Kerala mural painting
Kerala mural paintings are the frescos depicting Hindu mythology and legends, which are drawn on the walls of temples and churches in South India, principally in Kerala. Ancient temples and palaces in Kerala, South India, display an abounding tradition of mural paintings dating back between the 9th to 12th centuries CE when this form of art enjoyed Royal patronage; these days Churches in Kerala are commissioning mural paintings with Christian motifs. The scriptural basis of these paintings can be found in the Sanskrit texts, Chithrasoothram by Vishnudharmottara of the sixth century, the fifteenth century text authored by Narayanan, Abhilashitartha Chintamani of the twelfth century and Silparatna by Sreekumaran of the sixteenth century. Iconography of the mythological character in murals are based on the Dhyanaslokas; the masterpieces of Kerala mural art include: the Shiva Temple in Ettumanoor, the Ramayana murals of Mattancherry Palace and Vadakkumnatha kshetram. The "Gajendra Moksham" mural painting in the Krishnapuram Palace near Kayamkulam, the Anantha Shayanam mural painting in the Pallikurup Mahavishnu Temple at Mannarkkad and the mural paintings in the sanctum of Padmanabhaswamy Temple at Thiruvananthapuram are famous.
Some of the murals in Kerala are found in the churches at Cheppad, Paliekkara, Thiruvalla and Akapparambu. Although the traditional mural artisans were under the patronage of various rulers in Kerala, under British administration the art form suffered enormously at the danger of extinction. After India's independence in 1947, a revival of mural tradition in Kerala took place as major temples in Kerala; the Centre for Study of Mural Paintings, a school established by Guruvayur Dewaswom Board in the Thrissur district of Kerala under the chief instructorship of Mammiyoor Krishnan Kutty Nair, represents this revival phase. Traditionally the painting involves four different processes, Preparation of the ground Sketching of the outline Application of colors and Addition of decorative detailsSanskrit texts discuss in detail the style, effectiveness of different colors, desirable combinations that could be brought out by mixing various pigments and methodology of preparing the base for application of colors and for preparation of colors from different natural sources in general terms.
Preparing a wall involves three stages, which involves plastering the wall with different substances. Plaster of a mixture of lime and clean sand in the ratio 1:2. Plaster of a mixture of lime and sand in the ratio 1:2, cotton. Cotton is used to give a gleaming white texture to the wall. 25-30 washes of a mixture of quick lime and the juice of tender coconut. Traditional murals used panchavarana i.e. red, green and white, white being the color of the wall itself. Colors are prepared from vegetables and mineral pigments. Red is derived from red laterite, yellow is derived from yellow laterite, white from lime, black from soot of oil-lamps. Leaves of Neelamari plant are squeezed and the extract is used after drying up to be mixed with Eravikkara for obtaining the green pigment. Wooden utensils are used for mixing the colours and the binding media used is derived from tender coconut water and extracts from the Neem tree. Coloring of the characters in mural is doneas per their characteristics as illustrated in the relevant Hindu mythological scriptures.
The spiritual and dharmic characters are depicted in shades of green. Those influenced towards power & materialistic wealth are painted in shades of red to golden yellow; the evil and mean characters are painted in white or black. The murals of Thirunadhikkara Cave Temple and Tiruvanchikulam are considered the oldest relics of Kerala’s own style of murals. Fine mural paintings are depicted in temples at Trikodithanam, Vaikom, Udayanapuram, Guruvayoor, Aymanam, the Vadakkunathan temple in Trichur, the Thodeekkalam temple in Kannur and the Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple at Thiruvananthapuram. Other mural sites are in the churches at Ollur, Angamaly, Kanjoor, Edappally, Vechur and Mulanthuruthy, at palaces such as the Krishnapuram Palace near Kayamkulam and the Padmanabhapuram Palace; the traditional style mural art form, using natural pigments and vegetable colours, is being revived by a new genre of artists involved in researching and teaching mural art at the Sree Sankara Sanskrit College in Kalady and at a mural art school associated with the Guruvayoor temple.
