A dual carriageway or divided highway is a class of highway with carriageways for traffic travelling in opposite directions separated by a central reservation. Roads with two or more carriageways which are designed to higher standards with controlled access are classed as motorways, etc. rather than dual carriageways. A road without a central reservation is a single carriageway regardless of the number of lanes. Dual carriageways have improved road traffic safety over single carriageways and have higher speed limits as a result. In some places, express lanes and local/collector lanes are used within a local-express-lane system to provide more capacity and to smooth traffic flows for longer-distance travel. A early example of a dual carriageway was the Via Portuensis, built in the first century by the Roman emperor Claudius between Rome and its port Ostia at the mouth of the Tiber. One claim for the first divided highway in the United States was Savery Avenue in Carver, first built in 1860, where the two roadways were separated by a narrow strip of trees down the middle.
In 1907 the Long Island Motor Parkway opened, 20% of it featured a semi-dual-carriageway design. The New York City Belt Parkway system, built between 1907 and 1934 pioneered the same design; however the majority of it featured concrete or brick railings as lane dividers instead of grass medians. In 1924 the first Italian autostrada was opened running 55 km from Milan to Varese, it featured a broad road bed and did not feature lane dividers except near cities and through the mountains. The London end of the Great West Road became Britain's first dual carriageway when it was opened in 1925 by King George V. In 1927 the Rome bypass was opened, it ran 92 km bypassing Rome to the east. The entire length featured a dual-carriageway design. In the early 1930s it was extended northward to Florence. Most of the original routing was destroyed by the Allies in World War II. By 1930 several US and European cities had built dual-carriageway highways to control traffic jams and/or to provide bypass routes for traffic.
In 1932 the first German autobahn opened between Bonn. It became a precedent for future highways. Although it, like the first autostrada, did not feature a dual-carriageway design, it inspired the mass construction of future high-speed roadways. During the 1930s, Germany and the Soviet Union began construction of a network of dual carriageway expressways. By 1942, Germany had over 3,200 km of dual carriageway roads, Italy had nearly 1,300 km, the Soviet Union had 400 km. What may be the world's first long-distance intercity dual carriageway/freeway is the Queen Elizabeth Way in Southern Ontario in Canada linking the large cities of Toronto and Hamilton together by 1939, with construction on this stretch of the present-day Queen Elizabeth Way beginning in 1936 as "Middle Road". Opened to traffic in 1940, the 160-mile-long Pennsylvania Turnpike was the first rural dual carriageway built in the United States. By 1955 several states had built dual carriageway freeways and turnpikes and in 1957 the Interstate Highway System began.
Completed in 1994, the major highway system links all the major cities of the United States. In the UK, although the term "dual carriageway" applies to any road with physically separated lanes, it is used as a descriptive term for major routes built in this style; such major dual carriageways have two lanes of traffic in each direction, with the lane nearest the centre being reserved for overtaking. Dual carriageways have only one lane in each direction, or more than two lanes each way. Different speed limits apply on dual carriageway sections from those that apply on single carriageway sections of the same class of road, except in cities and built-up areas where the dual carriageway is more of a safety measure; when first constructed, many dual carriageways—including the first motorways—had no crash- or other barriers in the central reservation. In the event of congestion, or if a driver missed their exit, some drivers made U-turns onto the opposite carriageway; the majority of dual carriageway roads now have barriers.
Some are heavy concrete obstructions. On urban dual carriageways where the road has been converted from a four-lane single carriageway the central reservation will not be substantial: just a small steel divider to save space. Turning right is permitted only at specific locations; the driver will be required to turn left in order to loop around to an access road that permits crossing the major road. Roundabouts on dual carriageways are common in cities or where the cost of a grade-separated junction would be prohibitive. Where space is more limited, intersections may be controlled by traffic lights. Smaller residential roads adjoining urban dual carriageways may be blocked off at one end to limit the number of junctions on the dual carriageway. A dual carriageway with grade-separa
Roads in the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom has a network of roads, of varied quality and capacity, totalling about 262,300 miles. Road distances are shown in miles or yards and UK speed limits are indicated in miles per hour or by the use of the national speed limit symbol; some vehicle categories have various lower maximum limits enforced by speed limiters. Enforcement of UK road speed limits uses speed guns, automated in-vehicle systems and automated roadside traffic cameras. A unified numbering system is in place for Great Britain, whilst in Northern Ireland, there is no available explanation for the allocation of road numbers; the earliest engineered roads were built during the British Iron Age. The road network was expanded during the Roman occupation; some of these survive and others were lost. New roads were added from the 17th century onwards. Whilst control has been transferred from local to central bodies and back again, current management and development of the road network is shared between local authorities, the devolved administrations of Scotland and Northern Ireland and Highways England.
