The road is part of the unsigned Euroroutes E20 and E22. The motorway absorbed the northern end of the Stretford-Eccles bypass, which was built between 1957 and 1960, adjusted for inflation to 2007, its construction cost approximately £765 million. The motorway has a daily traffic flow of 144,000 vehicles in West Yorkshire. The M62 coach bombing of 1974 and the Great Heck rail crash of 2001 are the largest incidents to have occurred on the M62, Stott Hall Farm, situated between the carriageways on the Pennine section has become one of the best-known sights on the motorway. The M62 has no junctions numbered 1,2, or 3, or even an officially numbered 4, because it was intended to start in Liverpool proper, between Liverpool and Manchester, and east of Leeds, the terrain along which the road passes is relatively flat. The motorways origins are found in the 1930s, when the need for a route between Lancashire and Yorkshire had been agreed after discussion by their county highway authorities. At the same time, it was envisaged that a route between Liverpool and Hull was needed to connect the ports to industrial Yorkshire.
After the Second World War, the Minister of Transport appointed engineers to inspect road standards between the A580 road in Swinton and the A1 road near Selby. The 1949 Road Plan for South Lancashire identified the need to upgrade the A580 to dual carriageway with grade separation and provide bypasses at Huyton and Cadishead. In 1952, the route for a motorway, the Lancashire–Yorkshire Motorway, was laid down. By the 1960s, the proposed A580 upgrade to dual carriageway was considered inadequate, the route of the Lancashire-Yorkshire motorway was considered inadequate as it failed to cater for several industrial towns in Yorkshire. Initially the plans were unpopular and not supported by the Ministry of Transport and it was the intention to build an urban motorway in Liverpool. The M62 was intended to terminate at Liverpools Inner Motorway, which was not built, difficulties arose building the Liverpool urban motorway resulting in delays, with the section between Tarbock and Liverpool the last to be completed in 1976.
In total, two viaducts, ten bridges and seven underpasses were constructed to secure the integrity of the surrounding residential areas. The motorway was constructed only as far as the Queens Drive inner ring road, simultaneously, a contract to link the M6 with Manchester was underway, which required land drainage and the removal of unsuitable earth. This section was completed in August 1974, creating a link between Ferrybridge and Tarbock. Two motorways were planned, the M52 from Liverpool to Salford, the first part of the M62 to be built was the Stretford–Eccles Bypass, which is now the section between Junctions 7 to 13 of the M60. Construction started in 1957, and the motorway opened in 1960 and it was originally built as a 2-lane motorway only
M8 motorway (Scotland)
The M8 is the busiest motorway in Scotland and one of the busiest in the United Kingdom. It connects the two largest cities and Edinburgh, and serves other large communities including Airdrie, Greenock, Livingston. The motorway is 60 miles long – excluding a 6-mile gap between the Glasgow suburb of Baillieston and Newhouse, the motorway has one service station, located in Harthill. The motorway was constructed piecemeal in several stages bypassing towns, beginning in 1965 with the opening by Minister of State for Scotland George Willis of the bypass of Harthill. In 1968 the Renfrew Bypass was opened as the A8, becoming part of the M8 when the motorway to the west was connected, these three sections of motorway make up the present day M8. Most of the length was complete by 1980. The programme is forecast to be complete by early 2017, from the Edinburgh City Bypass, the road runs west to junction with the M9 motorway, bypassing to the north of Livingston and south of Bathgate. It continues across Scotlands Central Belt before abruptly terminating at Newhouse, the central section – the uncompleted Glasgow Inner Ring Road – contains numerous junctions serving local communities including Cowcaddens, Garnethill and Anderston.
It crosses the River Clyde on the Kingston Bridge, runs west through Kinning Park, continuing west, it bypasses Renfrew and Paisley before serving Glasgow International Airport, running to the south of Erskine, and terminating at Langbank, around 10 miles east of Greenock. The M8 nominally comprises sections of the international E-road network, namely E05 and E16, the M8, more explicitly the Glasgow section, is unusual amongst UK motorways in that it directly serves a large urban area, whereas most other motorways bypass such conurbations. It contains one of the busiest river crossings in Europe at the Kingston Bridge, the speed limit there is reduced to 50 mph as a result. There were successive failed attempts to build the southern flank of the Glasgow Inner Ring Road as defined by the Bruce Report, following many years of intensive political discussion and legal battles, construction of the M74 Completion scheme began in 2008, and it opened in June 2011. Early indications are that the new road has been successful in reducing traffic levels on the section of the M8.