Kossak, Steven. Indian court painting, 16th-19th century.. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 0870997831. Vatsyayan, Kapila; the Arts of Kerala Kshetram: manifestation, experience. Gyan Publishing House. ISBN 9788121213141. Sandhya Ravi, Color Culture and Identity: Influence of Colors on Kerala Mural Art. IJASOS- International E-Journal of Advances in Social Sciences, Vol. I, Issue 3, December 2015 Poyil, M.. THODIKALAM MURAL PAINTINGS: FEATURES, MEANINGS AND TECHNIQUES. Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, 72, 1239-1246. Bernier, R. M.. Temple Arts of Kerala: A South Indian Tradition. New Delhi: S. Chand. ISBN 978-8121901109
Velu Viswanathan, popularly known as Paris Viswanathan is an Indian painter and filmmaker. He is considered by many as one of the prominent modern painters in India, he is a recipient of the Best Documentary Film Award of the Festival dei Popoli and the K. C. S. Paniker Award of the Kerala Lalithakala Akademi. V. Viswanathan was born in 1940 at Kollam in the south Indian state of Kerala. After early education, he joined the Government College of Fine Arts, Chennai in 1960 where he had the opportunity to study under noted painter, K. C. S. Paniker. After securing a diploma from the institution in 1966, he assisted Paniker in setting up Cholamandal Artists' Village and moved into the village as one of the first batch of members. In 1967, he participated in Biennale de Paris. Viswanathan has participated in many international and national art festivals, including Biennale de Paris and the International Biennale of Engraving at Ljubljana and several art galleries such as Galerie, Ved Aaven, Galerie de France, Galerie Stig Carlsson, Höganäs, Centre Georges Pompidou, Vadehra Art Gallery, New Delhi and National Gallery of Modern Art have staged his one man shows and retrospectives.
He was involved with the Art Rises for Kerala initiative at the 2019 edition of the Kochi-Muziris Biennale where his paintings were auctioned to raise funds for the reconstruction activities of the Government of Kerala in the wake of the 2018 Kerala floods. He has made a few films, starting with a series titled, The Pancha Bhoota consisting of 5 films, Ganga as well as a series titled Back to Elements. Viswanathan received the award for the best documentary film at the Festival dei Popoli held at Florence, in 1986. Kerala Lalithakala Akademi awarded him the inaugural K. C. S. Paniker Award in 2008. "Noted painter Paris Viswanathan". Thehinduimages.com. 2019-03-14. Retrieved 2019-03-14. "Paris Viswanathan - interview". Webindia123.com. 2019-03-15. Retrieved 2019-03-15. "Interview:Artist Paris Viswanathan in Varthaprabham". Asianet News. Retrieved 2019-03-15
National Gallery of Modern Art
The National Gallery of Modern Art is the premier art gallery under Ministry of Culture, Government of India. The main museum at Jaipur House in New Delhi was established on 29 March 1954 by the Government of India, with subsequent branches at Mumbai and Bangalore, its collection of more than 14,100 works includes works by artists such as Thomas Daniell, Raja Ravi Verma, Abanindranath Tagore, Rabindranath Tagore, Gaganendranath Tagore, Nandalal Bose, Jamini Roy, Amrita Sher-Gil as well as foreign artists, apart from sculptures by various artists. Some of the oldest works preserved here date back to 1857. With 12,000 square meters of exhibition space, the Delhi branch is one of the world's largest modern art museums. Situated at the end of Rajpath, in the Central Hexagon around the India Gate, the building was a former residential palace of the Maharaja of Jaipur, hence known as Jaipur House; the butterfly-shaped building with a central dome and built in 1936, designed by Sir Arthur Blomfield, after the construction of Lutyens' Delhi.
The Central Hexagon around the India Gate, where the buildings of leading princely states were situated, was itself designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens. Though the idea of the National Gallery was floated in 1949, it was formally inaugurated by Vice-president Dr S. Radhakrishnan in 1954, in the presence of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. Hermann Goetz, a noted German art historian became its first curator and in time it added new facilities such as Art restoration services, an Art reference Library and a Documentation Centre. In 2009, a new wing of the National Gallery of Modern Art was inaugurated adding six times the space to the existing gallery, plus it has a new auditorium, a preview theatre, conservation laboratory and academic section as well as a cafeteria and museum shop; the gallery has works by artists including Thomas Daniell, Raja Ravi Verma, Abanindranath Tagore, Rabindranath Tagore, Gaganendranath Tagore, Nandalal Bose, Jamini Roy, Amrita Sher-Gil and various other artists. The NGMA has a collection of modern sculptures by famous sculptors like D. P. Roy Choudhury, Chintamoni Kar and Ramkinkar Baij.
