A. J. Foyt Enterprises
A. J. Foyt Enterprises is an American racing team in the IndyCar Series and NASCAR, it is owned by four-time Indianapolis 500 winner, 1972 Daytona 500 winner, 1967 24 Hours of Le Mans winner and two-time 24 Hours of Daytona winner A. J. Foyt. A. J. won two of his four Indianapolis 500s driving for the team. The team won the 1999 Indianapolis 500 and the IRL championship in 1996 and 1998; the team was founded in 1965 and won three National Championship and two Indianapolis 500, all with A. J. Foyt at the wheel. A. J. Foyt Enterprises never won a CART-sanctioned event during its participation from 1979 to 1995. At the 1995 Bosch Spark Plug Grand Prix, Eddie Cheever was leading the race with just over one lap to go when the car ran out fuel, it would be the closest. Foyt Enterprises won IRL titles in 1996 with 1998 with Kenny Bräck. Bräck won the Indianapolis 500 for the team in 1999. In 2006 the team hoped to resurrect itself with experienced driver Felipe Giaffone and a more level playing ground brought by a spec engine.
However, after a strong start to the season, the team struggled after the Indianapolis 500 and parted ways with Giaffone after the eighth race. Jeff Bucknum was brought in to fill the seat for the rest of the year. In 2007 Foyt announced that Larry Foyt would take over as team manager and Darren Manning was signed as the team's driver. Manning captured three top-five finishes in his two years with the team, including a second place in 2008 at Watkins Glen International. However, with high-profile veteran Vítor Meira becoming available following the 2008 season, Foyt signed him to replace Manning. Foyt Enterprises began the 2009 IndyCar Series season sponsored by ABC Supply and fielding Vitor Meira, injured in the Indianapolis 500. Ryan Hunter-Reay and Paul Tracy took over driving duties for the rest of the 2009 season. Meira split with the team after the season. Japanese driver Takuma Sato joined Foyt's team in 2013; the team announced in October that they would field a second car full-time in 2015 for Jack Hawksworth.
The No. 14 started as the No. 50 when A. J. Foyt began fielding NASCAR teams in 1973 part-time, driving the Purolator-sponsored Chevrolet, he drove for the team on a limited schedule throughout the seventies, picking up one pole and nine top-tens. Ron Hutcherson was the first driver besides Foyt to drive the car, Johnny Rutherford drove for the team in 1978. In the 1980s, Foyt was the sole driver of the team, switched to the No. 14 with a Valvoline sponsorship in 1983, posted his final career Top 5 at Talladega two years in the Copenhagen-sponsored car. In 1989, Tracy Leslie drove for the team in a pair of races, finishing 20th at Michigan International Speedway. Foyt did not drive in the 1991 season. Instead, he allowed Mike Chase to drive for him; this driver finished no better than 25th. Foyt, did not field a team until the inaugural Brickyard 400 in 1994, when he qualified 40th and finished 30th in the No. 50. Foyt would attempt the Brickyard in 1995 and 1996, but did not qualify for either race, forcing his permanent retirement.
During the 1999 season, rumors began spreading that Foyt would revive his defunct operation to compete in the Cup Series. After several months, it was announced that Foyt would hire rookie Mike Bliss as driver of the No. 14 Conseco-sponsored Pontiac Grand Prix. Bliss qualified for the Daytona 500, but after failing to do so for the next three races, he was released and replaced by Dick Trickle. After getting an offer from another team, Trickle would leave as well, he would be replaced by Rick Mast after he and several crew members left the bankrupt Larry Hedrick Motorsports team. Mast stayed with the team for the rest of the season, had two Top 10s at Pocono and Bristol. In 2001, Ron Hornaday, Jr. was selected as the team's driver, but he only posted only one Top 10 at Las Vegas and was dismissed at the end of the season. Following Hornaday's departure, Stacy Compton began driving for the team starting in 2002. After posting only three Top 20 finishes, Compton left the team, P. J. Jones took over at the Sirius Satellite Radio at the Glen, posted the team's best finish of fourth.