The result of this is long periods of traffic congestion
The M60 motorway, Manchester Ring Motorway, or Manchester Outer Ring Road, is an orbital motorway in Greater Manchester, a metropolitan county in North West England. Built over a 40-year period, it passes through all Greater Manchesters metropolitan boroughs except for Wigan, most of the City of Manchester is encompassed within the motorway, except for the southernmost part of the city, which are served by the M56. The M60 is 36.1 miles long and was renamed the M60 in 2000, with parts of the M62 and M66, the road forms part of the unsigned Euroroutes E20 and E22. During 2008, the M60 was proposed as a cordon for congestion charging in Greater Manchester, the M60 is the only true orbital motorway in the United Kingdom, as the M25 motorway in London is not, due to the Dartford Crossing being designated the A282. The M60 was developed by connecting and consolidating the existing sections of the M63, M62. It came into existence as the M60 in 2000, with the completion of the side opening in October.
The original plan called for a new motorway, but policy change led to the plan which created the current motorway. As soon as it opened, the motorway got close to its maximum volume on significant sections. As an orbital motorway, it is equivalent to Londons M25 motorway, unlike the M25, the M60 forms a complete loop. In 2004, a section of the northern M60 was the UKs busiest stretch of road, the western side of the M25 motorway holds that distinction, but the M25s figures at the time were lower than normal due to roadworks starting. Access for junctions 6 to 8 is only from the collector/distributor road, some of the junctions were extensively re-modelled. As part of the project, the A6144 motorway, which connected to the M60 at junction 8, was downgraded, the Greater Manchester congestion charge which would have affected drivers only during peak times coming off the M60 towards Manchester was rejected by a referendum on 12 December 2008. Work to upgrade two sections of the M60 to a motorway system had been planned to commence in 2013.
This would have included a new lane from junction 12 to 15, both these projects were subsequently cancelled in favour of a new project that includes speed cameras on this section but no additional lane or hard-shoulder running. An environmental assessment was cited as the reason an additional lane will not be provided, daily congestion on this section is expected to continue indefinitely. A combined approach was initiated in 2014, comprising managed motorway system, the dates given on these Statutory Instruments relate to when the document was published, and not when the road was built. Provided below is an incomplete list of the Statutory Instruments relating to the route of the M60,1708, M66 Motorway and Connecting Roads Scheme 1988 S. I. 1728, M66 Motorway and Connecting Roads Scheme 1988 S. I,363, M66 Motorway A663 Broadway All-Purpose Connecting Road Order 1993 S. I
M18 motorway (Great Britain)
The M18 is a motorway in Yorkshire, England. It runs from the east of Rotherham to Goole and is approximately 26 miles long, a section of the road forms part of the unsigned Euroroute E13. The M18 runs in a north east/south west direction from junction 32 of the M1 motorway to junction 35 of the M62 motorway and it passes east of Rotherham, southeast of Doncaster and Armthorpe, and west of Thorne. It meets the A1 at junction 2 --known as the Wadworth Interchange—and the M180 motorway at junction 5, access to Doncaster is provided from junctions 3 and 4 Much of the M18 is a two lane dual carriageway, and carries relatively low volumes of traffic. However, the section linking the M1 and A1 is much busier and has three lanes in each direction and it passes over the Wadworth Viaduct. To the north it crosses the East Coast Main Line, and until its closure and the dismantling of the pit head gear. Work started in 2013 and the became operational in February 2016. Data from driver location signs are used to distance and carriageway identifier information.