Certain aspects of the legal framework remain under the competence of the United Kingdom parliament. Although some roads have much older origins, the network was subject to major development from the 1950s to the mid-1990s. From construction of roads has become controversial with direct action campaigns by environmentalists in opposition; the UK has a road network totalling about 262,300 miles of paved roads—246,500 miles in Great Britain and 15,800 miles in Northern Ireland. Responsibility for the road network differs between non trunk routes. Trunk roads, which are the most important roads, are administered by Highways England in England, Transport Scotland in Scotland, the North and Mid Wales Trunk Road Agent, South Wales Trunk Road Agent in Wales. England's 6,500 miles of trunk roads account for 50 % of lorry travel. Scotland has accounting for 35 % of all road journeys and over 50 % of lorry movements. Wales has 1,000 miles of trunk roads. In London, Transport for London is responsible for all trunk roads and other major roads, which are part of the Transport for London Road Network.
All other roads are the responsibility of unitary authority. In Northern Ireland, the Roads Service Northern Ireland is responsible for all 5,592 miles roads; the pan-British total is 15,260 miles. Whilst they are trunk roads, several motorways are the responsibility of local authorities, for example the M275. Since 2008, location marker posts have appeared on motorways and major A roads in England, situated at intervals of 500 metres; these repeat the information given on the co-sited surveyors' marker post which, since the 1960s, have reported distances on such roads in kilometres from a datum—usually the start of the road, or the planned start-point of the road. Numbered roads in the UK are signed as M, A, or B roads, as well as various categories of more minor roads: for internal purposes, local authorities may use C, D and U; each road is given a number, combined with the prefix, for example M40, A40 and B1110, although their informal or traditional names may still be used or heard occasionally: for instance, the Great North Road and the Great Cambridge Road.
These numbers follow a zonal system. There is no available explanation for the allocation of road numbers in Northern Ireland; the majority of the major inter-urban routes are motorways, are designed to carry long distance traffic. The next category is the A roads. A primary route is defined as:...a route, not being a route comprising any part of a motorway, in respect of which the Secretary of State — in the case of a trunk road is of the opinion, in any other case after consultation with the traffic authority for the road comprised in the route is of the opinion, that it provides the most satisfactory route for through traffic between places of traffic importance A new standard was set in April 2015 to formally designate certain high-quality routes as Expressways, but whether this will result in any existing road classifications changing is unclear. Primary destinations are cities and large towns, to which, as a result of their size, a high volume of traffic is expected to go. However, in rural areas, smaller towns or villages may be given primary status if located at junctions of significant roads: for example, Llangurig in Wales and Crianlarich in Scotland.
As a further example, Scotch Corner in northern England is not a village—merely a hotel and a few other buildings—yet has the status of a primary destination due to its location at the interchange of the A1 and A66 roads. For similar reasons, certain airports, sea ports and tunnels have been designated as primary destinations; the status of both primary destinations and roads is maintained by the Department for Transport in combination with the Highways Agency in England and Wales and the Scottish Government in Scotland. The concept of primary roads was introduced in the 1960s as part of a national reclassification of roads. Regional destinations are used on long distance routes throughout the country alongside primary destinations, they are displayed on signs in capitals to dis
London Borough of Croydon
The London Borough of Croydon is a London borough in south London, England and is part of Outer London. It is the largest London borough by population, it is the southernmost borough of London. At its centre is the historic town of Croydon from which the borough takes its name. Croydon is mentioned in Domesday Book, from a small market town has expanded into one of the most populous areas on the fringe of London. Croydon is the civic centre of the borough; the borough is now one of London's leading business and cultural centres, its influence in entertainment and the arts contribute to its status as a major metropolitan centre. Formed in 1965 from the Coulsdon and Purley Urban District and the County Borough of Croydon, the local authority Croydon London Borough Council, is now part of the local government association for Greater London, London Councils; the economic strength of Croydon dates back to Croydon Airport, a major factor in the development of Croydon as a business centre. Once London's main airport for all international flights to and from the capital, it was closed on 30 September 1959 due to the lack of expansion space needed for an airport to serve the growing city.
