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ABC (Australian TV channel)

ABC is a national public television network in Australia. Launched on 5 November 1956 it is the responsibility of the ABC's television division, is available nationally; the ABC's headquarters is in an inner-city suburb of Sydney, New South Wales. The history of ABC-TV can be traced back to 1953, when the federal Television Act was passed, providing the initial regulatory framework for both ABC Television and ABC Commercial television networks under the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Over the next three years, planning for the introduction of a national television service was put in place – land for studios and transmitters in Sydney and Melbourne was acquired, overseas tutors were brought to Australia to assist with training. Commercial station TCN-9 Sydney was the first to broadcast in Australia, soon followed by the ABC's own ABN-2 Sydney and ABV-2 in Melbourne. Six stations, three in Melbourne and three in Sydney, were in operation in time to cover the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne.

The channel's first television broadcast was inaugurated by prime minister Robert Menzies on 5 November at the Gore Hill studios in Sydney, followed two weeks by transmission in Melbourne. Although radio programmes could be broadcast nationally by landline, television relay facilities were not put in place until the early 1960s; this meant that news bulletins had to be sent to each capital city by teleprinter, to be prepared and presented separately in each city, with filmed materials copied manually and sent to each state. A purpose-built television studio opened in Sydney on 29 January 1958—replacing temporary sound studios used since ABC-TV's inception. In the same year, technical equipment was moved to permanent locations, while main transmitters were introduced to Melbourne and Sydney in 1957 and 1958 respectively. Australian Broadcasting Corporation series which debuted in 1956 included TV Channell and Picture Page. Other 1950s-era Australian Broadcasting Corporation series included variety shows like Look Who's Dropped In and Café Continental, discussion series like Any Questions, children's series Children's TV Club.

Starting in 1957 the two ABC stations in operation each produced one live drama presentation each month, which would be kinescoped for broadcast in the other city. Weekly current-affairs programme Four Corners began in 1961, followed in the same year by Profiles of Power, a series of interviews with prominent Australians. Direct relays between Sydney and Canberra were established in 1961, replacing temporary microwave relays as a means of airing programmes across multiple stations. Videotape equipment, allowing the sharing of footage with much greater ease and speed, was installed in each state capital by 1962. ABC-TV was one of the first television networks in Australia to embrace the rock'n'roll revolution of the late 1950s, most notably with Six O'Clock Rock, hosted by Johnny O'Keefe. During the 1960s and early 1970s the channel continued to broadcast programmes on popular music, including the pop show Hitscene, performance specials by groups such as Tully and Max Merritt & The Meteors, as well as the magazine-style programme GTK, which premiered in 1969 and screened for 10 minutes, four nights per week at 6:30 pm prior to Bellbird and the 7:00 pm news bulletin.

In 1967, the weeknightly television current-affairs programme This Day Tonight was launched on ABC-TV. Teletext services were introduced to ABC-TV in 1983 to allow hearing impaired viewers access to closed captions. Nationwide, successor to This Day Tonight, was replaced in turn by a new, hour-long, national news programme called The National. Having proved unsuccessful, it reverted to a state ABC News bulletin at 7:00 pm, with a state-based edition of The 7.30 Report following afterwards. Lateline and Media Watch launched in the 1980s; the year 2001 saw the launch of a new logo to celebrate the introduction of digital terrestrial television in Australia. The logo was modified to a three-dimensional metallic design. Coinciding with this, digital television was introduced to most of the network's coverage area on 1 January 2001 – this was soon followed by the gradual introduction of widescreen and high definition programming. In 2002, to celebrate seventy years of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, ABC-TV's logo reverted to the "over and under" design seen in the previous decades, however it retained the three-dimensional metallic design.

The channel's idents featured elements – fire and ice, the slogan was updated to Everyone's ABC. The idents featured the silver ring that morphs into the ABC logo; this however did not last, as in 2003, the channel's idents were modified to feature everyday Australians. In 2005, The ABC have switched from the Supertext logo to their own Closed Captioning logo. On 19 December that year, the channel's idents were revamped featuring a modified ABC logo transforming to a television; these idents were carried onto ABC2, which launched in the same year. At midday on 8 February 2008 ABC-TV was rebranded as ABC1 with the standard-definition redirect channel moved from LCN22 to LCN21, complementing the existing ABC2 digital-only channel launched on 7 March 2005. Further cementing the change in identity was the change from the slogan There's more to television to It begins with 1. After concerns in some sections of the media that the 43-year-old Lissajous curve brand was to disappear ABC management reaffirmed that it would remain in use by the corporation.