The location sequence is a continuation of the M1 location sequence, list of motorways in the United Kingdom CBRD Motorway Database – M18 Hotels and restaurants along the motorway. Motorway Archive – M1 to A1 Motorway Archive – A1 to M62
The M27 is a motorway in Hampshire, England. It is 25 miles long and runs west-east from Cadnam to Portsmouth and it was opened in stages between 1975 and 1983. It is unfinished, as an extension to the east was planned, a number of smaller motorways were proposed, connecting the city centres of Southampton and Portsmouth to the motorway, of these only the M271 and M275 were built. It runs alongside the northern outskirts of Fareham, briefly with a climbing lane in either direction. Very shortly after this point the motorway ends, becoming the A27, the official reason for this section of road not being a continuation of the motorway is the hard shoulders being too narrow. Although the M275 which the M27 junctions with, has no hard shoulders throughout its entire length. The M27 was opened in stages between 1975 and 1983, the South Stoneham garden of remembrance is now located at the north end of the cemetery, adjacent to the motorway. It has been said that the M27 was intended as a motorway connecting south coast towns from Penzance to Ramsgate, however the only proposal of a route similar to that was by the Institution of Highway Engineers in 1936.
Road developments in the New Forest are restricted due to its National Park status and it is not part of the M27 as its hard shoulders are not quite wide enough to comply with motorway regulations. The M272 was meant to go from Junction 5 through Portswood to the centre of Southampton, the M272 was instead built as the A335 Thomas Lewis Way. Junction 6 was never built – there were plans for a spur connecting the M27 to the centre of the Townhill Park area of Southampton. A planned service area just east of Junction 9 was never constructed, the long westbound exit slip road at Junction 9 was designed to allow an entry to and exit from the service area. Data from driver location signs are used to distance and carriageway identifier information. Where a junction spans several hundred metres and start and end points are available, Junction 1 is about 1,800 metres from The Rufus Stone, where King William II, known as William Rufus, was killed in what may have been a hunting accident in 1100. List of motorways in the United Kingdom CBRD Motorway Database – M27 The Motorway Archive – M27 TAB-MSAS, Photo Gallery, M27
Fife is a council area and historic county of Scotland. It is situated between the Firth of Tay and the Firth of Forth, with boundaries to Perth and Kinross. By custom it is held to have been one of the major Pictish kingdoms, known as Fib. It is an area, and was a county of Scotland until 1975. It was very occasionally known by the anglicisation Fifeshire in old documents, a person from Fife is known as a Fifer. Fife was a government region divided into three districts, Dunfermline and North-East Fife. Since 1996 the functions of the councils have been exercised by the unitary Fife Council. Fife is Scotlands third largest local authority area by population and it has a resident population of just under 367,000, over a third of whom live in the three principal towns of Dunfermline and Glenrothes. The historic town of St Andrews is located on the northeast coast of Fife and it is well known for the University of St Andrews, one of the most ancient universities in the world and is renowned as the home of golf.
Fife, bounded to the north by the Firth of Tay, the earliest known reference to the common epithet The Kingdom of Fife dates from only 1678, in a proposition that the term derives from the quasi-regal privileges of the Earl of Fife. The notion of a kingdom may derive from a misintrepretation of an extract from Wyntoun, the name is recorded as Fib in A. D.1150 and Fif in 1165. It was often associated with Fothriff, the hill-fort of Clatchard Craig, near Newburgh, was occupied as an important Pictish stronghold between the sixth and eighth centuries AD. Fife was an important royal and political centre from the reign of King Malcolm III onwards, Malcolm had his principal home in Dunfermline and his wife Margaret was the main benefactor of Dunfermline Abbey. The Abbey replaced Iona as the resting place of Scotlands royal elite. The Earl of Fife was until the 15th century considered the principal peer of the Scottish realm, linen and salt were all traded. Salt pans heated by local coal were a feature of the Fife coast in the past, the distinctive red clay pan tiles seen on many old buildings in Fife arrived as ballast on trading boats and replaced the previously thatched roofs.
This endeavour lasted until 1609 when the colonists, having been opposed by the population, were bought out by Kenneth Mackenzie. Fife became a centre of industry in the 19th century
The M40 is a motorway connecting London and Birmingham, part of this road forms a section of the unsigned European route E05. It provides a route from Southern England to the West Midlands, to the M1. The motorway is three lanes except for Junction 1A to J3, which is dual four lanes, a short section past J4. In 2011 several of the logos on the signs for these services were incorrect. An Active Traffic Management system operates on the short section northbound from J16 to the M42, the motorway between London and Oxford was constructed in stages between 1967 and 1974. The Beaconsfield bypass to J2 was built in 1971 and the Gerrards Cross Bypass to J1 was completed in 1973, the section northbound from J5 to J8 was completed in 1974. The preferred route was altered to avoid Otmoor after a road protest. The field had been renamed Alices field as a reference to Alice in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll who lived in the area at the time he wrote the book. Construction began at Warwick in October 1987, with work on the section around Banbury starting in February 1988, the section between the M42 and Warwick opened in December 1989, and the remainder in January 1991.
