ABB is a Swiss-Swedish multinational corporation headquartered in Zurich, operating in robotics, heavy electrical equipment, automation technology areas. It is ranked 341st in the Fortune Global 500 list of 2018 and has been a global Fortune 500 company for 24 years. ABB is traded on the SIX Swiss Exchange in Zürich, Nasdaq Stockholm and the New York Stock Exchange in the United States. Predecessor companies Allmänna Svenska Elektriska Aktiebolaget was founded in 1883 by Ludvig Fredholm in Västerås as manufacturer of electrical light and generators. Brown, Boveri & Cie was formed in 1891 in Baden, Switzerland, by Charles Eugene Lancelot Brown and Walter Boveri as a Swiss group of electrical engineering companies producing AC and DC motors, steam turbines and transformers. Formation and early years On 10 August 1987, ASEA A. B. and BBC A. G. announced. The new corporation was to be based in Zurich, with each parent company holding 50 percent. At the time, both companies were considered leaders in a field known as the "electrotechnical industry."
The merger between these two medium-sized companies created a global industrial group with revenue of $18 billion and 160,000 employees. When ABB began operations on January 5, 1988, its core operations included power generation and distribution. In its first year, ABB made some 15 acquisitions, including the environmental control group Fläkt AB of Sweden, the contracting group Sadelmi/Cogepi of Italy, the railway manufacturer Scandia-Randers A/S of Denmark. In 1989, ABB purchased an additional 40 companies, including Westinghouse Electric's transmission and distribution assets, announced an agreement to purchase the Stamford, Connecticut-based Combustion Engineering; these two major acquisitions broadened ABB's worldwide power transmission and distribution operations within the United States. The following year, ABB bought the robotics business of Cincinnati Milacron in the US; the acquisition expanded ABB's presence in automated spot-welding and positioned the company to better serve the American automotive industry.
ABB's 1991 introduction of the IRB 6000 robot, demonstrated its increased capacity in this field. The first modular robot, the IRB 6000, can be reconfigured to perform a variety of specific tasks. At the time of its launch, the IRB 6000 was the fastest and most accurate spot-welding robot on the market. In the early 1990s, ABB started expanding in Eastern Europe. By the end of 1991, the company employed 10,000 people in the region; the following year, that number doubled. A similar pattern played out in Asia, where economic reforms in China and the lifting of some Western sanctions, helped open the region to a new wave of outside investment and industrial growth. By 1994, ABB had 30,000 employees and 100 plants, engineering and marketing centers across Asia - numbers that would continue to grow. Through the 1990s, ABB continued its strategy of targeted expansion in Eastern Europe, the Asia-Pacific region and the Americas. In 1995, ABB agreed to merge its rail engineering unit with that of Daimler-Benz AG of Germany.
The goal was to create the world's largest maker of locomotives and railway cars. The new company, ABB Daimler-Benz Transportation, had an initial global market share of nearly 12 percent. A few months after the July 1997 Asian financial crisis, ABB announced plans to accelerate its expansion in Asia; the company acted to improve the productivity and profitability of its Western operations, taking an $850 million restructuring charge as it shifted more resources to emerging markets and scaled back some facilities in higher-cost countries. In 1998, ABB acquired Sweden-based Alfa Laval's automation unit, which at the time was one of Europe's top suppliers of process control systems and automation equipment; as a final step in the integration of the companies known as ASEA and BBC, in 1999 the directors unanimously approved a plan to create a unified, single class of shares in the group. That same year, ABB completed its purchase of Elsag Bailey Process Automation NV, a Netherlands-based maker of industrial control systems, for $2.1 billion.
The acquisition increased ABB's presence in the high-tech industrial robotics and factory control system sectors, which reducing its reliance on traditional heavy engineering sectors such as power generation and transmission. Shift in business focus In 1999, the company sold its stake in the Adtranz train-building business to DaimlerChrysler. Instead of building complete locomotives, ABB's transportation activities shifted toward traction motors and electric components; that same year, ABB and France-based Alstom, announced the merger of their power generation businesses in a 50-50 joint company, ABB Alstom Power. Separately, ABB agreed to sell its nuclear power business to BNFL of Britain. In 2000, ABB divested its interests in ABB Alstom Power and sold its boiler and fossil-fuel operations to Alstom. Thereafter, ABB's power business was focused on renewable transmission and distribution. In 2002, ABB announced its first-ever annual loss, a $691 million net loss for 2001; the loss was caused by ABB's decision to nearly double its provisions for settlement costs in asbestos-related litigation against Combustion Engineering in the US from $470 million to $940 million.
