Lyon is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about 470 km south from Paris, 320 km north from Marseille and 56 km northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais. Lyon had a population of 513,275 in 2015, it is the capital of the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. The Lyon metropolitan area had a population of 2,265,375 in 2014, the second-largest urban area in France; the city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, historical and architectural landmarks. Lyon was an important area for the production and weaving of silk. Lyon played a significant role in the history of cinema: it is where Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the cinematograph, it is known for its light festival, the Fête des Lumières, which begins every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights. Economically, Lyon is a major centre for banking, as well as for the chemical and biotech industries.
The city contains a significant software industry with a particular focus on video games, in recent years has fostered a growing local start-up sector. Lyon hosts the international headquarters of Interpol, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and Euronews, it was ranked 19th globally and second in France for innovation in 2014. It ranked second in 39th globally in Mercer's 2015 liveability rankings. According to the historian Dio Cassius, in 43 BC, the Roman Senate ordered the creation of a settlement for Roman refugees of war with the Allobroges; these refugees had been expelled from Vienne and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers. The foundation was built on Fourvière hill and called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods; the city became referred to as Lugdunum. The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as "Desired Mountain" is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary. In contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lugdunon, after the Celtic god Lugus, dúnon.
The Romans recognised that Lugdunum's strategic location at the convergence of two navigable rivers made it a natural communications hub. The city became the starting point of the principal Roman roads in the area, it became the capital of the province, Gallia Lugdunensis. Two Emperors were born in this city: Claudius, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic Senators, Caracalla. Early Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimius Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina and Epipodius, among others. In the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was Irenaeus. To this day, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as "Primat des Gaules". Burgundians fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled at Lugdunum. In 443 the Romans established the Kingdom of the Burgundians, Lugdunum became its capital in 461.
In 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, Lyon went to the Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I. It was made part of the Kingdom of Arles. Lyon did not come under French control until the 14th century. Fernand Braudel remarked, "Historians of Lyon are not sufficiently aware of the bi-polarity between Paris and Lyon, a constant structure in French development...from the late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution". In the late 15th century, the fairs introduced by Italian merchants made Lyon the economic counting house of France; the Bourse, built in 1749, resembled a public bazaar where accounts were settled in the open air. When international banking moved to Genoa Amsterdam, Lyon remained the banking centre of France. During the Renaissance, the city's development was driven by the silk trade, which strengthened its ties to Italy. Italian influence on Lyon's architecture is still visible among historic buildings. In the 1400s and 1500s Lyon was a key centre of literary activity and book publishing, both of French writers and of Italians in exile.
In 1572, Lyon was a scene of mass violence by Catholics against Protestant Huguenots in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Two centuries Lyon was again convulsed by violence when, during the French Revolution, the citizenry rose up against the National Convention and supported the Girondins; the city was besieged by Revolutionary armies for over two months before surrendering in October 1793. Many buildings were destroyed around the Place Bellecour, while Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois and Joseph Fouché administered the execution of more than 2,000 people; the Convention ordered that its name be changed to "Liberated City" and a plaque was erected that proclaimed "Lyons made war on Liberty. A decade Napoleon ordered the reconstruction of all the buildings demolished during this period; the Convention was not the only target within Lyon during the 1789-1799 French Revolution. After the National Convention faded into history, the French Directory appeared and days after the September 4, 1797, Coup of 18 Fructidor, a Directory's commissioner was assassinated in Ly
Noirétable is a commune in the Loire department in central France. Communes of the Loire department
Ussel is a commune in the Corrèze department in central France. Its inhabitants are called Ussellois; the community of Ussel is located in the Massif central on the foothills of the plateau de Millevaches. The city itself sits on a hilltop in between the valley of the river Diège and the valley of the river Sarsonne, it is situated at an altitude of 2070 ft, in the Massif Central on the last buttress of the Plateau de Millevaches. Ussel is crossed by the Green Meridian. Three main watercourses are flowing through the community, the river Diège, the river Sarsonne and the stream of Étang Roux. In 2011, the population of Ussel was 9,948 inhabitants; the evolution of the density of population is known through census since 1973. The Borde Castle, 15th century, reshuffled during the 17th century The Mothe Castle, 16th century, historical monument since 1980 The Ventadour Hotel, historical monument since 1932 The Church Saint-Martin, 13th century, classified historical monument since 1926 The Roman Eagle situated in the Voltaire Square.
