Voorburg is a Dutch town and former municipality in the western part of the province of South Holland, the Netherlands. Together with Leidschendam and Stompwijk, it makes up the municipality Leidschendam-Voorburg and it has a population of approximately 39,000 people. It is considered to be the oldest city in The Netherlands, in 2002, the cities of Leidschendam and Voorburg were merged under the new municipality named Leidschendam-Voorburg. Situated adjacent to the city of The Hague, it is regarded as one of its suburbs. It was positioned along the Fossa Corbulonis, a canal connecting the Rhine and this waterway is now known as the Rijn-Schie canal and is still a dominant landmark of the present day borough. His son, the astronomer and mathematician Christiaan Huygens, spent several years in his fathers country house in Voorburg. The house, located next to the railway station, now functions as a museum. Philosopher Baruch Spinoza lived in Voorburg from 1663 to 1670, in Voorburg, Spinoza continued work on the Ethics and corresponded with scientists and theologians throughout Europe.
Until 2009 Voorburg hosted the major branch of the statistics institute, the CBS. The latter two are now part of the Randstad Rail network, Voorburg used to be an Intercity station, because there was an eternal agreement with the railways that every passing train should stop there. It lost that status, as the new station is elevated. Voorburg Cricket Club Sportpark Westvliet cricket ground was approved by the ICC as the Netherlands latest ODI venue and it joins the VRA ground in Amstelveen and the Hazelaarweg ground in Rotterdam in gaining ODI status. Bangladesh played one Twenty20 International match each against Scotland and Netherlands there in July 2012. org, Fossa Corbulonis
Roads in the Netherlands
With 139,000 km of public roads, the Netherlands has one of the most dense road networks in the world – much denser than Germany and France, but still not as dense as Belgium. Dutch roads include at least 3,530 km of motorways and expressways, and with a density of 64 kilometres per 1,000 km². The Netherlands main highway net, comparable to Britains net of roads, consists of most of its 5,200 km of national roads. Although only about 2,500 km of roads are constructed to motorway standards. Except for motorways and expressways, most roads support cyclists, some 35,000 km feature dedicated cycle tracks, physically segregated from motor traffic. A further 4,700 km of roads have clearly marked bike lanes, busy junctions sometimes give priority to cyclists, and in street roads like fietsstraten and woonerven, bicycles always have priority over cars. Since 1997, a traffic safety program called Duurzaam Veilig has had a major impact on the road network. Traffic calming has been applied on a massive scale, a popular calming measure is to replace intersections by roundabouts, of which there were almost 5,000 in 2015, both in and out of town.
The countrys first centrally-planned highway system dates back to the early 19th century, when Napoleon was emperor of France, in 1811, Napoleon decreed that a network of 229 paved imperial roads would be created, extending from Paris to the borders of his empire. In addition to paving, the roads were all numbered. Construction of several imperial highways through Holland commenced, Amsterdam was connected to Paris by Route Impériale no. 2, a section between Amsterdam and Utrecht is today still a part of the A2 motorway, after the countrys liberation in 1813, Hollands new king continued the project but with Amsterdam at the centre. The plan was expanded several times, in 1821, it projected 42 Rijksstraatwegen, which were built until 1850. Since 1927, this network was transformed into todays system of Rijkswegen in the Netherlands, the first motorway dates back to 1936, when the current A12 was opened to traffic between Voorburg and Zoetermeer, near The Hague. Motorway construction accelerated in the 1960s and 1970s but halted in the 1980s, current motorway expansion mostly occurs outside the Randstad.
General maximum speed limits were introduced in 1957, and in 1973, roads are developed and maintained by authorities at all four administrative levels in the Netherlands. About 5,200 km of roads are controlled by central government agency Rijkswaterstaat. Most motorways are national roads, and the national roads are mostly expressways
European route E35 in the Netherlands
European route E35 is a north–south European route, running from Amsterdam in the Netherlands to Rome in Italy. In the Netherlands, the runs from its northern terminus in Amsterdam eastwards through Utrecht and Arnhem to the German border. The highway is maintained by Rijkswaterstaat, E35 begins in northern Amsterdam at an interchange with A10 / E22 and A8 / E22, where it runs to the south–east concurrently with A10, the orbital road around Amsterdam. After running across these waters, the approaches the Watergraafsmeer interchange. The road continues around Amsterdam and runs westwards to the Amstel interchange just before bridging over the Amstel river, at this interchange, E35 splits off of A10, which is signed E19 from this point on, and continues onto the emerging A2 southwards. On A2, the highway leaves Amsterdam and continues southwards to get to the Holendrecht interchange with A9. This interchange is divided into two parts, starting with an interchange, where A9 joins the road from the east.
