A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land. It is used for major roads, but includes other public roads and public tracks: It is not an equivalent term to controlled-access highway, or a translation for autobahn, etc. According to Merriam Webster, the use of the term predates 12th century. According to Etymonline, "high" is in the sense of "main". In North American and Australian English, major roads such as controlled-access highways or arterial roads are state highways. Other roads may be designated "county highways" in the Ontario; these classifications refer to the level of government. In British English, "highway" is a legal term. Everyday use implies roads, while the legal use covers any route or path with a public right of access, including footpaths etc; the term has led to several related derived terms, including highway system, highway code, highway patrol and highwayman. The term highway exists in distinction to "waterway". Major highways are named and numbered by the governments that develop and maintain them.
Australia's Highway 1 is the longest national highway in the world at over 14,500 km or 9,000 mi and runs the entire way around the continent. China has the world's largest network of highways followed by the United States of America; some highways, like the European routes, span multiple countries. Some major highway routes include ferry services, such as U. S. Route 10. Traditionally highways were used on horses, they accommodated carriages and motor cars, facilitated by advancements in road construction. In the 1920s and 1930s, many nations began investing in progressively more modern highway systems to spur commerce and bolster national defense. Major modern highways that connect cities in populous developed and developing countries incorporate features intended to enhance the road's capacity and safety to various degrees; such features include a reduction in the number of locations for user access, the use of dual carriageways with two or more lanes on each carriageway, grade-separated junctions with other roads and modes of transport.
These features are present on highways built as motorways. The general legal definition deals with right of use not the form of construction. A highway is defined in English common law by a number of similarly-worded definitions such as "a way over which all members of the public have the right to pass and repass without hindrance" accompanied by "at all times". A highway might be open to all forms of lawful land traffic or limited to specific types of traffic or combinations of types of traffic. A highway can share ground with a private right of way for which full use is not available to the general public as will be the case with farm roads which the owner may use for any purpose but for which the general public only has a right of use on foot or horseback; the status of highway on most older roads has been gained by established public use while newer roads are dedicated as highways from the time they are adopted. In England and Wales, a public highway is known as "The Queen's Highway"; the core definition of a highway is modified in various legislation for a number of purposes but only for the specific matters dealt with in each such piece of legislation.
This is in the case of bridges and other structures whose ownership, mode of use or availability would otherwise exclude them from the general definition of a highway, examples in recent years are toll bridges and tunnels which have the definition of highway imposed upon them to allow application of most traffic laws to those using them but without causing all of the general obligations or rights of use otherwise applicable to a highway. Scots law is similar to English law with regard to highways but with differing terminology and legislation. What is defined in England as a highway will in Scotland be what is defined by s.151 Roads Act 1984 as a road, that is:- "any way over which there is a public right of passage and includes the road’s verge, any bridge over which, or tunnel through which, the road passes. In American law, the word "highway" is sometimes used to denote any public way used for travel, whether a "road and parkway". Highways have a route number designated by t
Courtedoux is a municipality in the district of Porrentruy of the Canton of Jura, Switzerland. Courtedoux is first mentioned in 814 as Curtis Udulphi. Courtedoux has an area of 8.21 km2. Of this area, 4.27 km2 or 51.9% is used for agricultural purposes, while 3.08 km2 or 37.5% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.8 km2 or 9.7% is settled. Of the built up area and buildings made up 3.5% and transportation infrastructure made up 2.7%. Power and water infrastructure as well as other special developed areas made up 2.9% of the area Out of the forested land, 35.8% of the total land area is forested and 1.7% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 29.7% is used for growing crops and 19.5% is pastures and 2.2% is used for alpine pastures. The municipality is located on a rise above the Creugenat valley; the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Or, three Piles issuant from sinister shortened Azure, on a chief of the last a Wolf passant of the first langued and armed Gules.
Courtedoux has a population of 782. As of 2008, 5.8% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of -3.1%. Migration accounted for 0.1%, while births and deaths accounted for -3.5%. Most of the population speaks French as their first language, German is the second most common and Portuguese is the third. There are 1 person who speaks Romansh; as of 2008, the population was 46.3% male and 53.7% female. The population was made up of 307 Swiss men and 27 non-Swiss men. There were 374 Swiss women and 14 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality, 268 or about 36.3% were born in Courtedoux and lived there in 2000. There were 279 or 37.8% who were born in the same canton, while 85 or 11.5% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 86 or 11.6% were born outside of Switzerland. As of 2000, children and teenagers make up 24% of the population, while adults make up 57.8% and seniors make up 18.3%. As of 2000, there were 283 people who were single and never married in the municipality.
There were 385 married individuals, 47 widows or widowers and 24 individuals who are divorced. As of 2000, there were 294 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.5 persons per household. There were 75 households that consist of only one person and 24 households with five or more people. In 2000, a total of 288 apartments were permanently occupied, while 21 apartments were seasonally occupied and 11 apartments were empty; as of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 1.4 new units per 1000 residents. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 1.18%. The historical population is given in the following chart: In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the CVP which received 36.78% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SPS, the FDP and the SVP. In the federal election, a total of 257 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 45.2%. As of 2010, Courtedoux had an unemployment rate of 3.4%. As of 2008, there were 32 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 11 businesses involved in this sector.