The NGMA has a large collection of photographs by Lala Deen Dayal, one of the pioneers of photography in India. National Gallery of Modern Art, Mumbai National Gallery of Modern Art, Bangalore The Last Harvest: Paintings of Rabindranath Tagore Kolkata Museum of Modern Art National Gallery of Modern Art, official website alternate
Shivaji Rao Gaekwad, known by his mononymous stage name Rajinikanth, is an Indian film actor and politician who works in Tamil cinema. He began acting in plays while working in the Bangalore Transport Service as a bus conductor. In 1973, he joined the Madras Film Institute to pursue a diploma in acting. Following his debut in K. Balachander's Tamil drama Apoorva Raagangal, his acting career commenced with a brief phase of portraying antagonistic characters in Tamil films. After earning ₹26 crore for his role in Sivaji, he was the highest-paid actor in Asia after Jackie Chan at the time. While working in other regional film industries of India, Rajinikanth has appeared in the cinemas of other nations, including the American film Bloodstone; as of 2018, Rajinikanth has won six Tamil Nadu State Film Awards—four Best Actor Awards and two Special Awards for Best Actor—and a Filmfare Best Tamil Actor Award. In addition to acting, he has worked as a producer and screenwriter. Apart from his film career, he is a philanthropist and serves as an influence in Dravidian politics.
The Government of India has honoured him with the Padma Bhushan in 2000 and the Padma Vibhushan in 2016 for his contributions to the arts. At the 45th International Film Festival of India, he was conferred with the "Centenary Award for Indian Film Personality of the Year". Rajinikanth was born on 12 December 1950, in a Maratha family in Mysore State, his mother was a housewife, his father Ramoji Rao Gaekwad, a police constable, He was named Shivaji Rao Gaekwad after Chhatrapati Shivaji, a Maratha warrior King, was brought up speaking Marathi at home and Kannada outside. Rajinikanth's ancestors hailed from Mavadi Kadepathar, Pune and Nachikuppam, Krishnagiri district, Tamil Nadu, he is the youngest of four siblings in a family consisting of a sister. After his father's retirement from work in 1956, the family moved to the suburb of Hanumantha nagar in Bangalore and built a house there; when he was nine years old, he lost his mother. At the age of six, Rajinikanth was enrolled at the "Gavipuram Government Kannada Model Primary School" where he had his primary education.
As a child, he was studious and "mischievous" with a great interest in cricket and basketball. It was during this time that his brother enrolled him at the Ramakrishna Math, a Hindu monastery set up by Ramakrishna Mission. In the math, he was taught Vedas and history, which instilled a sense of spirituality in him. In addition to spiritual lessons, he began acting in plays at the math, his aspiration towards theatre grew at the math and was once given an opportunity to enact the role of Ekalavya's friend from the Hindu epic Mahabharata. His performance in the play received praise from the audience and Kannada poet D. R. Bendre in particular. After sixth grade, Rajinikanth was enrolled at the Acharya Pathasala Public School and studied there till completion of his pre-university course. During his schooling at the Acharya Pathasala, he spent a lot of time acting in plays. In one such occasion, he performed the villainous role of Duryodhana in the play Kurukshetra. Upon completion of his school education, Rajinikanth continued to perform various jobs in the cities of Bangalore and Madras, including that of a coolie and carpenter, ended up being recruited in the Bangalore Transport Service as a bus conductor.
He began to take part in stage plays after Kannada playwright Topi Muniappa offered him a chance to act in one of his mythological plays. During the time, he came across an advertisement issued by the newly formed Madras Film Institute which offered acting courses. Though his family was not supportive of his decision to join the institute, his friend and co-worker Raj Bahadur motivated him to join the institute and financially supported him during this phase. During his stay at the institute, he was performing in a stage play and got noticed by Tamil film director K. Balachander; the director advised him to learn to speak Tamil, a recommendation that Rajinikanth followed. Rajinikanth began his film career through the Tamil film Apoorva Raagangal. Balachander gave Rajinikanth a small role as the abusive husband of Srividya; the film was controversial upon release, as it explored relationships between people with wide age differences. It received wide critical acclaim as it went on to win three National Film Awards including the award for the Best Tamil Feature at the following year ceremony.