It was originally planned that the section of the M42 between the M5 and the M40 would be renumbered as part of the M40, but this change did not take place. By the time of the opening, the original M40 had been widened. The first service opened as Cherwell Valley services in 1994 on the site of temporary toilet areas created when the motorway was constructed. Beginning in 1997, the motorway was widened to four lane between J1A and J3 under a Private Finance Initiative. It was completed by a Carillion-John Laing joint venture in October 1998 – the original plan would included widening between J3 and J4, Oxford services and Warwick Services opened in 1998. In 2009 the Highways Agency extended the Active Traffic Management system onto the northbound carriageway from J16 to the junction with the M42, Beaconsfield services opened in 2009, near the site of the service station proposed at Abbey Barns almost 40 years earlier. In August 2010 work started on J9, upgrading the southbound exit slip road to three lanes, and similar widening on the connecting A34 and A41 junctions and this was the first part of the work at this busy junction.
If there is funding, a part will commence, upgrading the northbound entrance. Twelve school children and a teacher died when their minibus crashed into a parked motorway maintenance vehicle just after midnight on 18 November 1993
Roads in the United Kingdom
Roads in the United Kingdom form a network of varied quality and capacity. Road distances are shown in miles or yards and UK speed limits are indicated in miles per hour or by the use of the speed limit symbol. Some vehicle categories have various lower maximum limits enforced by speed limiters, enforcement of UK road speed limits increasingly uses speed guns, automated in-vehicle systems and automated roadside traffic cameras. A unified numbering system is in place for Great Britain, whilst in Northern Ireland, the earliest specifically engineered roads were built during the British Iron Age. The road network was expanded during the Roman occupation, some of these survive and others were lost. New roads were added in the Middle Ages and from the 17th century onwards, certain aspects of the legal framework remain under the competence of the United Kingdom parliament. Although some roads have much older origins, the network was subject to development from the 1950s to the mid-1990s. From then, construction of roads has become controversial with direct action campaigns by environmentalists in opposition.
In the UK, vehicles drive on the left and on multi-lane carriageways drivers are expected to keep to the left lane except when overtaking, in Great Britain, the Highway Code applies to drivers. In Northern Ireland, the Highway Code for Northern Ireland applies, UK speed limits are shown in mph. With a few exceptions, they are in multiples of 10, unless a lower speed limit is posted on a road, the national speed limit applies, which varies between class of vehicles and the type of road. In a built-up area, unless signs indicate otherwise, a limit of 30 miles per hour applies, other limits are shown in the table. For a road to be classed as a carriageway, the two directions of traffic flow must be physically separated by a central reservation. Roads in the UK are classified as M, A, or B roads, as well as categories of more minor roads, for internal purposes. These numbers follow a zonal system, there is no available explanation for the allocation of road numbers in Northern Ireland. The majority of the major routes are motorways, and are designed to carry long distance traffic.
The next category is the A roads, which form the route network. A primary route is defined as, primary destinations are usually cities and large towns, to which, as a result of their size, a high volume of traffic is expected to go
M2 motorway (Great Britain)
The M2 is a motorway in Kent, England. It is 25.7 miles long and acts as a bypass of the section of the A2 road which runs through the Medway Towns, the M2 starts to the west of Strood at Three Crutches, diverging southeastwards from the A2 road that heads eastwards from London. It begins at Junction 1 with four lanes and descends towards the Medway Valley to the south of Rochester, the Road crosses the Medway Valley on two Medway viaducts, passing over the Medway Valley Line and Chatham Main Line prior to crossing the river. On the east bank of the River is the village of Borstal, continuing east, passing Medway Service area, it crosses the A249 over the Stockbury Viaduct at Junction 5. It continues along the rural North Downs, with a connection at Junction 6 to the old A2 at Faversham, the initial section of the motorway was opened by the Transport Minister Ernest Marples on 29 May 1963, with the remainder being constructed in 1965. Instead the A2 was dualled and improved from Brenley Corner to Dover, aside from retrofitting central crash barriers, like all early motorways, the alignment of the M2 did not significantly change until the late 1990s.