113 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 7 businesses in this sector. 43 people were employed in the tertiary sector, with 13 businesses in this sector. There were 348 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which females made up 43.1% of the workforce. In 2008 the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 166; the number of jobs in the primary sector was 22, of which 19 were in agriculture and 3 were in forestry or lumber production. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 108 of which 104 or were in manufacturing and 4 were in construction; the number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 36. In the tertiary sector. In 2000, there were 77 workers who commuted into the municipality and 260 workers who commuted away; the municipality is a net exporter of workers, with about 3.4 workers leaving the municipality for every one entering. About 13.0% of the workforce coming into Courtedoux are coming from outside Switzerland. Of the working population, 6.6% used public transportation to get to work, 78.2% used a private car.
From the 2000 census, 567 or 76.7% were Roman Catholic, while 85 or 11.5% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there were 2 members of an Orthodox church, there were 70 individuals who belonged to another Christian church. There were 3 who were Islamic. 33 belonged to no church, are agnostic or atheist, 14 individuals did not answer the question. In Courtedoux about 252 or of the population have completed non-mandatory upper secondary education, 74 or have completed additional higher education. Of the 74 who completed tertiary schooling, 70.3% were Swiss men, 20.3% were Swiss women and 8.1% were non-Swiss women. The Canton of Jura school system provides two year of non-obl
Flora Ruchat-Roncati was a Swiss architect and professor. She was from Ticino, but worked at ETH Zurich, she was co-winner, with her assistant Renato Salvi, of a competition to design the Transjurane highway in 1988. The highway joins the Swiss and French road networks through the Jura mountains and involves many tunnels. Eleven of the tunnels are over a kilometre long
ETH Zurich is a science, technology and mathematics university in the city of Zürich, Switzerland. Like its sister institution EPFL, it is an integral part of the Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology Domain, directly subordinate to Switzerland's Federal Department of Economic Affairs and Research; the school was founded by the Swiss Federal Government in 1854 with the stated mission to educate engineers and scientists, serve as a national center of excellence in science and technology and provide a hub for interaction between the scientific community and industry. In the 2019 edition of the QS World University Rankings ETH Zurich is ranked 7th in the world, is ranked 10th in the world by the Times Higher Education World Rankings 2018. In the 2019 QS World University Rankings by subject it is ranked 3rd in the world for engineering and technology, 1st for Earth & Marine Science; as of August 2018, 32 Nobel laureates, 4 Fields Medalists, 1 Turing Award winner have been affiliated with the Institute, including Albert Einstein.
It is a founding member of the IDEA League and the International Alliance of Research Universities and a member of the CESAER network. ETH was founded on 7 February 1854 by the Swiss Confederation and began giving its first lectures on 16 October 1855 as a polytechnic institute at various sites throughout the city of Zurich, it was composed of six faculties: architecture, civil engineering, mechanical engineering, forestry, an integrated department for the fields of mathematics, natural sciences and social and political sciences. It is locally still known as Polytechnikum, or as Poly, derived from the original name eidgenössische polytechnische Schule, which translates to "federal polytechnic school". ETH is a federal institute; the decision for a new federal university was disputed at the time. In the beginning, both universities were co-located in the buildings of the University of Zürich. From 1905 to 1908, under the presidency of Jérôme Franel, the course program of ETH was restructured to that of a real university and ETH was granted the right to award doctorates.
In 1909 the first doctorates were awarded. In 1911, it was given Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule. In 1924, another reorganization structured the university in 12 departments. However, it now has 16 departments. ETH Zurich, the EPFL, four associated research institutes form the "ETH Domain" with the aim of collaborating on scientific projects. ETH Zurich is ranked among the top universities in the world. Popular rankings place the institution as the best university in continental Europe and ETH Zurich is ranked among the top 1-5 universities in Europe, among the top 3-10 best universities of the world. ETH Zurich has achieved its reputation in the fields of chemistry and physics. There are 32 Nobel Laureates who are associated with ETH; the most recent Nobel Laureate is Richard F. Heck, awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 2010. Albert Einstein is its most famous alumnus. In 2018, the QS World University Rankings placed ETH Zurich at 7th overall in the world. In 2015, ETH was ranked 5th in the world in Engineering and Technology, just behind the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford University, Cambridge University and National University of Singapore.
In 2015, ETH ranked 6th in the world in Natural Sciences, in 2016 ranked 1st in the world for Earth & Marine Sciences for the second consecutive year. In 2016, Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked ETH Zurich 9th overall in the world and 8th in the world in the field of Engineering & Technology, just behind the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford University, California Institute of Technology, Princeton University, Cambridge University, Imperial College London and Oxford University. In a comparison of Swiss universities by swissUP Ranking and in rankings published by CHE comparing the universities of German-speaking countries, ETH Zurich traditionally is ranked first in natural sciences, computer science and engineering sciences. In the survey CHE ExcellenceRanking on the quality of Western European graduate school programmes in the fields biology, chemistry and mathematics, ETH was assessed as one of the three institutions to have excellent graduate programmes in all considered fields, the other two being the Imperial College London and the University of Cambridge.