It is now a Grade II listed tourist attraction. Croydon Council and its predecessor Croydon Corporation unsuccessfully applied for city status in 1954, 2000, 2002 and 2012; the area is going through a large regeneration project called Croydon Vision 2020, predicted to attract more businesses and tourists to the area as well as backing Croydon's bid to become London's Third City. Croydon is urban, though there are large suburban and rural uplands towards the south of the borough. Since 2003, Croydon has been certified as a Fairtrade borough by the Fairtrade Foundation, it was the first London borough to have Fairtrade status, awarded on certain criteria. The area is one of the hearts of the South East of England. Institutions such as the major arts and entertainment centre Fairfield Halls add to the vibrancy of the borough. However, its famous fringe theatre, the Warehouse Theatre, went into administration in 2012 when the council withdrew funding, the building itself was demolished in 2013; the Croydon Clocktower was opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1994 as an arts venue featuring a library, the independent David Lean Cinema and museum.
From 2000 to 2010, Croydon staged an annual summer festival celebrating the area's black and Indian cultural diversity, with audiences reaching over 50,000 people. An internet radio station, Croydon Radio, is run by local people for the area; the borough is home to its own local TV station, Croydon TV. Premier League football club Crystal Palace F. C. play at Selhurst Park in Selhurst, a stadium they have been based in since 1924. Other landmarks in the borough include Addington Palace, an eighteenth-century mansion which became the official second residence of six Archbishops of Canterbury, Shirley Windmill, one of the few surviving large windmills in Greater London built in the 1850s, the BRIT School, a creative arts institute run by the BRIT Trust which has produced artists such as Adele, Amy Winehouse and Leona Lewis. For the history of the original town see History of CroydonThe London Borough of Croydon was formed in 1965 from the Coulsdon and Purley Urban District and the County Borough of Croydon.
The name Croydon comes from Crogdene or Croindone, named by the Saxons in the 8th century when they settled here, although the area had been inhabited since prehistoric times. It is thought to derive from the Anglo-Saxon croeas deanas, meaning "the valley of the crocuses", indicating that, like Saffron Walden in Essex, it was a centre for the collection of saffron. By the time of the Norman invasion Croydon had a church, a mill and around 365 inhabitants as recorded in the Domesday Book; the Archbishop of Canterbury, Archbishop Lanfranc lived at Croydon Palace. Visitors included Thomas Becket, royal figures such as Henry VIII of England and Elizabeth I. Croydon carried on through the ages as a prosperous market town, they produced charcoal, tanned leather, ventured into brewing. Croydon was served by the Surrey Iron Railway, the first public railway in the world, in 1803, by the London to Brighton rail link in the mid-19th century, helping it to become the largest town in what was Surrey. In the 20th century Croydon became known for industries such as metal working, car manufacture and its aerodrome, Croydon Airport.
Starting out during World War I as an airfield for protection against Zeppelins, an adjacent airfield was combined, the new aerodrome opened on 29 March 1920. It became the largest in London, was the main terminal for international air freight into the capital, it developed into one of the great airports of the world during the 1920s and 1930s, welcomed the world's pioneer aviators in its heyday. British Airways Ltd used the airport for a short period after redirecting from Northolt Aerodrome, Croydon was the operating base for Imperial Airways, it was due to the airport that Croydon suffered heavy bomb damage during World War II. As aviation technology progressed and aircraft became larger and more numerous, it was recognised in 1952 that the airport would be too small to cope with the ever-increasing volume of air traffic; the last scheduled flight departed on 30 September 1959. It was superseded as the main airport by both London London Gatwick Airport; the air terminal, now known as Airport House, has been r
A24 road (England)
The A24 is a major road in England that runs for 53.2 miles from Clapham in south-west London to Worthing on the English Channel in West Sussex via the suburbs of south-west London, as well as through the counties of Surrey and West Sussex. Between Clapham and Dorking, the A24 follows the route of the old Roman road Stane Street; the Morden branch of the Northern line runs under the road from Clapham via Colliers Wood to Morden. Cycle Superhighway 7 runs along the road from Clapham to Colliers Wood; the A24 starts at a junction with the A3 near Clapham Common and its tube station in the London Borough of Lambeth in Inner London. It passes Clapham South Underground station, it changes name to Balham Hill. There are here shops on both sides of the road, it becomes Balham High Road and passes Balham station before reaching Tooting Bec Underground station and its junction with the A214. It becomes Upper Tooting Road, it runs downhill and becomes Tooting High Street before heading past Tooting Broadway Underground station and its junction with the A217 Garratt Lane.