Traffic using it decreased when the M20 was completed from London to Folkestone in May 1991, while the M2 continued to Canterbury, Junction 1 was altered when the A289 Wainscott Northern bypass was built in the late 1990s. The M2 was still busy between Junctions 1 and 4, and suffered from HGVs blocking the outside lane, in 2000 work began on widening the M2 from two lanes to four lanes. A joint venture between Costain and Mowlem created the company that would undertake the project, the project required the redesign of Junction 2 and Junction 3, and a second Medway Bridge. The existing bridge was converted to a four lane eastbound carriageway, the new bridge formed the westbound carriageway. The entire stretch was lit with streetlights, the old Medway Bridge was physically narrowed by removing part of the footpath. High-pressure water cutting equipment was used to cut the concrete into manageable sections for disposal, there is only one path open to the public now. Spoil from the North Downs Tunnel was used to form the new embankment for the London bound traffic between Junction 2 and the Nashenden Valley, the widening was completed in July 2003.
The M2 opened with a service area between Junctions 4 and 5, named Farthing Corner Services and operated by Top Rank. Today the services are known as Medway services and are operated under the Moto brand with a Travelodge hotel, the services have an access road to the local network for service and delivery vehicles that is not, like some motorway service areas, restricted with a gate or barrier. This has led to local businesses using the services as an exit from the motorway. Data from driver location signs are used to distance and carriageway identifier information. Where junctions extend over several hundred metres and the data are available, values are given for the start and end points of the junction
The M32 is a motorway in South Gloucestershire and Bristol, which at roughly 4.4 miles is one of Britains shortest. It provides a link from the M4, a motorway linking London and South Wales, to Bristol city centre and is maintained by Highways England. The motorway was planned concurrently with the M4 in the 1960s, the southernmost section was delayed by engineering challenges and industrial action, and did not open until 1975. Since the mid-2000s, there have been plans to use the M32 as part of a park, though the M32 has a small traffic flow, it is one of the most congested motorways in the region as it connects a number of key areas. As well as providing one of the few high-quality routes into the centre of Bristol, parts of the M32 are reaching the end of their intended lifespan, leading to reduced speed limits and occasional closures for remedial work. Local residents have criticised the M32, complaining that it has severed communities and has a noise level. The M32 is 4.4 miles long and its northern end is at junction 19 of the M4, near Winterbourne Down.
Originally a grade separated junction, it was modified in 1992 to remove conflicting traffic movements in order to increase capacity. The motorway runs south between Filton in the west and Frenchay in the east, after meeting the A4174 ring road at junction 1, it crosses the boundary from South Gloucestershire to Bristol, passing to the east of Horfield and Easton. Junction 2, next to Eastville Park, meets the B4469 providing access to Horfield, midway through, a 60 mph speed limit begins. The motorway continues further south and ends just beyond junction 3, a dual carriageway continues as the A4032 into the centre of Bristol, with a 30 mph speed limit. The M32 is a road, therefore its maintenance and upkeep is paid for by Highways England. The M32 was planned to be a key radial link through to the hub of a network of radial, other bounds of this scheme were parts of the M4, the M5 and the tidal reaches of the River Avon, the south eastern side not being defined by landmarks. The motorway was partly funded by Gloucestershire County Council and Bristol City Council and it was provisionally called the Hambrook Spur or the Bristol Parkway during construction and was built in three distinct stages between 1966 and 1975.
The first section, from the M4 to junction 1, opened concurrently with that motorway in September 1966, the second section, through to junction 2, was a co-operative design between the Gloucestershire County Surveyor and the design consultants Freeman Fox & Partners. Construction was awarded to Sir Robert McAlpine, who work in June 1968. The northern section was designed as a motorway as far as Eastville. This section was opened by the Secretary of State for Transport, the total cost was £3 million
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 local government council areas. Located in Lothian on the Firth of Forths southern shore, it is Scotlands second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom. The 2014 official population estimates are 464,990 for the city of Edinburgh,492,680 for the authority area. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is home to the Scottish Parliament and it is the largest financial centre in the UK after London. Historically part of Midlothian, the city has long been a centre of education, particularly in the fields of medicine, Scots law, the sciences and engineering. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, was placed 17th in the QS World University Rankings in 2013 and 2014. The city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe. The citys historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdoms second most popular tourist destination after London, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year.
Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, Holyrood Palace, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, Edinburghs Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, which has been managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. It appears to derive from the place name Eidyn mentioned in the Old Welsh epic poem Y Gododdin, the poem names Din Eidyn as a hill fort in the territory of the Gododdin. The Celtic element din was dropped and replaced by the Old English burh, the first documentary evidence of the medieval burgh is a royal charter, c. 1124–1127, by King David I granting a toft in burgo meo de Edenesburg to the Priory of Dunfermline. In modern Gaelic, the city is called Dùn Èideann, the earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithic camp site dated to c.8500 BC. Traces of Bronze Age and Iron Age settlements have found on Castle Rock, Arthurs Seat, Craiglockhart Hill. When the Romans arrived in Lothian at the end of the 1st century AD, at some point before the 7th century AD, the Gododdin, who were presumably descendants of the Votadini, built the hill fort of Din Eidyn or Etin.
Although its location has not been identified, it likely they would have chosen a commanding position like the Castle Rock, Arthurs Seat. In 638, the Gododdin stronghold was besieged by forces loyal to King Oswald of Northumbria and it thenceforth remained under their jurisdiction. The royal burgh was founded by King David I in the early 12th century on land belonging to the Crown, in 1638, King Charles Is attempt to introduce Anglican church forms in Scotland encountered stiff Presbyterian opposition culminating in the conflicts of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. In the 17th century, Edinburghs boundaries were defined by the citys defensive town walls
The M4 is a motorway which runs between London and South Wales in the United Kingdom. Major towns and cities along the route include Slough, Swindon, Newport, Cardiff, a new Severn bridge, known as the Second Severn Crossing, was opened in 1996 with the M4 rerouted to use it. The M4 runs close to the A4 from London to Bristol, after crossing the River Severn it follows the A48 through South Wales, using the Brynglas Tunnels at Junction 25a, Newport and terminates just north of Pontarddulais. It is one of three motorways in Wales, the other two, the A48 and M48, branch off it. The area of land along the M4, with its towns, european route E30 includes most of the M4, although it is not signed as such. The Maidenhead bypass opened in 1961 whilst J1-J5 opened in 1965, the stretch from J18 to the west of Newport was opened in 1966, including the Severn Bridge. The Port Talbot by-pass, built in the 1960s and now part of the M4, was originally the A48 motorway, the English section of the motorway was completed on 22 December 1971 when the 50-mile stretch between Junctions 9 and 15 was opened to traffic.
The Welsh section was completed in 1993, when the Briton Ferry motorway bridge opened, the Second Severn Crossing opened in 1996, together with new link motorways on either side of the estuary to divert the M4 over the new crossing. The existing route over the Severn Bridge was redesignated the M48, in June 1999 the section of the third lane between Junctions 2 and 3 was converted to a bus lane, first as a pilot scheme and permanently in 2001. A lower speed limit was introduced along the bus lane section at the same time, between 2007 and January 2010 the section from Castleton to Coryton was widened to six lanes. The scheme was opened on 25 January 2010 by Ieuan Wyn Jones the Deputy First Minister for Wales. During 2009 the Newport section of the motorway between Junctions 23a and 29 was upgraded with a new concrete central barrier. A similar claim was made for a 30-mile section of road in Scotland close to Aberdeen in September 2009 with refuelling points at Bridge of Don and Peterhead. Between 2008 and 2010, Junction 11, near Reading, was remodelled with a new four-lane motorway junction.
It involved the movement of the local Highways Agency and Fire Service offices, and the construction of a footbridge network, a new bus-lane. Sound barriers for nearby areas were installed. In April 2008, the decision to preserve a rare Vickers machine gun pillbox, the table below shows the timeline for the construction of the motorway on a section by section basis. Tolls are charged in one only, westbound