This monument is sculpted in the granite, discovered in The Peuch Mill, on the Sarsonne. It was shifted en 2009 during the refurbishment of the Voltaire Square; the Chapel of Notre-Dame de la Chabane The Church Saint Martial The Church Notre-Dame-de-l’Assomption, in La Tourette The Church Saint-Dizier in Saint-Dézéry Ussel is well known thanks to its many green and natural areas. It offers the city a countrified atmosphere appreciated by its inhabitants. Besides gardens, Ussel is composed of a large number of natural spaces, with hiking and walking trails; the municipality is a floral city which obtained three flowers during the contest "villes et villages fleuris". The highway A 89 provides an easy access to the towns. Two main exits feeds the city. Exit 23 south-west of town and Exit 24 North East of town; the construction of the highway has improved the security but the comfort inside the town. This highway is a component of the European route E70. Ussel is crossed by the RN 89; this road, retrofitted to a regional road links Bordeaux to Lyon via Clermont-Ferrand.
The train station of Ussel lies on a main railtrack linking Lyon to Bordeaux. The closest airports are Clermont-Ferrand-Auvergne; the Ussel-Thalamy airfield is a tourist oriented place. It is located a few kilometers away from town. Ussel is paired with Auray, located in the department of Morbihan. Ussel shelters many company in the wood field, like the panel producer MDF Isoroy, the stratified clothes designer Polyrey, the interior door manufacturer Jeld Wen, the front door manufacturer Bel; the Des farges mine, located 3 kilometers from Ussel, is part of Nouvelle-Aquitaine's mining. The extraction of lead was applied, as well as silver and much more, until its closure in 1981. La Société des fonderies d'Ussel is one of the metallurgical representative of the region; the city is the center of a farming region, marked by the bovine breed limousine and the pig farming at the same time. The pork butcher group Loste owns a production site of salted meat in the industrial area Empereur. Regional products are beef and pork and fishing products, harvest products Local dishes are the tourtou or the farcidure, for example.
The industrial sector sets up in High-Corrèze since 1990 when Bristol-Myers Squibb settles a production site in the town of Meymac. In 1999, Pierre Fabre came to Ussel by building a distribution and logistics center in the industrial zone of L'Empereur; the company Chesapeake features a production unit specializing in packaging for the pharmaceutical industry located in the industrial zone of "The Emperor". The museum of Ussel is dedicated to history and tradition of the region of Ussel, it features pictorial representations. Another part is devoted to exhibitions of engraving. Many of the objects exhibited concerning agricultural trades were kindly provided by Dr. Ernest Chiocconi, a salvage dealer, he had recovered objects in agricultural holdings. Ussel was the northern terminus of the Metre Gauge Transcorrezien railway line linking Tulle to Ussel via Marcillac-la-Croisille, Lapleau and Liginiac; this line was part of the narrow gauge network of railways in the Corrèze region. While the line has disappeared, many architectural and track elements still remain and can be visited by the public.
Many of the stations are preserved and have been restored and a Tourist Route created which enables visitors to follow the track from its terminus at Languenne on the outskirts of Tulle to Ussel. The road signs are rectangular with "Transcorrezien" shown on them on a white background Of particular note is the Roche Noir Viaduct, an impressive suspension bridge crossing the deep gorge of the Luzège river between Lapleau and Soursac, it is possible to visit both ends of the bridge but, while it remains in good condition, it is closed to pedestrians. The Soursac end of the bridge leads straight into a 150 m-long curved tunnel. Visitors can walk through the tunnel and emerge by the bridge; the views from both ends are spectacular. Well worth a visit. Communes of the Corrèze department INSEE
The A71 autoroute is a motorway in central France. It is called l'Arverne, it ends at Clermont-Ferrand. The autoroute is operated by the Société Cofiroute; the section between Orléans to Salbris was opened on 24 October 1986. In 1989 it was completed to Bourges. Exchange A10-A71 Junction with the A10 1 Towns served: Orléans 2 Towns served: Olivet Rest Area: Le Bois de Bailly/Le Bois du Télégraphe Rest Area:Chaumont-sur-Tharonne/La Ferté-Saint-Aubin 3 Towns served: Lamotte-Beuvron Rest Area: L'Étang du Marais/La Briganderie Rest Area: Les Marembets/La Saulot 4 Towns served: Salbris Service Area: Salbris Exchange A71-A85 Junction with A85 Exchange A20-A71 Junction with A20 6 Towns served: Vierzon Rest area: Les Croquettes/La Chaussée de César Service Area: Bourges 7 Towns served: Bourges This section of the autoroute is operated by SAPRR, it is a toll road. The road has the double numbering A71/A89 between Gerzat. 1987: The section between Montmarault and Clermont-Est is opened. 1988: The section between Forêt-de-Tronçais and Montmarault is opened.
