band, together with bands of the political division of the Northern Arapaho, spoke the Besawunena dialect. Before their historic geo-political ethnogensis, each tribal-nation had a principal headman; the exact date of the ethnic fusion or fission of each social division is not known. The elders say that the Hinono'eino and Beesowuunenno' fought over the tribal symbols – the sacred pipe and lance. Both sacred objects traditionally were kept by the Beesowuunenno'; the different tribal-nations lived together and the Beesowuunenno' have dispersed for at least 150 years among the distinct Arapaho tribal groups. By the late eighteenth century, the four divisions south of the Haa'ninin or Gros Ventre consolidated into the Arapaho. Only the Arapaho and Gros Ventre identified as separate tribal-nations. While living on the Great Plains, the Hinono'eino divided into two geo-political social divisions: Northern Arapaho or Nank'haanseine'nan, Nookhose'iinenno.
Anthropology is the scientific study of humans and human behavior and societies in the past and present. Social anthropology and cultural anthropology study the values of societies. Linguistic anthropology studies. Biological or physical anthropology studies the biological development of humans. Archaeology, which studies past human cultures through investigation of physical evidence, is thought of as a branch of anthropology in the United States and Canada, while in Europe, it is viewed as a discipline in its own right or grouped under other related disciplines, such as history; the abstract noun anthropology is first attested in reference to history. Its present use first appeared in Renaissance Germany in the works of Otto Casmann, their New Latin anthropologia derived from the combining forms of the Greek words ánthrōpos and lógos. It began to be used in English via French Anthropologie, by the early 18th century. In 1647, the Bartholins, founders of the University of Copenhagen, defined l'anthropologie as follows: Anthropology, to say the science that treats of man, is divided ordinarily and with reason into Anatomy, which considers the body and the parts, Psychology, which speaks of the soul.
Sporadic use of the term for some of the subject matter occurred subsequently, such as the use by Étienne Serres in 1839 to describe the natural history, or paleontology, of man, based on comparative anatomy, the creation of a chair in anthropology and ethnography in 1850 at the National Museum of Natural History by Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Bréau. Various short-lived organizations of anthropologists had been formed; the Société Ethnologique de Paris, the first to use Ethnology, was formed in 1839. Its members were anti-slavery activists; when slavery was abolished in France in 1848 the Société was abandoned. Meanwhile, the Ethnological Society of New York the American Ethnological Society, was founded on its model in 1842, as well as the Ethnological Society of London in 1843, a break-away group of the Aborigines' Protection Society; these anthropologists of the times were liberal, anti-slavery, pro-human-rights activists. They maintained international connections. Anthropology and many other current fields are the intellectual results of the comparative methods developed in the earlier 19th century.
Theorists in such diverse fields as anatomy and Ethnology, making feature-by-feature comparisons of their subject matters, were beginning to suspect that similarities between animals and folkways were the result of processes or laws unknown to them then. For them, the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species was the epiphany of everything they had begun to suspect. Darwin himself arrived at his conclusions through comparison of species he had seen in agronomy and in the wild. Darwin and Wallace unveiled evolution in the late 1850s. There was an immediate rush to bring it into the social sciences. Paul Broca in Paris was in the process of breaking away from the Société de biologie to form the first of the explicitly anthropological societies, the Société d'Anthropologie de Paris, meeting for the first time in Paris in 1859; when he read Darwin, he became an immediate convert to Transformisme, as the French called evolutionism. His definition now became "the study of the human group, considered as a whole, in its details, in relation to the rest of nature".
Broca, being what today would be called a neurosurgeon, had taken an interest in the pathology of speech. He wanted to localize the difference between man and the other animals, which appeared to reside in speech, he discovered the speech center of the human brain, today called Broca's area after him. His interest was in Biological anthropology, but a German philosopher specializing in psychology, Theodor Waitz, took up the theme of general and social anthropology in his six-volume work, entitled Die Anthropologie der Naturvölker, 1859–1864; the title was soon translated as "The Anthropology of Primitive Peoples". The last two volumes were published posthumously. Waitz defined anthropology as "the science of the nature of man". By nature he meant matter animated by "the Divine breath". Following Broca's lead, Waitz points out that anthropology is a new field, which would gather material from other fields, but would differ from them in the use of comparative anatomy and psychology to differentiate man from "the animals nearest to him".