June 2010 saw ABC1's high definition digital transmission terminated, to be replaced with a fourth channel, ABC News 24. As of 10 December 2013, ABC

Maude E. Callen

Maude E. Callen was a nurse-midwife in the South Carolina Lowcountry for over 60 years, her work was brought to national attention in W. Eugene Smith's photo essay, "Nurse Midwife," published in Life in December 3, 1951. Maude E. Callen was born in Quincy, Florida in 1898, she was orphaned by the age of six. She was brought up in the home of her uncle Dr. William J. Gunn, a physician in Tallahassee, Florida. Callen had her primary education at All Angels Parochial Schools. After that, she attended the Florida A&M University in Tallahassee, where she was part of the Alpha Gamma Chi Sorority, she graduated in 1922 and completed a nursing course at Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. Maude E. Callen graduated from the Georgia Infirmary in 1921. Callen devoted her life to nursing in some of the most poverty-stricken areas in the southern United States. By 1923, she had set up her own practice as a nurse-midwife in Berkeley County, one of the poorest in South Carolina at the time, she received additional training from the Georgia Infirmary in Savannah and in tuberculosis care at the Homer G. Phillips Hospital in St. Louis, Missouri.

Maude E. Callen married William Dewer Callen in 1921 and they moved together to Pineville, South Carolina, when she was called as a missionary nurse. A year after graduating from the Georgia Infirmary, Callen moved to Pineville, Berkeley County, South Carolina as an Episcopal missionary nurse; the position was intended to be temporary. She was one of only nine nurse–midwives in South Carolina at the time. Callen operated a community clinic out of her home, miles from any hospital. "It is estimated she delivered between six hundred and eight hundred babies in her sixty-two years of practice." In addition to providing medical services, Callen taught women from the community to be midwives. She provided in-home services to "an area of some 400 square miles veined with muddy roads", serving as "'doctor, psychologist, bail-goer, friend to thousands of poor patients — only two percent of whom were white". Conditions in Berkeley County were difficult: "t the edge of Hell Hole Swamp in Pineville houses were still lit by oil lamps, not electricity.

Not having power lines meant no telephones, people went to town by wagon or buggy." "Nurse Maude recalled that there were only two cars in Berkeley County and none of the roads were paved. Many of her patients arrived at her home in oxcarts in the middle of the night." " had to park her car and walk through mud and creeks to reach her patients."In 1936, Callen joined the Berkeley County Health Department as a public health nurse. Her job included training midwives throughout the county, she taught young black women the proper practices in prenatal care, labor support, baby delivery, handling of newborns. "Her duties included vaccinations and keeping records on the children's eyes and teeth."In 1943, Maude Callen was sent to a six-month course at the Maternity Center at the Tuskegee Institute, received training, as advanced as a doctor's. Because of this, Callen became the second nurse-midwife in South Carolina. In December 3, 1951, Life magazine published a twelve-page photographic essay of Callen's work by the celebrated photojournalist, W. Eugene Smith.

Smith spent weeks with Callen on her rounds in the community. Smith is quoted as saying the photographs he took of Nurse Maude were the "most rewarding of all work" and that Callen was "the most fulfilled person I have known."On publication of the photo-essay, readers donated more than $20,000 to support Callen's work in Pineville. As a result, the Maude E. Callen Clinic opened in 1953. Callen ran the clinic until her retirement from public health duties in 1971; the Maude E. Callen Clinic reopened as a senior center, serving meals and providing comfort until Callen's death in 1990. After her retirement in 1971, Callen petitioned county officials to start a Senior Citizens Nutrition Site, which operated, starting in 1980, out of the clinic; as a volunteer, Callen managed the center, which cooked and delivered meals five days a week, provided car service to seniors needing transportation. In 1983, a CBS News segment by the name of "On the Road with Charles Kuralt" stated: "At 85, Miss Maude serves meals each weekday to some 50 elderly residents, most of them younger than she is."

She is quoted as having said, on turning down an invitation from President Reagan to visit the White House, "You can't just call me up and ask me to be somewhere. I've got to do my job."She continued her volunteer work until her death in 1990. 1981 – Outstanding Older South Carolinian. 1981 – Order of the Palmetto by Governor Richard W. Riley. 1983 – Featured in a segment of On the Road with Charles Kuralt. 1983 – Honorary Doctor of Humanities degree from Clemson University, to honor her "for serving the people of Pineville'who she birthed, comforted, sometimes clothed and fed, taught to read.'" 1984 – The Alexis de Tocqueville Society Award. 1984 – The Award for Greatest Public Service Benefiting the Disadvantaged, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards. 1984 - American Institute of Public Service Award. 1989 – Honorary degree from the Medical University of South Carolina. The MUSC College of Nursing created the Maude E. Callen Scholarship for nursing students. 1998 - The Callen–Lacey Center for Children, an emergency shelter for children in Berkeley County, is dedicated to her memory and that of Dr. William H. Lacey.

Callen won the Berkeley County Chamber of Commerce’s Honorary Citizen's Award. Let me live in my house by the side of


The Bolitaeninae are a subfamily, in the family Amphitretidae, of small, common pelagic octopuses found in all tropical and temperate oceans of the world. The taxonomy of this taxon is not certain; however a second species of Bolitaena, B. massyae is recognised. Bolitaenins are characterised by their small size—up to 8.5 cm or 3.3 in mantle length and 12 cm total length in Japetella species—and their comparatively short arms, much shorter than their dome-shaped mantles. The arms have a single series of suckers. In Bolitaena this arm is modified into a hectocotylus, an appendage used to facilitate transfer of spermatophores during mating; the eyes of both species are laterally compressed. Mature males are encountered, their translucent, gelatinous bodies are fragile and damaged during collection. The most striking feature of the family is seen in mature females; this is believed to be an adaptation to life in deep ocean waters. Mature bolitaenins occupy depths in the meso- to bathypelagic zones of the water column, down to about 1,425 m.