1989: The opening of the section between Bourges and the Forêt-de-Tronçais Rest Area: Le Gîte des Loups/Le Bois des Dames Service Area: Centre de la France 8 Towns served: Saint-Amand-Montrond Rest Area: Le Grand Meaulnes/Vallon-en-Sully 9 Towns served: Vallon-en-Sully and Hérisson Exchange A714-A71 Junction with the A714 spur to Guéret and Montluçon Service Area: L'Allier 11 Towns served: Montmarault Rest Area: La Bouble/Chantelle-en-Bourbonnais Exchange A71-A719 Junction with A719 spur to Vichy, Gannat and Ébreuil Service Area: Volcans 12.1 Towns served: Combronde Exchange A89-A71 Junction with the A89 Rest Area: Montpertuis/Pessat-Villeneuve 13 Towns served: Riom 14 Towns served: Gerzat 15 Towns served: Clermont-Ferrand Exchange A710-A71 Junction with the A710 spur to 16 Towns served: Clermont-Ferrand Exchange A75-A71 Junction with A75 to Saint-Étienne and Lyon. Opened in 1997, first section of this motorway bypasses Gannat by north; the highway was extended to the gates of Vichy on a roundabout at Espinasse-Vozelle.
Exchange A71-A719 13, km 1 Towns served: Ébreuil and Gannat 14, km 6 Towns served: Gannat and Saint-Pourçain-sur-Sioule 24 km 15, km 9 Towns served: Gannat and VichyThere are proposals to extend the autoroute beyond Vichy to form part of the A77 to. Media related to A719 autoroute at Wikimedia Commons Former autoroute opened in 1998. Junctions are: Exchange A71-A710 Junction with the A710 Exchange A89-A710 Junction with the A89 Exchange A75-A711 Junction with the A75 1.3 km 4 Towns served: Lempdes 1.4 km 5 Towns served: Pont-du-Château Exchange A89-A711 Junction with the A89 This motorway, 1 km long and with reduced features, connects the exit 1.4 of A711 at the roundabout of Champ-Lamet between Lempdes and Pont-du-Château, at the crossroads with three other departmental roads. There are proposals to create a major motorway route through Montluçon as part of a transport route from Central Europe to the Atlantic coast. A71 Motorway in Saratlas
Combronde is a commune in the Puy-de-Dôme department in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes in central France. Communes of the Puy-de-Dôme department INSEE
Lezoux is a commune in the Puy-de-Dôme department in Auvergne in central France. It was a key location in the filming of the 2004 film Les Choristes. Communes of the Puy-de-Dôme department Lezoux Plate INSEE
Libourne is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department, it lies near Saint-Émilion and Pomerol. Libourne is located at the confluence of the Dordogne rivers. In 1270, Leybornia was founded as a bastide by Roger de Leybourne, an English seneschal of Gascony, under the authority of King Edward I of England, it suffered in the struggles of the French and English for the possession of Gironde in the 14th century, joined France in the 15th century. In December 1854 John Stuart Mill passed through Libourne, remarking "I stopped at Libourne as I intended & had a walk about it this morning quite the best thing there is the bridge of the Dordogne, the view from, fine"; the Gothic church, restored in the 19th century, has a stone spire 232 ft high. On the quay there is a machicolated clock-tower, a survival of the defensive walls of the 14th century; the town-house, containing a small museum and a library, is a quaint relic of the 16th century.
It is located by the main square, the Place Abel Surchamp, which hosts every weekend one of the largest fresh food market in the region. There is a statue of Élie, duc Decazes, born in the region. Eugène Atget, French photographer, "Creator and Purveyor of a Collection of Photographic Views of Old France Louis Le Provost de Launay, French deputy and senator Jean-Marie Londeix, French saxophonist Jean Marcadé, French Hellenist and historian Hull town walls, the town of Hull established under Edward I, is said to have been similar in design to the Bastides, in particular Libourne Communes of the Gironde department Keynsham, twinned with Libourne INSEE "Libourne". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. 1911. Official website Unofficial website