A review from The Hindu noted that: "Newcomer Rajinikanth is dignified and impressive". He followed that with Katha Sangama, an experimental film made by Puttanna Kanagal in the new wave style; the film was a portmanteau of three short stories which had Rajinikanth playing a small character in the last segment where he appears as a village ruffian who rapes a blind woman in the absence of her husband. His next release was a Telugu film directed by Balachander. In a remake of his own Tamil film Aval Oru Thodar Kathai, Balachander had Rajinikanth playing a pivotal role for the first time in his career. In subsequent films, he continued to perform a series of negative roles as a womaniser. In Moondru Mudichu — the first film to feature him in a prominent role — he plays a character that "blithely row away" when his friend drowns accidentally in the lake only to fulfill his desire to marry the former's girlfriend, his style of flipping the cigarette made him popular among the audience. His final release of 1976, Baalu Jenu, yet again saw him per
Benode Behari Mukherjee
Benode Behari Mukherjee was an Indian artist from West Bengal state. Mukherjee was one of a key figure of Contextual Modernism, he was one of the earliest artists in modern India to take up to murals as a mode of artistic expression. All his murals depict a subtle understanding of environmental through pioneering architectural nuances. Binod Behari Mukherjee was born in Behala, in the state of West Bengal, now included into Kolkata, he taught at Visva Bharati University in Santiniketan. Mukherjee was born with a severe eye problem. Despite being myopic in one eye and blind in the other, he continued to paint and do murals after he lost his eyesight following an unsuccessful eye cataract operation in 1956. In 1919, he took admission in the art faculty of Visva-Bharati University, he was a student of another celebrated Indian artist Nandalal Bose, a friend and close associate of Ramkinkar Baij, the celebrated sculptor. In 1925, he joined Kala Bhava Bijn as a member of the teaching faculty, he inspired many brilliant students over the years, notable among them are painter Jahar Dasgupta, Ramananda Bandopadhyay, K.
G. Subramanyan, Beohar Rammanohar Sinha, sculptor & printmaker Somnath Hore, designer Riten Majumdar and filmmaker Satyajit Ray. In 1949, he joined as a curator at the Nepal Government Museum in Kathmandu. From 1951-52, he taught at the Banasthali Vidyapith in Rajasthan. In 1952, he along with his wife Leela, started an art training school in Mussoorie. In 1958, he returned to Kala Bhavan, became its principal. In 1979, a collection of his Bengali writings, Chitrakar was published. In Oxford Art Online, R. Si'va Kumar claims, "His major work is the monumental 1947 mural at the Hindi Bhavan, Sha'ntiniketan, based on the lives of medieval Indian saints and painted without cartoons. With its conceptual breadth and synthesis of elements from Giotto and Tawaraya Sotatsu, as well as from the art of such ancient Indian sites as Ajanta and Mamallapuram, it is among the greatest achievements in contemporary Indian painting." His style was a complex fusion of idioms absorbed from Western modern art and the spirituality of oriental traditions.
Some of his works show a marked influence of Far-Eastern traditions, namely calligraphy and traditional wash techniques of China and Japan. He took lessons in calligraphy from travelling artists from Japan. During 1937-38 he spent a few months in Japan with artists such as Arai Kampō, he learnt from the Indian miniature paintings in the frescoes of Mughal and Rajput periods. Idioms of Western modern art bore upon his style, as he is seen to blend Cubist techniques to solve problems of space. Above all, his style was celebrated and acclaimed because of the harmonious blend he achieved out of all these different traditions, his grand murals inside the Visva-Bharati campus are testimony to that. In 1948 he went to become director of National Museum of Kathmandu, in Nepal. In the years he went to Doon valley, where he started an art school but had to discontinue due the financial shortage. In 1972 Mukherjee's former student at Santiniketan, filmmaker Satyajit Ray, made a documentary film on him titled "The Inner Eye".