At the second part, an interchange, A9 splits off of the road again. Exit 2, an exit of A2 with a northbound exit and southbound entrance to Amsterdam-Zuidoost. Running further southwards, the leaves the province of North Holland just after crossing over the Holendrecht river. Running through western Utrecht, the highway close to the Oudenrijn interchange with A12 / E30 / E25. At this interchange E35 joins A12 / E30 to the east, concurrent with A12 / E30, the highway runs eastwards and after some 2 kilometres it crosses over the Amsterdam–Rhine Canal using the Galecopperbrug. Continuing further to the east, E35 moves towards the Lunetten interchange with A27, at this interchange, E30 splits off to the north, now concurrent with A27. From this point on running with A12, the road carries on to the east, crossing the Kromme Rijn river at exit 19 near Odijk. Just passed exit 20, where N225 starts its journey to the south in Driebergen, E35 enters the Utrecht Hill Ridge, the road leaves the province of Utrecht and enters Gelderland between Veenendaal and Ede.
After less than 2 kilometres, the runs through the Maanderbroek interchange with A30 to the north. After passing by Ede, E35 enters the forest–rich ridge of the Veluwe, in which another wildlife crossing bridges over the road, P. Thijsse ecoduct, just before exit 25, with N224. From the south, A50 joins the highway to the east for a more than 6 kilometres
Gelderland is a province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern part of the country. With a land area of nearly 5,000 km2, it is the largest province of the Netherlands and shares borders with six other provinces, both Nijmegen and Apeldoorn are larger cities, Nijmegen being the largest with nearly 170,000 inhabitants. Other major regional centres in Gelderland are Ede, Zutphen, Wageningen, Gelderland had a population of just over two million in 2015. According to the Wichard saga, the city was named by the Lords of Pont who fought and they named the town they founded after the death rattle of the dragon, Gelre. Historically, the dates from states of the Holy Roman Empire. The County of Guelders arose out of the Frankish pagus Hamaland in the 11th century around castles near Roermond, the counts of Gelre acquired the Betuwe and Veluwe regions and, through marriage, the County of Zutphen. Thus the counts of Guelders laid the foundation for a power that, through control of the Rhine, Meuse.
Further enlarged by the acquisition of the city of Nijmegen in the 13th century. After 1379, the duchy was ruled from Jülich and by the counts of Egmond, the duchy resisted Burgundian domination, but William, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg was forced to cede it to Charles V in 1543, after which it formed part of the Burgundian-Habsburg hereditary lands. The duchy revolted with the rest of the Netherlands against Philip II of Spain, after the deposition of Philip II, its sovereignty was vested in the States of Gelderland, and the princes of Orange were stadtholders. In 1672, the province was occupied by Louis XIV and, in 1713. Part of the Batavian Republic, of Louis Bonaparte’s Kingdom of Holland, during the Second World War, it saw heavy fighting between Allied Paratroopers, British XXX Corps and the German II SS Panzer Corps, at the Battle of Arnhem
A27 motorway (Netherlands)
The A27 motorway is a motorway in the Netherlands. It is approximately 109 kilometers in length, the A27 is located in the Dutch provinces North Brabant, South Holland, North Holland, and Flevoland. It connects the city of Breda with the Almere, on its way, it passes the cities of Gorinchem and Hilversum. Technically this situation is incorrect, since the A27s official start is only at interchange Sint-Annabosch, the reference A27 has probably been added to the road signs to help traffic coming from Antwerp in finding their way from the A16 / E19 towards the A27. No major European routes follow the A27 motorway, the only one to follow it, is the E311 road between interchange Sint-Annabosch near Breda and interchange Lunetten near Utrecht. This section of the A27 immediately comprises the entire E311 road, the shared section with the A58 is part of the European route E312. The northernmost section, connecting the town of Huizen with Almere, has opened in 1999. List of motorways in the Netherlands List of E-roads in the Netherlands Netherlands portal Roads portal Media related to A27 motorway at Wikimedia Commons
Utrecht is the capital and most populous city in the Dutch province of Utrecht. It is located in the corner of the Randstad conurbation and is the fourth largest city in the Netherlands with a population of 330,772 in 2014. Utrechts ancient city centre features many buildings and structures several dating as far back as the High Middle Ages and it has been the religious centre of the Netherlands since the 8th century. It lost the status of prince-bishopric but remains the religious center in the country. Utrecht was the most important city in the Netherlands until the Dutch Golden Age, Utrecht is host to Utrecht University, the largest university in the Netherlands, as well as several other institutions of higher education. Due to its position within the country, it is an important transport hub for both rail and road transport. It has the second highest number of events in the Netherlands. In 2012, Lonely Planet included Utrecht in the top 10 of the world’s unsung places, a series of such fortresses was built after the Roman emperor Claudius decided the empire should not expand north.