Mike Wallace was designated as driver, posting a 10th-place run at Bristol Motor Speedway. It had been announced Foyt would field two cars in 2003 with Wallace in the 14, his adopted son Larry Foyt in a second car with a sponsorship from Harrah's. Conseco filed for bankruptcy, leaving only one car with Larry driving; the team switched its Cup team to Dodge with engines provided by Evernham Motorsports. Foyt only qualified for 20 races with a best finish of 16th, finished 41st in points. Harrah's left at the end of 2003, Larry Foyt qualified for three races in 2004, but did not obtain major sponsorship, leaving the team inactive. In the season, Foyt sold his owner's points to ppc Racing's new Cup team. A. J. Foyt Racing closed their Cup team in 2006, following an auction of the team's NASCAR equipment in August. Foyt Racing briefly expanded to a two-car team at the 2000 season finale, the NAPA 500, when they fielded the No. 41 for Foyt's son Larry, but did not make the race. The team ran a second car again in 2001 at Atlanta Motor Speedway, with Mark Green driving, but did not qualify.
The team ran a second car yet again in 2002 at Indianapolis Motor Speedway, with P. J. Jones but the number changed from No. 41 to No. 50. In 2001, Foyt started the No. 14 Harrah's Chevrolet, driven by Larry Foyt. Despite failing to finish in the top-ten, Foyt finished 22nd in points overall. In the Busch Series for 2002, Foyt had
Distribution is one of the four elements of the marketing mix. Distribution is the process of making a product or service available for the consumer or business user who needs it; this can be done directly by the producer or service provider, or using indirect channels with distributors or intermediaries. The other three elements of the marketing mix are product and promotion. Decisions about distribution need to be taken in line with a company's overall strategic vision and mission. Developing a coherent distribution plan is a central component of strategic planning. At the strategic level, there are three broad approaches to distribution, namely mass, selective or exclusive distribution; the number and type of intermediaries selected depends on the strategic approach. The overall distribution channel should add value to the consumer. Distribution is fundamentally concerned with ensuring that products reach target customers in the most direct and cost efficient manner. In the case of services, distribution is principally concerned with access.
Although distribution, as a concept, is simple, in practice distribution management may involve a diverse range of activities and disciplines including: detailed logistics, warehousing, inventory management as well as channel management including selection of channel members and rewarding distributors. Prior to designing a distribution system, the planner needs to determine what the distribution channel is to achieve in broad terms; the overall approach to distributing products or services depends on a number of factors including the type of product perishability. The process of setting out a broad statement of the aims and objectives of a distribution channel is a strategic level decision. Strategically, there are three approaches to distribution: Mass distribution: When products are destined for a mass market, the marketer will seek out intermediaries that appeal to a broad market base. For example, snack foods and drinks are sold via a wide variety of outlets including supermarkets, convenience stores, vending machines and others.
The choice of distribution outlet is skewed towards those than can deliver mass markets in a cost efficient manner. Selective distribution: A manufacturer may choose to restrict the number of outlets handling a product. For example, a manufacturer of premium electrical goods may choose to deal with department stores and independent outlets that can provide added value service level required to support the product. Dr Scholl orthopedic sandals, for example, only sell their product through pharmacies because this type of intermediary supports the desired therapeutic positioning of the product; some of the prestige brands of cosmetics and skincare, such as Estee Lauder and Clinique, insist that sales staff are trained to use the product range. The manufacturer will only allow trained clinicians to sell their products. Exclusive distribution: In an exclusive distribution approach, a manufacturer chooses to deal with one intermediary or one type of intermediary; the advantage of an exclusive approach is that the manufacturer retains greater control over the distribution process.
In exclusive arrangements, the distributor is expected to work with the manufacturer and add value to the product through service level, after sales care or client support services. Another definition of exclusive arrangement is an agreement between a supplier and a retailer granting the retailer exclusive rights within a specific geographic area to carry the supplier's product. Summary of strategic approaches to distribution In consumer markets, another key strategic level decision is whether to use a push or pull strategy. In a push strategy, the marketer uses intensive advertising and incentives aimed at distributors retailers and wholesalers, with the expectation that they will stock the product or brand, that consumers will purchase it when they see it in stores. In contrast, in a pull strategy, the marketer promotes the product directly to consumers hoping that they will pressure retailers to stock the product or brand, thereby pulling it through the distribution channel; the choice of a push or pull strategy has important implications for promotion.
In a push strategy the promotional mix would consist of trade advertising and sales calls while the advertising media would be weighted towards trade magazines and trade shows while a pull strategy would make more extensive use consumer advertising and sales promotions while the media mix would be weighted towards mass-market media such as newspapers, magazines and radio. Distribution of products takes place by means of a marketing channel known as a distribution channel. A marketing channel is the people and activities necessary to transfer the ownership of goods from the point of production to the point of consumption, it is the way products get to the consumer. This is accomplished through merchant retailers or wholesalers or, in the international context, by importers. In certain specialist markets, agents or brokers may become involved in the marketing channel. Typical intermediaries involved in distribution include: Wholesaler: A merchant intermediary who sells chiefly to retailers, other merchants, or industrial and commercial users for resale or business use.