The claims were linked to asbestos products sold by Combustion Engineering prior to its acquisition by ABB. At the same time, ABB's board announced it would seek the return of money "paid in excess of obligations to Goran Lindahl and to Pe
Sir Robert Sibbald was a Scottish physician and antiquary. He was born in the son of David Sibbald and Margaret Boyd. Educated at the Royal High School and the Universities of Edinburgh and Paris, he took his doctor's degree at the University of Angers in 1662, soon afterwards settled as a physician working in Edinburgh, he resided at "Kipps Castle" near Linlithgow. In 1667 with Sir Andrew Balfour he started the botanical garden in Edinburgh, he took a leading part in establishing the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, of which he was elected president in 1684. Both Sibbald and Balfour were proponents of the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia. In 1685 he was appointed the first professor of medicine at the University of Edinburgh, he was appointed Geographer Royal in 1682, his numerous and miscellaneous writings deal with historical and antiquarian as well as with botanical and medical subjects. He based many of his cartographical studies on the work of Timothy Pont, he is buried in Greyfriars Kirkyard in Edinburgh in a vault against the southern wall.
The wild flower Sibbaldia procumbens is named after him. The blue whale was named after Sibbald, who first described it scientifically. Although the blue whale is today classified as one of eight species in the genus Balaenoptera, one authority still places it in a separate monotypic genus, but this is not accepted; the blue whale was once referred to as Sibbald's rorqual. Sibbald's historical and antiquarian works include: 1683: An Account of the Scottish Atlas. Folio, Edinburgh 1684: Scotia illustrata. Edinburgh 1699: Memoria Balfouriana. Jacobo... et... Andrea. Authore R. S.. Edinburgi: Typis Hæredum Andreæ Anderson 1699: Provision for the poor in time of dearth and scarcity 1710: A History Ancient and Modern of the Sheriffdoms of Fife and Kinross. Edinburgh 1711: Description of the Isles of Orkney and Shetland. Folio, Edinburgh 1803: A History Ancient and Modern of the Sheriffdoms of Fife and Kinross. Cupar 1837: The Remains of Sir Robert Sibbald, containing his autobiography, memoirs of the Royal College of Physicians, a portion of his literary correspondence, an account of his MSS..
Edinburgh:. "Sibbald, Sir Robert". Encyclopædia Britannica. 25. Cambridge University Press. Article at National Library of Scotland
William Henry Oliphant Smeaton, sometimes using the pen name Oliphant Smeaton, was a Scottish writer, editor and educator. He was popularly known for his writing on Australian life and literature for various British publications as well as for his adventure and children's fiction novels during the 1890s. In his career, Smeaton published books on Scottish antiquities and edited English literary text and collections of verse and prose, his best known work, The Life and Works of William Shakespeare, was successful and enjoyed several reprints. He contributed several biographies for the "Famous Scots Series" published by Oliphant and Ferrier. William Smeaton was born in Aberdeen, Scotland on 24 October 1856, the youngest son of a clergyman and university professor, he was educated at Edinburgh University and intended to enter the clergy himself but abandoned his religious studies for personal reasons. He left for New Zealand in 1878. Smeaton travelled to Australia where he spent ten years as a journalist before returning to Britain in 1893.
Moving to Edinburgh, he began writing about Australian life and literature for various publications in Victorian Britain, including a multi-volume effort popularly known as the "Famous Scots Series". He began writing several adventure and children's fiction novels such as By Adverse Winds, Our Laddie and A Mystery Of The Pacific. Smeaton became associated with the Dent publishing firm during this time and worked with JM Dent on the editorial work for the Temple Classics and the Everyman Library series. In addition, he edited books on Scottish antiquities and English literature including works by William Shakespeare, Thomas Dekker, John Ford and others, his The Life and Works of William Shakespeare was popular and was reprinted several times. He died in Edinburgh on 31 March 1914. By Adverse Winds "Allan Ramsay" Our Laddie "Tobias Smollet" Treasure Cave of the Blue Mountains A Mystery of the Pacific William Dunbar" English Satires and Satirists "Thomas Guthrie" The Medici and the Italian Renaissance "Edinburgh and its Story" The Life and Works of William Shakespeare This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Cousin, John William.