Younger animals are known to remain in shallower waters, either from 170–270 m or 500–800 m depending on size. Japetella is known to venture into far northern waters. Mating is thought to occur below 1,000 m deep. In the darkness, whether mating is successful or not may depend on the female; the light emitted by the photophore is believed to be of a specific wavelength both preventing miscommunication and the attraction of predators. After mating, the female rises to about 800 m to brood, her eggs are interconnected by a number of stalks. Due to the cold environment, brooding takes several months. After hatching, the young octopuses rise to the productive, upper 300 m of the water column where they remain until reaching a certain size; as they mature, the young begin their gradual descent to the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zones. Tree of Life Web: Bolitaenidae CephBase: Bolitaenidae Herring, P. J.. N.. "The morphology of the bioluminescent tissue of the cephalopod Japetella diaphana". Journal of Zoology.

212: 245–54. Doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1987.tb05987.x. Voight, Janet R.. "Sexual Dimorphism and Niche Divergence in a Mid-Water Octopod". Biological Bulletin. 189: 113–9. JSTOR 1542461

Mourmelon-le-Grand Airfield

Mourmelon-le-Grand Airfield is an abandoned World War II military airfield in France. It lies 1 mile east-southeast of Mourmelon-le-Grand and 93 miles northeast of Paris; the airfield was a semi-permanent facility built by the USAAF in the Champagne region west of Monte Carnillet, a fiercely contested region of the World War I Western Front. The 6000' Pierced Steel Planking runway of the airfield supported fighter and transport aircraft from September 1944 though the end of the war in Europe. Known as Advanced Landing Ground "A-80", the airfield consisted of a single 6000' PSP runway aligned 08/26. Tents were used for support facilities. There were a water-treatment facility and a minimal electrical grid for communications and station lighting. Combat units stationed at the airfield were: 406th Fighter Group, 22 September 1944 – 2 February 1945 358th Fighter Group, 16 October – 9 November 1944 434th Troop Carrier Group, March – 24 July 1945 After the war ended the facility was dismantled and the land was turned over to local French authorities.

Today the remains of the airfield can be seen in aerial photography as a disturbed area south of Mourmelon-le-Grand. Advanced Landing Ground This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website


Djustine is an Italian comic book series created by Enrico Teodorani. The Djustine character was created from a fusion of Sergio Corbucci's film character Django, the Marquis de Sade's titular "Justine". In the late 1990s the wild comic adventures of Djustine, a blond female gunslinger, were published as photocopies, sold only in Italy or through the mail to fans of supernatural western comics. Since 2003, Djustine has been published in Italy on books by E. F.edizioni and on X-Comics magazine by Coniglio Editore and in the United States in the serie Djustine: Tales of the Twisted West by Carnal Comics. The creator of Djustine, Enrico Teodorani, has written for the superhero series Femforce, published by AC Comics in the USA, is the creator of Calavera and Wheela, both published in Italy by E. F.edizioni and in the US by Eros Comix. In 2011 he left the comic field and in 2013 started writing hard-boiled novels set in Italy. Artists who have done Djustine art and stories include Italian artists such as Silvano, Luciano Bernasconi, Andrea Bulgarelli, Luigi Siniscalchi, Luca Raimondo, Nik Guerra, Cristina Fabris, Gianluca Pagliarani, Luca Casalanguida and Antonio Conversano, Americans like Joe Vigil, Mike Hoffman, Frank Brunner, Val Mayerik, Rich Buckler, Marat Mychaels, Tim Tyler, Jeff Austin, Jason Crager, Sam Glanzman, Jason Waltrip and SS Crompton, other international artists like Enrique Badia Romero, Alfonso Font and John McCrea.

The adult-natured adventures of Djustine involve her facing supernatural creatures. All the stories take place in a gothic western world of the 1880s. Enrico Teodorani's blog Carnal Comics E. F.edizioni

Lee Archer (footballer)

Lee Archer is an English former professional footballer who played as a midfielder. Archer was born in Bristol, began his career as a trainee at his home town club Bristol Rovers, he made 200 appearances for Rovers in all competitions. He was known as a quick left winger or left sided midfielder and was part of a Bristol Rovers side that lost out to Huddersfield at Wembley in the playoff final. Having to give up professional football due to knee injuries he had a spell at Yeovil Town before moving on to Rushden & Diamonds, he moved back for a second spell at Yeovil Town. He is now owner of Pro Fitness personal training. After a long break from the game Lee made a surprise comeback at the age of 37 in August 2010 when he was tempted back by former Bristol Rovers teammate David Mehew to play for Gloucester City as cover for the injured Jake Harris; the Tigers were going through something of an injury crisis and manager Mehew called up his old friend in an effort to patch over some of the gaps in his squad.

Although he hadn't played a competitive match at any level for over seven years he impressed on his Gloucester debut. Lee Archer at Soccerbase