He stresses. The history of civilization, as well as ethnology, are to be brought into the comparison, it is to be presumed fundamentally that the species, man, is a unity, that "the same laws of thought are applicable to all men". Waitz was influential among the British ethnologists. In 1863 the explorer Richard Francis Burton and the speech therapist James Hunt broke away from the Ethnological Society of London to form the Anthropological Society of London, which henceforward would follow the path of the new anthropology rather than just ethnology, it was the 2nd society dedicated to general anthropology in existence. Representatives from the French Société were present. In his keynote address, printed in the first volume of its new publication, The Anthropological Review, Hunt stressed the work of Waitz, adopting his definitions as a standard. Among the first associates were the young Edward Burnett Tylor, inventor of cultural anthropology, his brother Alfred Tylor, a geologist. Edward had referred to himself as an ethnologist.
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Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology focused on the study of cultural variation among humans. It is in contrast to social anthropology, which perceives cultural variation as a subset of the anthropological constant. Cultural anthropology has a rich methodology, including participant observation and surveys. One of the earliest articulations of the anthropological meaning of the term "culture" came from Sir Edward Tylor who writes on the first page of his 1871 book: "Culture, or civilization, taken in its broad, ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, art, law and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." The term "civilization" gave way to definitions given by V. Gordon Childe, with culture forming an umbrella term and civilization becoming a particular kind of culture; the anthropological concept of "culture" reflects in part a reaction against earlier Western discourses based on an opposition between "culture" and "nature", according to which some human beings lived in a "state of nature".
Anthropologists have argued that culture is "human nature", that all people have a capacity to classify experiences, encode classifications symbolically, teach such abstractions to others. Since humans acquire culture through the learning processes of enculturation and socialization, people living in different places or different circumstances develop different cultures. Anthropologists have pointed out that through culture people can adapt to their environment in non-genetic ways, so people living in different environments will have different cultures. Much of anthropological theory has originated in an appreciation of and interest in the tension between the local and the global; the rise of cultural anthropology took place within the context of the late 19th century, when questions regarding which cultures were "primitive" and which were "civilized" occupied the minds of not only Marx and Freud, but many others. Colonialism and its processes brought European thinkers into direct or indirect contact with "primitive others."
The relative status of various humans, some of whom had modern advanced technologies that included engines and telegraphs, while others lacked anything but face-to-face communication techniques and still lived a Paleolithic lifestyle, was of interest to the first generation of cultural anthropologists. Parallel with the rise of cultural anthropology in the United States, social anthropology, in which sociality is the central concept and which focuses on the study of social statuses and roles, groups and the relations among them—developed as an academic discipline in Britain and in France; the umbrella term socio-cultural anthropology draws upon both cultural and social anthropology traditions. Anthropology is concerned with the lives of people in different parts of the world in relation to the discourse of beliefs and practices. In addressing this question, ethnologists in the 19th century divided into two schools of thought. Some, like Grafton Elliot Smith, argued that different groups must have learned from one another somehow, however indirectly.
Other ethnologists argued that different groups had the capability of creating similar beliefs and practices independently. Some of those who advocated "independent invention", like Lewis Henry Morgan, additionally supposed that similarities meant that different groups had passed through the same stages of cultural evolution. Morgan, in particular, acknowledged that certain forms of society and culture could not have arisen before others. For example, industrial farming could not have been invented before simple farming, metallurgy could not have developed without previous non-smelting processes involving metals. Morgan, like other 19th century social evolutionists, believed there was a more or less orderly progression from the primitive to the civilized. 20th-century anthropologists reject the notion that all human societies must pass through the same stages in the same order, on the grounds that such a notion does not fit the empirical facts. Some 20th-century ethnologists, like Julian Steward, have instead argued that such similarities reflected similar adaptations to similar environments.
Although 19th-century ethnologists saw "diffusion" and "independent invention" as mutually exclusive and competing theories, most ethnographers reached a consensus that both processes occur, that both can plausibly account for cross-cultural similarities. But these ethnographers pointed out the superficiality of many such similarities, they noted that traits that spread through diffusion were given different meanings and function from one society to another. Analyses of large human concentrations in big cities, in multidisciplinary studies by Ronald Daus, show how new methods may be applied to the understanding of man living in a global world and how it was caused by the action of extra-European nations, so highlighting the role of Ethics in modern anthropology. Accordingly, most of these anthropologists showed less interest in comparing cultures, generalizing about human nature, or discovering universal laws of cultural development, than in understanding particular cultures in those cultures' own terms.
Such ethnographers and their students promoted the idea of "cultural relativi