It runs for a short distance before exiting Inner London. The road enters Colliers Wood in the London Borough of Merton going over the railway bridge between Haydons Road and Tooting railway station and the road becomes High Street Collier's Wood. Cycle Superhighway 7 finishes at Colliers Wood Underground station; the A24 turns left away from the Northern line and becomes Christchurch Road. It turns right onto Merantun Way and passes the Industrial areas of Collier's Wood and Merton before going over the River Wandle; the road turns left onto Morden Road at a junction with the A219. It passes Morden Industrial Area, Morden Hall Park and the A297 before reaching Morden Underground station, it runs as London Road and it goes under the railway bridge by Morden South railway station. It passes a set of traffic lights with the A239 Central Road next to Morden Park before becoming Epsom Road; the road runs in Lower Morden for a short distance and passes by Morden Cricket club before exiting the borough.
The road enters the London Borough of Sutton just before it reaches The Woodstock junction with the B279. It passes the Sutton Common area to the east and runs down the steep Stonecot Hill before it changes name to London Road, it passes St Anthony's Hospital as it heads into North Cheam and runs past a large branch of Sainsbury's before reaching the Queen Victoria junction with the A2043. The road leaves the shopping environment and the area becomes more residential as it continues as London Road before exiting the borough and Greater London; the A24 continues as London Road, enters the borough of Epsom and Ewell in Surrey by Sparrow Farm Road in Stoneleigh and runs alongside Nonsuch Park. Two out of the three car parks for Nonsuch are on the road; the road reaches the Organ Crossroads with the A240 and the B2200. The road becomes the Ewell By-Pass, it passes a crossroads with the Ewell terminus of the A232 and the B2200 before running past the edge of the North East Surrey College of Technology it approaches a roundabout with Reigate Road and the A240.
It heads towards Epsom and becomes Epsom Road East Street and passes Kiln Lane, an industrial area with a large Sainsbury's and various other shops. It passes The Rainbow Leisure Centre as it heads into Epsom Town Centre, it passes a set of traffic lights by Hook Road before it becomes Epsom High Street and goes around the one-way system by The Ashley Centre, Epsom Clock Tower and Epsom Playhouse before becoming South St and Dorking Road. It passes The Wells and Epsom Common before leaving the borough; the road becomes Epsom Road. It passes Newton Ashtead Park before changing name to The Street in the centre of Ashtead. Once the road leaves the centre of Ashtead it passes Ashtead Hospital, it enters Leatherhead and crosses the M25 just before the road turns left at the Knoll Roundabout. This is where the A243 starts and it is the way to Junction 9 of the M25 and the B2122 heads into Leatherhead town centre; the A24 becomes Bypass Road the speed limit goes up from 30 mph to 50 mph as the road enters a more rural feel.
It passes the B2033 at the Beaver Brook roundabout and continues for 0.6 miles before turning left at the Givons Grove roundabout with the A246 and the B2450. It becomes Dorking Road the Mickleham By-pass and becomes a dual-carriageway, it passes the B2209, the main road in Mickleham, a small village near Box Hill, a way to get to the hill. The A24 runs next to Box Hill, passes two car parks and crosses the Burford Bridge over the River Mole, it heads into the town of Dorking, passes the B2038 and the A2003 near Dorking railway station. Just afterwards, the road passes near to Dorking railway station, becomes Deepdene Avenue and runs on the Deepdene Roundabout with the A25, it exits central Dorking and becomes a lot less urban and enters North Holmwood just before another roundabout with the A2003 and Spook Hill. It continues south and passes the small villages of Mid Holmwood and South Holmwood and passes Holmwood railway station just before the northern end of the A29 and Newdigate Road, it changes name to Capel By-pass and passes near to the B2126 and Ockley railway station before it passes Capel village itself, 6 miles south of Dorking.