Wholesalers sell in large quantities.. Retailer: A merchant intermediary who sells direct to the public. There are many different types of retail outlet - from hypermarts and supermarkets
Kenneth A. "Ken" Hendricks was an American businessman who grew a shingle supply company into a $2.6 billion fortune and a spot on the Forbes 400. Associated with Beloit, Hendricks lived in nearby Afton. Hendricks and raised in Janesville, was a high school dropout who joined his father in the roofing business, reshingling houses on weekends, he started his own firm, which grew into a 500-man multi-state operation by 1971, a time when most roofers were still local. After giving the company to the employees so he would have more personal time, he started ABC Supply by purchasing three failing Bird and Sons locations. Through the years ABC Supply has expanded to 500 stores through new start-ups and acquisitions. Most ABC acquired the second largest roofing distributor Bradco Supply in 2010. ABC Supply has become the largest U. S. wholesaler of roofing, siding and gutter supplies, with annual sales over $3 billion. Hendricks remained the sole owner, was added to the Forbes 400 in 2004. In 2006, with his personal wealth estimated at $2.6 billion, Hendricks was added to the Forbes list of the world's billionaires.
He owned the Beloit Plaza mall and the former Beloit Corporation manufacturing complex, much of, redeveloped. In 2008, he was posthumously awarded, with his widow Diane, a special "20 Year Award of Excellence" from the Downtown Beloit Association because they "nurtured a small movement" that re-energized the city business district. In 2001, he was cited for exceeding the state's campaign laws mandating a $10,000 limit on political contributions. No legal action was taken. Ken and his wife Diane ran several other companies through the Hendricks Group, he was known for his interest in green building technology, was set to build an environmentally friendly roof for a complex at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. Hendricks was involved in efforts to build a new stadium for the Beloit Snappers minor-league baseball team, was the developer of a residential plot in Janesville. In 2006, Inc. named Hendricks its 2006 Entrepreneur of the Year award and he was featured on the magazine's cover. Inc. had ranked ABC Supply its # 1 Inc. 500 business in 1986.
Hendricks died at age 66 on December 21, 2007, in Afton, when he fell through a sub floor under construction and into the garage of his home. He left behind his wife, Diane Hendricks, seven children, Kim, Kevin, Brent and Konya. "Up on the Roof" Forbes World's Richest listing Hendricks debuts on Forbes 400 "Create Jobs, Eliminate Waste, Preserve Value", Inc. magazine profile
Siding or wall cladding is the protective material attached to the exterior side of a wall of a house or other building. Along with the roof, it forms the first line of defense against the elements, most sun, rain/snow and cold, thus creating a stable, more comfortable environment on the interior side; the siding material and style can enhance or detract from the building's beauty. There is a wide and expanding variety of materials to side with, both natural and artificial, each with its own benefits and drawbacks. Masonry walls as such do not require siding. Walls that are internally framed, whether with wood, or steel I-beams, must always be sided. Most siding consists of pieces of weather-resistant material that are smaller than the wall they cover, to allow for expansion and contraction of the materials due to moisture and temperature changes. There are various styles of joining the pieces, from board and batton, where the butt joints between panels is covered with a thin strip of wood, to a variety of clapboard called lap siding, in which planks are laid horizontally across the wall starting from the bottom, building up, the board below overlapped by the board above it.
These techniques of joinery are designed to prevent water from entering the walls. Siding that does not consist of pieces joined together would include stucco, used in the Southwest, it is applied over a lattice, just like plaster. However, because of the lack of joints, it cracks and is susceptible to water damage. Rainscreen construction is used to improve siding's ability to keep walls dry. Thatch is an ancient and widespread building material used on roofs and walls. Thatch siding is made with dry vegetation such as water reeds, or combed wheat reed; the materials are weaved in patterns designed to deflect and direct water. Wood siding is versatile in style and can be used on a wide variety of building structures, it can be stained in any color palette desired. Though installation and repair is simple, wood siding requires more maintenance than other popular solutions, requiring treatment every four to nine years depending on the severity of the elements to which it is exposed. Ants and termites are a threat to many types of wood siding, such that extra treatment and maintenance that can increase the cost in some pest-infested areas.