To consolidate the border the limes Germanicus defense line was constructed along the branch of the river Rhine. These fortresses were designed to house a cohort of about 500 Roman soldiers, near the fort settlements would grow housing artisans and soldiers wives and children. In Roman times, the name of the Utrecht fortress was simply Traiectum, Traiectum became Dutch Trecht, with the U from Old Dutch uut added to distinguish U-trecht from Maas-tricht. In 11th-century official documents it was Latinized as Ultra Traiectum, around the year 200, the wooden walls of the fortification were replaced by sturdier tuff stone walls, remnants of which are still to be found below the buildings around Dom Square. From the middle of the 3rd century Germanic tribes regularly invaded the Roman territories, around 275 the Romans could no longer maintain the northern border and Utrecht was abandoned. Little is known about the next period 270–650, Utrecht is first spoken of again several centuries after the Romans left.
Under the influence of the realms of the Franks, during Dagobert Is reign in the 7th century. In ongoing border conflicts with the Frisians this first church was destroyed, by the mid-7th century and Irish missionaries set out to convert the Frisians. The pope appointed their leader, bishop of the Frisians, the tenure of Willibrordus is generally considered to be the beginning of the Bishopric of Utrecht. In 723, the Frankish leader Charles Martel bestowed the fortress in Utrecht, from on Utrecht became one of the most influential seats of power for the Roman Catholic Church in the Netherlands
Many wider U. S. as well as Swedish freeways have shoulders on both sides of each directional carriageway, in the median as well as at the outer edges of the road, for additional safety. Shoulders are not intended for use by traffic, although there are exceptions. Shoulders have multiple uses, including, In the event of an emergency or breakdown, Emergency vehicles such as ambulances and police cars may use the shoulder to bypass traffic congestion. Active traffic management, used on busy roads, may allow hard shoulder running by general traffic at reduced speeds during periods of high traffic volumes. In some places a Bus bypass shoulder may be provided which allows bus services to pass stationary traffic, paved shoulders provide additional space should a motorist need to take evasive action or need to recover control of their vehicle before a run-off-road collision occurs. In some urban areas, shoulders are used as travel lanes during peak commuting hours, in some rural areas without sidewalks and cyclists may be allowed to walk or ride on the shoulders.
Paved shoulders move water away from the roadway before it can infiltrate into the roads subbase, Shoulders help provide extra structural support of the roadway. The shoulder is slightly narrower than a full traffic lane. In some cases, particularly on older rural roadways, shoulders that initially existed were hardened with gravel rather than being paved with asphalt or concrete, in Britain, motorway shoulders are now paved, but are still known as hard shoulders. Older, gravel shoulders have sometimes been termed soft shoulders by comparison, because the paved surface ends at that point, they are less safe if they need to be used for emergency maneuvers. Modern practice is to build a paved shoulder whenever possible. The Safety Edge is effective on roads where the shoulder is narrow or nonexistent. To save money, the shoulder was not paved to the same thickness as the through lanes, so if vehicles were to attempt to use it as a through lane regularly. In Britain, shoulder running can occur during roadworks, and full depth construction is now standard, in some metro areas, road authorities allow shoulders to be used as lanes at peak periods.
However, rural shoulders often collects various bits of debris that can make driving there less safe. Drivers will sometimes drift into the shoulder when being overtaken by passing vehicles, however, it is extremely unsafe, as well as illegal, to abuse the shoulder by undertaking passing vehicles that are nearer the center of the road. Some roads have a shoulder for significant distances. This makes it difficult for vehicles to pull into the hard shoulder altogether
Lansingerland is the name for the new municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. It was formed on 1 January 2007, by the merger of the municipalities of Berkel en Rodenrijs and Bergschenhoek, the former municipality of Tempel, abolished in 1855, is part of Lansingerland. The name was chosen from a competition and derived from the name Lansingh, the choice of name is symbolic, the name of the border that formerly divided the area, now unites it. The h in Lansingh was dropped to ease spelling, the municipal council of Lansingerland consists of 31 seats. They were last contested in March 2014 and the results were as follows, Official website
International E-road network
The international E-road network is a numbering system for roads in Europe developed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. The network is numbered from E1 up and its roads cross national borders and it reaches Central Asian countries like Kyrgyzstan, since they are members of the UNECE. European main international traffic arteries are defined by ECE/TRANS/SC. 1/384 which consider three types of roads, express roads, and ordinary roads, in most countries, roads carry the European route designation beside national road numbers. Other countries like Belgium and Sweden have roads with exclusive European route signage, while at the end of the scale. Denmark uses exclusive European routes, but uses formal names for every motorway, other continents have similar international road networks, e. g. the Pan-American Highway in the Americas, the Trans-African Highway network, and the Asian Highway Network. UNECE was formed in 1947, and their first major act to transport was a joint UN declaration no.