It passes Clark's Green roundabout. It runs south for another 2 miles before exiting Surrey; the A24 enters West S
Orpington is a town and electoral ward in the London Borough of Bromley, Greater London, England, at the south-eastern edge of London's urban sprawl. It is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London. Before the creation of Greater London in 1965, Orpington was in the county of Kent. Stone Age tools have been found in several areas of Orpington, including Goddington Park, Priory Gardens, the Ramsden estate, Poverest. Early Bronze Age pottery fragments have been found in the Park Avenue area. During the building of Ramsden Boys School in 1956, the remains of an Iron Age farmstead were excavated; the area was occupied in Roman times, as shown by Crofton Roman Villa and the Roman bath-house at Fordcroft. During the Anglo-Saxon period, Fordcroft Anglo-Saxon cemetery was used in the area; the first record of the name Orpington occurs in 1038, when King Cnut's treasurer Eadsy gave land at "Orpedingetune" to the Monastery of Christ Church at Canterbury. The parish church pre-dates the Domesday Book.
On 22 July 1573, Queen Elizabeth I was entertained at Bark Hart and her horses stabled at the Anchor and Hope Inn. On the southern edge of Orpington, Green St Green is recorded as'Grenstretre', which means a road covered with grass, it is known in the 1800s as Greenstead Green. Until the railway came, the local commercial centre was nearby St Mary Cray, rather than Orpington. St Mary Cray had a regular market, industry, whereas Orpington was just a small country village surrounded by soft fruit farms, hop fields and orchards; these crops attracted Romani people, working as itinerant pickers, to annual camps in local meadows and worked-out chalk pits. Although this work has ended, the Borough still provides a permanent site for travellers at Star Lane, historic gatherings are commemorated in local street names, such as Romany Rise. In 1967, Eric Lubbock Liberal MP for Orpington, promoted a Private Member's Bill to provide permanent Gypsy sites. In 1971, an international meeting of Romany people was held at Orpington.
Orpington has been part of the London Borough of Bromley since the 1st of April 1965, previous to this Orpington's local government was the Orpington Urban District. Orpington forms part of the Orpington and the current MP is Jo Johnson who has held the seat since 2010. Gareth Bacon is the London Assembly member for the Bexley and Bromley constituency in which Orpington is located. Orpington's mayor is Councillor Ian Payne due to Orpington being a part of the London Borough of Bromley. 2011 census data reports that the population of Orpington was 15,311 with 52% being female leaving 48% male. The average age is 42 above the national average age of 40. 86% of Orpington's population was born in England, second is Scotland with 1.1%. 95.1% of Orpington's population speak English, second is all other Chinese with just 0.4%. Christianity is the prominent religion in Orpington with 63.1% of the population identifying as Christian, no religion was second with 24.4% and Muslim third at 2.1%. Notably 45 people identify as 5 Buddhist as their religion.
51.1% of the local population is married, 23.8% are single, 8.2% cohabit with a partner of the opposite sex and 0.5% cohabit with a partner of the same sex. The leading occupation is professionals who make up 19.2% of the population followed by administrative and secretarial at 16.2%. After the Conservative member for the Orpington constituency, Donald Sumner, had resigned to become a county court judge, a by-election was held on 15 March 1962. Orpington was considered a safe Conservative seat, but Eric Lubbock, the Liberal candidate, won with a 22% swing away from the Conservatives; the result was headline news across the nation. It is from this win that the revival of the Liberal Party is dated; the High Street and adjacent Walnuts Shopping Centre contain a variety of high-street shops. There is a general market three days a week in front of Orpington College. A large Tesco supermarket opened in 2009 on the site of a former multi-storey car park. There are several restaurants in the town centre.