Wood is biodegradable. However, most paints and stains used to treat wood are not environmentally friendly and can be toxic. Wood siding can provide some minor insulation and structural properties as compared to thinner cladding materials. Wood shingles or irregular cedar "shake" siding was used in early New England construction, was revived in Shingle Style and Queen Anne style architecture in the late 19th century. Wood siding in overlapping horizontal rows or "courses" is called clapboard, weatherboard, or bevel siding, made with beveled boards, thin at the top edge and thick at the butt. In colonial North America, Eastern white pine was the most common material. Wood siding can be made of rot-resistant woods such as redwood or cedar. Jointed horizontal siding may be tongue and grooved. Drop siding comes in a wide variety including Dutch Lap and log siding. Vertical siding may have a cover over the joint: board and batten, popular in American wooden Carpenter Gothic houses. Plywood sheet siding is sometimes used on inexpensive buildings, sometimes with grooves to imitate vertical shiplap siding.
One example of such grooved plywood siding is the type called Texture 1-11 T1-11 or T111. There is a product known as reverse board-and-batten RBB that looks similar but has deeper grooves; some of these products may be thick enough and rated for structural applications if properly fastened to studs. Both T-11 and RBB sheets are quick and easy to install as long as they are installed with compatible flashing at butt joints. Slate shingles may be simple in form but many buildings with slate siding are decorative. Wood clapboard is imitated using vinyl siding or uPVC weatherboarding, it is produced in units twice as high as clapboard. Plastic imitations of wood shingle and wood shakes exist. Since plastic siding is a manufactured product, it may come in unlimited color styles. Vinyl sidings would fade and buckle over time, requiring the siding to be replaced. However, newer vinyl options have resist damage and wear better. Vinyl siding is sensitive to direct heat from barbecues or other sources. Unlike wood, vinyl siding does not provide additional insulation for the building, unless an insulation material has been added to the product.
It has been criticized by some fire safety experts for its heat sensitivity. This sensitivity makes it easier for a house fire to jump to neighboring houses in comparison to materials such as brick, metal or masonry. Vinyl siding has a potential environmental cost. While vinyl siding can be recycled, it cannot be burned. If dumped in a landfill, plastic siding does not break down quickly. Vinyl siding is considered one of the more unattractive siding choices by many. Although newer options and proper installation can eliminate this complaint, vinyl siding has visible seam lines between panels and do not have the quality appea
The IndyCar Series known as the NTT IndyCar Series under sponsorship, is the premier level of open-wheel racing in North America. Its parent company began in 1996 as the Indy Racing League, created by Indianapolis Motor Speedway owner Tony George as a competitor to CART. In 2008, the IndyCar Series merged with the Champ Car World Series; the series is self-sanctioned by IndyCar. The series' premier event is the Indianapolis 500. Due to the legal settlement with CART, the Indy Racing League was unable to utilize the name IndyCar until the beginning of the 2003 season. For 1996–1997, the series was referred to as the Indy Racing League, with no genre designation. For 1998–1999, the series garnered its first title sponsor, was advertised as the Pep Boys Indy Racing League; the contract was not renewed after the second year. In 2000, the series sold its naming rights to Internet search engine Northern Light for five seasons, the series was named the Indy Racing Northern Light Series. After only two seasons, the sponsorship agreement ended when Northern Light reevaluated its business plan and ended all sponsorships.
The league reverted with no title sponsor. The IndyCar Series name was adopted beginning in 2003, as the series was now entitled to use it. In 2006, IndyCar forged an alliance with Simmons-Abramson Marketing, promising to be "actively engaged in the league's marketing, public relations, sponsorship and branding efforts—from its IndyCar Series to the venerable Indianapolis 500". Simmons co-authored the new IndyCar theme song, "I Am Indy". For the 2008 season, DirecTV served as a presenting sponsor, although this deal only lasted one year due to objections by the series' new cable broadcaster Versus, as it was owned by competitor Comcast. Izod was announced as the series title sponsor beginning on November 5, 2009. Exact financial terms were not disclosed but the deal was reported to be worth at least $10 million per year for 5 years, but ran only 4 of the announced 5 seasons, as Izod ended its sponsorship after the 2013 season. In 2014, Verizon Communications became title sponsor of the series through 2018.