1264, the Declaration on the Construction of Main International Traffic Arteries, signed in Geneva on September 16,1950, originally it was envisaged that the E-road network would be a motorway system comparable to the US Interstate Highway System. The AGR last went through a change in 1992 and in 2001 was extended into Central Asia to include the Caucausus nations. There were several revisions since, last in 2008. The route numbering system is as follows, Reference roads and intermediate roads, north-south routes have odd numbers, east-west routes have even numbers. Numbers count upward from west to east and from north to south, with some exceptions, branch and connecting roads, called Class-B roads, have three-digit numbers above 130. Reference roads are roads numbered 5-95 ending with 0 or 5 or having odd numbers 101-129 and they generally go across Europe and are usually several thousand kilometres long. North-south reference roads have numbers that end with the digit 5 from 5 to 95, or odd numbers from 101 to 129, east-west reference roads have two-digit numbers that end with the digit 0, increasing from north to south.
Intermediate roads are roads numbered 1 to 99 that are not reference roads and they are usually considerably shorter than the reference roads. They have numbers between those of the roads between which they are located. Like reference roads, north-south intermediate roads have odd numbers, east-west roads have even numbers, north-south Class-A roads located eastwards of road E99 have three-digit odd numbers from 101 to 129. Other rules for Class-A roads above apply to these roads, Class-B roads located eastwards of E101 have 3-digit numbers beginning with 0, from 001 to 099. In the first established and approved version, the numbers were well ordered
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
The Hague is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands, and the capital city of the province of South Holland. With a population of 520,704 inhabitants and more than one million including the suburbs, it is the third-largest city of the Netherlands. The Rotterdam The Hague Metropolitan Area, with a population of approximately 2.7 million, is the 12th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country. Located in the west of the Netherlands, The Hague is in the centre of the Haaglanden conurbation and lies at the southwest corner of the larger Randstad conurbation. The Hague is the seat of the Dutch government, the Supreme Court, and the Council of State, but the city is not the capital of the Netherlands, which constitutionally is Amsterdam. King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands plans to live at Huis ten Bosch and works at Noordeinde Palace in The Hague, the Hague is home to the world headquarters of Royal Dutch Shell and numerous other major Dutch companies. The Hague originated around 1230, when Count Floris IV of Holland purchased land alongside a pond, in 1248, his son and successor William II, King of the Romans, decided to extend the residence to a palace, which would be called the Binnenhof.
He died in 1256 before this palace was completed but parts of it were finished by his son Floris V, of which the Ridderzaal and it is still used for political events, such as the annual speech from the throne by the Dutch monarch. From the 13th century onwards, the counts of Holland used The Hague as their administrative centre, the village that originated around the Binnenhof was first mentioned as Haga in a charter dating from 1242. In the 15th century, the smarter des Graven hage came into use, literally The Counts Wood, with connotations like The Counts Hedge, s-Gravenhage was officially used for the city from the 17th century onwards. Today, this name is used in some official documents like birth. The city itself uses Den Haag in all its communication and their seat was located in The Hague. At the beginning of the Eighty Years War, the absence of city walls proved disastrous, in 1575, the States of Holland even considered demolishing the city but this proposal was abandoned, after mediation by William of Orange.
From 1588, The Hague became the seat of the government of the Dutch Republic, in order for the administration to maintain control over city matters, The Hague never received official city status, although it did have many of the privileges normally granted only to cities. In modern administrative law, city rights have no place anymore, only in 1806, when the Kingdom of Holland was a puppet state of the First French Empire, was the settlement granted city rights by Louis Bonaparte. After the Napoleonic Wars, modern-day Belgium and the Netherlands were combined in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands to form a buffer against France, as a compromise and Amsterdam alternated as capital every two years, with the government remaining in The Hague. After the separation of Belgium in 1830, Amsterdam remained the capital of the Netherlands, when the government started to play a more prominent role in Dutch society after 1850, The Hague quickly expanded. The growing city annexed the rural municipality of Loosduinen partly in 1903, the city sustained heavy damage during World War II