A restricted parking zone was introduced into Orpington high street, which enabled the council to wipe away road markings indicating parking restrictions. By combining the lack of markings, with CCTV monitoring, the council has been able to reduce the amount of street clutter and improve the quality of the High Street environment. There are ` big box' retail outlets including the new Nugent Shopping Park. Following the relocation of Marks & Spencer from their town-centre store to the Nugent Shopping Park, their previous site was taken over by Sainsbury's, who moved from their site nearby in the Walnuts; the Walnuts Leisure Centre, just east of the High Street, has a six-lane, 33.3 metre indoor swimming pool, squash courts and a gym with sauna and steam room, as well as a sports hall used for activities such as badminton, basketball and fitness classes. The sports hall is used for Women's Artistic Gymnastics, the leisure centre has been the main training venue for Orpington Gymnastic Club since the opening of the centre.
The Walnuts has been home to the Orpington Ojays swimming club for nearly 40 years. The club caters for those learning to swim right through to elite swimmers who wish to swim competitively at county and national level. There are other leisure centres such as one situated at Harris Academy Orpingt
Waddon railway station
Waddon railway station is in the London Borough of Croydon in south London. The station and all trains serving, it is in Travelcard Zone 5, between West Croydon and Wallington, is 11 miles 40 chains down the line from London Bridge measured via Forest Hill. On 4 November 1942, two electric multiple units collided due to a signalman's error: two people were killed; the typical off-peak service from the station is: 2tph to London Bridge semi-fast 4tph to London Victoria via Norbury calling at all stations. 6tph to Sutton 2tph to Epsom 2tph to Epsom Downs 6tph to West CroydonThere are direct services to Dorking and Guildford during weekday mornings and evenings. There are direct services to Dulwich, Peckham Rye, Streatham during the weekday mornings only. Sunday service: 4tph to London Victoria via Norbury calling at all stations. 4tph to Sutton 2tph to Epsom Downs London Buses routes 154, 157 and 289 serve the station. Train times and station information for Waddon railway station from National Rail
Hooley is a geographically small village in Surrey, England that has in its small grid of streets the 13th century church of Chipstead which has been, since time immemorial, its ecclesiastical parish. It remains a hamlet but is an equal distance via paths and a major road, the Brighton road, to a much larger community, downhill to the north, in Greater London and that has a main line railway station. Hooley until the early 20th century was a sparsely inhabited hamlet of Chipstead, both a permeable chalk upland area with little housing or industry. Both the London and South Coast Railway and the South Eastern Railway recognised the construction of short tunnels here as the best route out of London to Brighton for their rival railway lines; the two deep railway cuttings here have been the locations of many land slips over the years. Before these the 1805 extension of the Surrey Iron Railway, a horse-drawn plateway came through this pass. A bridge from this early plateway survives at the junction of Brighton Road with Dean Lane.
In 1965, upon the formation of Greater London, along with Purley and Coulsdon, became part of the London Borough of Croydon. Some communities on the edge of Greater London were allowed the option of returning to their former counties. Hooley was added to Banstead. In the same way, then in Croydon, voted to leave and was added to Godstone; the land equates to part of a western slope and a narrow pass, the lowest road crossing point of the North Downs east of Westhumble/Mickleham in Mid-Surrey and west of Otford in Kent and avoids the height of the escarpment and steep south sides at neighbouring Reigate and Caterham. Hooley consists of houses on either side of the Brighton Road plus some land to the west and is about half a mile south of the boundary of the London Borough of Croydon and about 2 miles south of Coulsdon; the village has two petrol stations, a few shops, a newsagent, a village hall, a social club and bar, a coffee shop. The settlement is today distinct from Chipstead, to the north west — St Margaret's the parish church of Chipstead, is in Hooley at the junction of Star and Church Lanes -.
To the east, about a mile by a steep, curved road, the early 21st century village of Netherne-on-the-Hill has established its own identity on the site of the Victorian Netherne asylum for mentally ill people, expected to be completed by the 2020s. A large proportion of the secondary age children of Hooley attend Sutton Grammar School, in nearby Sutton; the M23 motorway terminates at Hooley, converting to a mixture of a single carriageway with verges and trees and a dual carriageway. Media related to Hooley at Wikimedia Commons