The film is an intimate investigation of Mukherjee's creative persona and how he copes with his blindness being a visual artist. Mukherjee's daughter Mrinalini is an artist.. In 1974, he received the Padma Vibhushan award, he was conferred with the Deshikottama by the Visva Bharati University in 1977. He received the Rabindra Puraskar in 1980. Chitrakar: the Artist Benodebehari Mukherjee/translated by K. G. Subramanyan. Calcutta, Seagull Books, 2006, xviii, 196 p. ISBN 81-7046-282-7. Sinh, Ajay. Against Allegory: Binode Bihari Mukherjee's Medieval Saints at Shantiniketan, in Richard Davis, ed. Picturing the Nation: Iconographies of Modern India, Hyderabad: Orient Longman. Ghosh, Nemai. Ray and the Blind Painter: An Odyssey into the Inner Eye, Kolkata: New Age. Chakrabarti, Arun Kumar Nag and R. Sivakumar The Santiniketan Murals, Seagull Ghulam Mohammed Sheikh and R. Siva Kumar, Benodebehari Mukherjee: A Centenary Retrospective, National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi, 2007. Exhibition at national gallery of modern art New Delhi Versatile genius by Partha Chatterjee on the centenary year on the centenary year Remembering an artist of note colours of retina Art of Bengal at vadodra gallary Artist profile: Binode Behari Mukherjee
Ramkinkar Baij was an Indian sculptor and painter, one of the pioneers of modern Indian sculpture and a key figure of Contextual Modernism. Baij was born in an economically modest family in the Bankura district of the modern state of West Bengal in India. In that sense, he was a Bengali, not an Adivasi, as many people think; the surname Baij derived from Boijo consequently. His family surname was Poramanik and was abandoned by him in early 1925. However, many of his artistic creations have been inspired by the lifestyles of rural dalit or Adivasi communities living in and around his place of work Santiniketan. While in his mid-teens Ramkinkar used to paint portraits of Indian freedom fighters involved in the Non-Cooperation Movement against the British rulers of India. At the age of 16 he got noticed by the renowned journalist Ramananda Chatterjee. Four years Ramkinkar joined the Visva-Bharati University at Santiniketan as a student of fine arts. After obtaining a diploma from the university he went on to head the sculpture department.
Ramkinkar's renowned sculptor disciples include Prabhas Sen, Shankho Chowdhury, Avtar Singh Panwar, Madan Bhatnagar, Balbir Singh Katt, Rajul Dharial and Sushen Ghose. Professor R. Siva Kumar, an authority of the Santiniketan School of Art wrote, "Ramkinkar Baij was born on 25 May 1906 in Bankura in West Bengal, into a family of little economic and social standing, grew, by the sheer dint of talent and determination, into one of the most distinguished early modernists in Indian art; as a young boy he grew up watching local image-makers at work. His talent, prodigious for his age, attracted the attention of local people of the nationalists with whom he was associated; this led him in 1925, on the advice of Ramananda Chatterjee the nationalist publisher and apologist for the new Indian art movement, to mark his way to Kala Bhavana, the art school at Santiniketan. At Santiniketan, under the guidance of Nandalal Bose and encouraged by its liberating intellectual environment, shaped by Rabindranath Tagore, his artistic skills and intellectual horizons acquired new depth and complexity.
Soon after completing his studies at Kala Bhavana he became a member of its faculty, along with Nandalal and Benode Behari Mukherjee played a decisive role in making Santiniketan the most important centre for modern art in pre-Independence India. Santiniketan was conceived as a locus for artistic experimentation and resurgence rather than as a mere centre for imparting training and knowledge; this allowed talented individuals to add social dimension and give public expression to their personal vision. Ramkinkar used this opportunity to make monumental public sculpture, undertaken at his own initiative. Beginning in early thirties he began to fill the campus with sculptures, one after the other, which were innovative in subject matter and personal in style, his first magnum opus in this genre was the Santal Family done in 1938. In this larger than life sculpture he represented the tribal peasants of the region, giving the figures iconic presence and dignified grace, so far limited to the images of Gods and Rulers.
In a country were all public art-work was undertaken only at the behest of Government commissioning and executed in consonance with the taste of conservative ruling elites, this was a radical departure. The use of cement and laterite mortar to model the figures, the use of a personal style in which modern western and Indian pre-classical sculptural values were brought together was radical. With this seminal work Ramkinkar established himself as undoubted modern Indian sculptor; the late 1930s and early 1940s saw his emergence as a modernist thematically well grounded in the local-present, in the best Santiniketan tradition, but open to a full range of modernist linguistic innovations in art. An admirer of the working class he was touched by the adverse impact natural calamities and political developments all through the forties had on their lives, and this led him to evolve as a committed artist with leftist leanings. The spectre of human suffering he saw around him led him to transform immediate facts into allegorical and even didactic images.