ETH Zurich had a total budget of 1.885 billion CHF in the year 2017. For Swiss students, ETH is not selective in its undergraduate admission procedures. Like every public university in Switzerland, ETH is obliged to grant admission to every Swiss resident who took the Matura. Applicants from foreign countries are required to take either the reduced entrance exam or the comprehensive entrance exam although some applicants from several European countries are exempted from this rule. An applicant can be admitted to ETH without any verifiable educational records by passing the comprehensive entrance exam; as at all universities in Switzerland, the academic year is divided into two semesters. Examinations are held durin
A16 motorway (Switzerland)
The A16, a motorway in north-central Switzerland, is a divided freeway connecting the border to France to the A5 motorway, 84 kilometres to the south on the Swiss plateau. The A16 motorway is a long, winding corridor that crosses the Jura Mountains from the Canton of Jura through part of the Bernese Jura area, to the flat part of the canton of Berne on the Swiss plateau; therefore it is called Transjurane. It is congruent with the National Highway N16 and following its anticipated completion around 2020-2030, it will connect the French motorway network with the rest of the Swiss national road network; the extension provides for both four-lane standard and two-lane sections of "express roads". At present, there are 71 km of roadway in operation, other sections are under construction or are in planning; the A16 starts at Boncourt in the Ajoie at the border between France. It runs south across the Ajoie plateau to Porrentruy, it crosses the northern Jura chains in Saint-Ursanne through two long tunnels, reaches Glovelier, on the plateau of Delémont.
After bypassing that city, the A16 turns south again, follows the course of the Birse via Moutier and Court until Tavannes. Upon crossing Col de Pierre Pertuis through tunnels, the A16 follows the valley of the Suze, it divides itself into a double lane road with separate downhill and uphill traffic on either side of the gorge of Taubenloch. It reaches, the level of the Swiss plateau east of Biel/Bienne, connecting to the A5; the following sections are in operation: Biel - La Heutte: Applies from entering Biel-North as a third-class national highway, because the section supports bicycles and tractors. In each direction two lanes are continuously present; the running carriageway is separated, one on the west, the other on the eastern valley slope, the latter being the main track in use since 1965. La Heutte - Tavannes: route with standard highway, opened November 1997. Delémont - Porrentruy: Narrow highway with emergency stopping bays but without paved emergency lane; the opening of the route took place in November 1998, with bypasses of Delémont and Porrentruy in September 2005.
Moutier-North opened up to Choindez, November 2007. Court - Moutier-Nord: Motorway standard section Moutier-Sud to Moutier-Nord opened in November 2011. One lane in each direction remainder opened in November 2013. Porrentruy-Ouest - Bure: One lane each direction will be created initially. Bure - Boncourt: Opened November 2011. Tavannes - Loveresse: The two-lane stretch opened November 2012; the following sections are under construction: Loveresse - configure Court: With a 4.5 km stretch of standard highway, is scheduled to open in 2016. District boundary BE / JU - Delémont-Est: This two-lane section is scheduled to open in 2016; because of the current financial constraints, the Swiss Federal Government can postpone most of the works on new sections. The connection of the A16 to the A36 motorway in France between Montbéliard and Belfort is to be completed within a time horizon of 2025-2030. Along its course, the A16 has many engineering structures tunnels but some bridges. Therefore, the A16 is one of the most expensive road projects in Switzerland.
For the whole line, a total cost of 5.6 billion Swiss francs is estimated. Because of the difficult terrain in the area of the Jura Mountains, the construction of numerous tunnels is necessary to pass underneath the various Jura chains; the main tunnels with a length of more than 1 kilometre are: Tunnel de Bure Tunnel du Banné Tunnel de la Perche Tunnel du Mont Terri Tunnel du Mont Russelin Tunnel de Choindez Tunnel du Raimeux Tunnel de Moutier Tunnel de Graitery Tunnel Sous le Mont Tunnel de Pierre Pertuis There are 16 more tunnels that are less than 1 kilometre in length and were created in open pits. Some tunnels are, or have been, built to protect the residents of nearby villages and hamlets from the noise emissions; the A16 was not one from the start to the national motorway network in Switzerland, although there were initial projects of Jura rapid-traverse between Biel and Belfort, as early as 1964. The inclusion of the A16 in the plan of the national road network came in 1984, after the population had approved construction in the Canton of Jura, with a large majority.
The highway should be the favored new project of the Ajoie. The efficient transport corridor is to ensure, after completion, a much faster connection to the rest of Switzerland. Flora Ruchat-Roncati and Renato Salvi of ETH Zurich won the competition to design the highway in 1988. After entering the national motorway network, there was the part of environmentalists strong opposition to the project. In the context of the so-called Clover Initiative, the construction of the A16 should be submitted to the entire Swiss population to vote. Due to the high acceptance of the project in the affected regions, the request was withdrawn before a vote on other controversial motorway cuts. During the construction work on the A16, in the vi