A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. London: J. M. Dent & Sons – via Wikisource. Works by William Henry Oliphant Smeaton at Project Gutenberg Works by or about William Henry Oliphant Smeaton at Internet Archive Works by William Henry Oliphant Smeaton at LibriVox
Charles Arthur Willard is an American argumentation and rhetorical theorist. He is a retired Professor and University Scholar at the University of Louisville in Louisville, Kentucky, USA, he received his undergraduate degree at the Kansas State Teachers College, Kansas. He received his masters and doctorate at the University of Illinois, Urbana, USA. From 1974 to 1982 he was the Director of Forensics at Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, he has lectured in Austria, France, Germany and the Netherlands. He has studied at the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences, at Waasner, Holland, he has taught at Slippery Rock State College and the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania. His most important works include Argumentation and the Social Grounds of Knowledge and A Theory of Argumentation, he has published monographs in and served on editorial boards for Communication Monographs, Informal Logic, Journal of the American Forensics Association, Social Epistemology and the Quarterly Journal of Speech.
He has published book chapters on topics in rhetoric and argumentation. He was one of the founders and for many years was a co-director of the International Association for the Study of Argumentation based at the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands, he has co-edited the proceedings of five of that organization's international conferences. He has co-edited with Frans van Eemeren, J. Anthony Blair, A. Francisca Henkemans Anyone Who Has A View: Theoretical Contributions to the Study of Argumentation. Dordrecht: Kluwer. 2003. He has received distinguished scholarship awards from the National Communication Association, the American Forensics Association, the Universities of Illinois and Louisville. Four of his books have received the Daniel H. Rohor Distinguished Scholarship Award from the American Forensic Association, his Liberalism and the Problem of Knowledge: A New Rhetoric for Modern Democracy debunks the discourse of liberalism, arguing that its exaggerated ideals of authenticity and community have deflected attention from the pervasive incompetence of the rule by experts.
He proposes a ground of communication. 1982 — Argumentation and the Social Grounds of Knowledge, University of Alabama Press 1982 — Advances in Argumentation Theory and Research 1988 — A Theory of Argumentation, University of Alabama Press 1996 — Liberalism and the Problem of Knowledge: A New Rhetoric for Modern Democracy, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226898452. Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition. New York: Garland, 1996, pp. 16–26. "L'Argumentation et les Fondements Sociaux de la Connaissance," in Alain Lempereur, ed. L'Argumentation. Liege: Pierre Mardaga, 1992. "The Problem of the Public Sphere: Three Diagnoses," in David Cratis Williams and Michael David Hazen, eds. Argumentation Theory and the Rhetoric of Assent. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1990. "Argumentation and Postmodern Critique," in J. Schuetz and R. Trapp, eds. Perspectives on Argument. Waveland, 1990. "Argument Fields: A Cartesian Meditation," in Jack Rhodes, eds. Dimensions of Argument: Proceedings of the Second S.
C. A./A. F. A. Summer Conference on Argumentation. "On the Utility of Descriptive Diagrams for the Analysis and Criticism of Argument," Communication Monographs, 64, 308-319. Argumentation Theory Informal logic Social epistemology Sociology of knowledge
An ecosystem is considered collapsed when its unique biotic or abiotic features are lost from all previous occurrences. Ecosystem collapse could be reversible and is thus not equivalent to species extinction. Ecosystem collapse can lead to catastrophic declines of carrying capacity and mass extinction, can pose existential risk to human populations. Despite the strong empirical evidence, anticipating collapse is a complex problem; the collapse can happen when the ecosystem's distribution decreases below a minimal sustainable size, or when key biotic processes and features disappear due to environmental degradation or disruption of biotic interactions. These different pathways to collapse can be used as criteria for estimating the risk of ecosystem collapse. Although states of ecosystem collapse are defined quantitatively, few studies adequately describe transitions from pristine or original state towards collapse; the Rapa Nui subtropical broadleaf forests in Easter Island dominated by an endemic Palm, are considered collapsed due to the combined effects of overexplotaition, climate change and introduced exotic rats.
The Aral Sea was an endorheic lake between Uzbekistan. It was once considered one of the largest lakes in the world but has been shrinking since the 1960s after the rivers that fed it were diverted for large scale irrigation. By 1997, it had declined to 10% of its original size, splitting into much smaller hypersaline lakes, while dried areas have transformed into desert steppes; the regime shift in the northern Benguela upwelling ecosystem is considered an example of ecosystem collapse in open marine environments. Prior to the 1970s sardines were the dominant vertebrate consumers, but overfishing and two adverse climatic events lead to an impoverished ecosystem state with high biomass of jellyfish and pelagic goby; the concept of ecosystem collapse is used in the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems to establish categories of risk for ecosystems. The category Collapsed is used as the end-point of risk assessment. Other categories of threat are defined in terms of the risk of collapse. Conservation biology Ecological collapse
The following is a partial list of unproduced Alfred Hitchcock projects, in chronological order. During a career that spanned more than half a century, Alfred Hitchcock directed over fifty films, worked on a number of others which never made it beyond the pre-production stage; this was to be Hitchcock's directorial debut, after working in the art department on twelve films but budgetary problems canceled the production after only a few scenes were shot. Studio records indicate. British thriller writer Dennis Wheatley had been a guest on the set of many of the early Hitchcock movies, when The Forbidden Territory was published in January 1933, he presented the director with a copy. Hitchcock so enjoyed the book that he wanted to make a film of it, but he was just in the process of moving to Gaumont-British studios to work for Michael Balcon; when the time came, Balcon wasn't interested and instead insisted that Hitchcock direct the musical Waltzes from Vienna. Hitchcock approached Richard Wainwright, a distinguished producer, head of UFA films in Germany, had relocated to Britain.