This gave a new thematic focus to his works, as well as an element of drama and expressive-immediacy to his execution. Coming in a period that saw the emergence of Progressive movements and anti-Fascist expressions on the Indian cultural scene he came to be seen as a radical with a bohemian slant. But, despite his marked disregard for conventional ways and occasional expressions of vexation, he remained an irrepressible humanist who kept alive a sense of joy and faith in men deep within him. Ramkinkar was singularly reticent and otherworldly as he was single-minded in his commitment to art and humanity, but this did not stop his work from being noticed and appreciated by sensitive artists and connoisseurs if it were to remain a small group. Although his work was passed over for quite a while it began to get both national and international attention, he was invited to participate in the Salon des Salon des Réalités Nouvelles in 1950 and in the Salon de Mai 1951. And in the seventies national honours began to come his way one after the other.
In 1970 the Government of India honoured him with the Padma Bhushan, in 1976 he was made a fellow of the Lalit Kala Akademi, in 1976 he was conferred the Desikottama by Visva Bharati, in 1979 an honorary D. Litt by the Rabindra Bharati University. Ramkinkar Baij responded to the natural zest for life, took a great interest in human figures, body language, in the general human drama. Modern Western art and pre and p
Shantiniketan or Santiniketan is a small town near Bolpur in the Birbhum district of West Bengal, India 165 km north of Kolkata. It was established by Maharshi Devendranath Tagore, expanded by his son Rabindranath Tagore whose vision became what is now a university town, Visva-Bharati University. Santiniketan was earlier called Bhubandanga, was owned by the Sinha family. In 1862, Maharshi Debendranath Tagore, while on a visit to Raipur, showed interest in land near Birbhum. There was only one building there namely'Santiniketan'. Maharshi liked the place and registered it in the name of Maharshi Devendranath against Rupee One as a token value, he called his home Santiniketan. Santiniketan became a spiritual centre where people from all religions were invited to join for meditation and prayers, he became the initiator of the Brahmo Samaj. Here Rabindranath Tagore started Patha Bhavana, the school of his ideals, whose central premise was that learning in a natural environment would be more enjoyable and fruitful.
After he received a Nobel Prize in 1913, the school was expanded into a university,known as Vishva Bharti University, in 1921. In the year 1924 based on the same ideology and with the intention of educating and training the people belonging to deprived part of the society he founded Siksha Satra with only 7 students; the journey initiated by Kabiguru to kickstart the education system transformation turned into a reality when the institution was recognised as the first university to be recognised in the year 1951 by central government. Santiniketan is at 23.68°N 87.68°E / 23.68. It has an average elevation of 56 metres. Temperature: Summer — max. 42.4, min. 34.3. 15.7, min. 6.8. Rainfall: 125 cm. Heavy in July and August; the climate of Santiniketan is moderately warm, with summer temperatures at around 35-45 °C and winter at 6-15 °C. July and August see heavy rainfall. Social and cultural events include Basanta Utsav, Barsha Mangal, Nandan Mela, Poush Mela, Magh Mela, Rabindra Jayanti. Of these, the Poush Mela is a major tourist attraction.
It is a three-day fair, starting on the seventh day of the Bengali month Poush. It attracts tourists, folk singers and the traditional Baul from the neighbourhood. There is a deer park 3 km from Santiniketan; the area was a fast eroding'Khowai'. It makes a natural bird sanctuary; the Eastern Zonal Cultural Centre is one of the most visited places in Santiniketan. Trains direct to Bolpur from Howrah and Sealdah station. Bus from Durgapur City Centre Bus Stop and Dharmatala Bus Stop in Kolkata is available for Bolpur/Santiniketan. Barun De, a member of both the court and the executive council of Visva Bharati. Rajat Kanta Ray, a vice chancellor of Visva Bharati, Santiniketan. Amartya Sen, who studied at Patha Bhavana, Santiniketan. Surajit Sinha, the vice chancellor of Visva Bharati, Santiniketan. Ramkinkar Baij and painter, one of the pioneers of modern Indian sculpture and a key figure of Contextual Modernism. Supriyo Tagore, the longest serving principal of Patha Bhavana, Shantiniketan. Kala Bhavana Tinpahar UNESCO: Santiniketan Places to visit in Santiniketan 2019 ￼ Shantiniketan travel guide from Wikivoyage