Wainwright was keen to pick up a promising subject for his first British film, bought the rights. Although there was a verbal understanding that Hitchcock was to direct, Balcon refused to release him, instead began production of The Man Who Knew Too Much. Wainwright, committed to studio space and actors, had no alternative but to proceed without him, placed the film into the hands of American director Phil Rosen. In 1936, at Hitchcock's instigation, Wheatley wrote a screenplay The Bombing of London, but the controversial project could find no backer and was shelved. Hitchcock much wanted to direct a follow-up to The 39 Steps, he felt that Greenmantle by John Buchan was a superior book, he proposed that the film would star Cary Grant and Ingrid Bergman, but the rights from the Buchan estate proved too expensive. Hitchcock remarked in a British film journal interview just before leaving for Hollywood that he hoped to make a film about the tragic loss of RMS Titanic, as the inherent drama of the ocean liner's sinking appealed to him.
He went on to make Rebecca instead. Hitchcock wanted to direct Norma Shearer, Robert Taylor, Conrad Veidt in one of the first World War II dramas, Escape. Hitchcock, a long-time admirer of Shearer's acting, had sought for years to find a suitable project for her. However, Hitchcock was shut out of the project when the novel Escape by Ethel Vance was purchased by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Hitchcock knew he could never work for the notorious MGM studio head Louis B. Mayer, who selected Mervyn LeRoy to produce and direct the film, which indeed starred Shearer and was released in late 1940. Years Hitchcock made the statement about the lack of true Hollywood leading ladies with the quote, "Where are the Norma Shearers?" In 1945, Hitchcock was brought in as a supervising director for a documentary film about Nazi crimes and Nazi concentration camps. The film was to include segments produced by military film units from the United Kingdom, United States and the Soviet Union. Cold War developments meant that the USSR segment was withdrawn, the film remained uncompleted, with some footage kept in the collection of the Imperial War Museum.
However, a reconstruction of the film was aired as Memory of the Camps in 1984–1985 in the United Kingdom and the United States. The United States version was shown on the PBS series Frontline on May 7, 1985. In October 2014, a new documentary about the unfinished film, Night Will Fall, premiered at the BFI London Film Festival. In the late 1940s, Hitchcock had plans to make a modernized version of the Shakespeare story. Hitchcock's Shakespearean vision was of a "psychological melodrama"; the project was scrapped when Hitchcock's studio caught wind of a potential lawsuit from a professor who had written a modern-day version of Hamlet. The Bramble Bush would have been an adaptation of a 1948 novel by David Duncan about a disaffected Communist agitator who, on the run from the police, is forced to adopt the identity of a murder suspect; the story would be adapted to take place in San Francisco. The project to come after I Confess as a Transatlantic Pictures production to be released by Warner Bros. had a high budget which made it a difficult project.
Hitchcock did not feel that any of the scripts lifted the movie beyond an ordinary chase story, Warner Brothers allowed him to kill the project and move on to Dial M for Murder. The theme of the hero assuming a dangerous new identity would become the kernel of the script for North by Northwest. Michelangelo Antonioni's film The Passenger tells a similar story, but is not based on Duncan's book; the 1960 film The Bramble Bush, starring Richard Burton and Barbara Rush, released by Warner Bros. was based on a Charles Mergendahl novel, had no relation to Duncan's book. This was to be a big-budget adaptation of Laurens van der Post's novel of political intrigue in Southern Africa. James Stewart was expected to take the lead role of an adventurer who discovers a concentration camp for Communist agents. After a disappointing research trip to South Africa where he concluded that he would have difficulty filming on a budget – and with confusion of the story's politics and the impracticability of casting Kelly, Hitchcock deferred the project and instead cast Stewart in The Man Who K