Verizon declined to renew the deal. In January 2019, it was announced that Japanese communications company NTT would become title sponsor and official technology partner of the IndyCar Series, its U. S. subsidiary NTT Data has been a sponsor of Chip Ganassi Racing since 2013. Since the series inception, IndyCar Series events have been broadcast in the United States on several networks, including ABC, CBS, ESPN, Fox Sports Networks, TNN. Beginning in 2009, Versus began a 10-year deal to broadcast 13 IndyCar races per season, whereas the remaining races, including the Indianapolis 500, would remain on ABC through 2018; as of the 2018 season, ABC aired 5 races per-season, with NBCSN or other NBCUniversal networks airing the remainder of the schedule. On March 21, 2018, it was announced that NBC Sports would become the sole U. S. rightsholder under a new three-year contract. NBCSN will continue as the primary broadcast outlet for most races, overflow content will be available through its subscription service NBC Sports Gold.
Eight races per-season will be televised by NBC—including the Indianapolis 500, marking the first time in 54 years that the race will not be televised by ABC. In the United Kingdom, since the launch of BT Sport in August 2013 races are shown on one of the BT branded channels or ESPN. Previous to August 2013, the IndyCar Series races were broadcasts on the Sky Sports family of networks, with the viewing figures of the IndyCar races in the UK outnumbering those of NASCAR races; the IndyCar Series had highlights of all the races on the channel Five British terrestrial channel and Five USA, but has since been discontinued since the 2009 season. In Portugal, all of the IndyCar Series are broadcast on Sport TV. In February 2013, Sportsnet announced that it would become the official Canadian broadcaster of the IndyCar Series beginning in the 2013 season in a five-year deal with the series; the new contract will include broadcasts on the Sportsnet regional networks, Sportsnet One, City, along with mobile coverage and French rights sub-licensed to TVA Sports.
Additionally, Sportsnet would originate coverage from the Firestone Grand Prix of St. Petersburg, Indianapolis 500, Honda Indy Toronto with Bill Adam, Todd Lewis, Rob Faulds. Canadian driver Paul Tracy joined Sportsnet as an analyst. Rede Bandeirantes and DAZN serve as the Brazilian broadcast partners in that country since 1986 and 2019, respectively. Grupo Bandeirantes sports channel BandSports show live races and race highlights. ESPN has been the international broadcast partner of IndyCar Series in Latin America. Eurosport has been the international broadcast partner of IndyCar in most of Europe. In the late 2000s, the official website streamed online all races and practice sessions unrestricted; that service is now limited in the United States to television subscribers of the respective television network broadcasters. The IndyCar Series is not an open formula motor sport archetype. A spec-series, the league mandates chassis and engine manufacturers which teams must use each season; the league mandates horsepower level, aerodynamic configuration, maximum engine speed to which all entrants must adhere.
The league mandates direct control over all drivers, with an designated race boss in race con
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes and functions, have been adapted throughout history for a wide number of factors, from building materials available, to weather conditions, land prices, ground conditions, specific uses, aesthetic reasons. To better understand the term building compare the list of nonbuilding structures. Buildings serve several societal needs – as shelter from weather, living space, privacy, to store belongings, to comfortably live and work. A building as a shelter represents a physical division of the outside. Since the first cave paintings, buildings have become objects or canvasses of much artistic expression. In recent years, interest in sustainable planning and building practices has become an intentional part of the design process of many new buildings; the word building is the act of making it. As a noun, a building is'a structure that has a roof and walls and stands more or less permanently in one place'.
In the broadest interpretation a fence or wall is a building. However, the word structure is used more broadly than building including natural and man-made formations and does not have walls. Structure is more to be used for a fence. Sturgis' Dictionary included that " differs from architecture in excluding all idea of artistic treatment; as a verb, building is the act of construction. Structural height in technical usage is the height to the highest architectural detail on building from street-level. Depending on how they are classified and masts may or may not be included in this height. Spires and masts used as antennas are not included; the definition of a low-rise vs. a high-rise building is a matter of debate, but three storeys or less is considered low-rise. A report by Shinichi Fujimura of a shelter built 500 000 years ago is doubtful since Fujimura was found to have faked many of his findings. Supposed remains of huts found at the Terra Amata site in Nice purportedly dating from 200 000 to 400 000 years ago have been called into question.
There is clear evidence of homebuilding from around 18 000 BC. Buildings became common during the Neolithic. Single-family residential buildings are most called houses or homes. Multi-family residential buildings containing more than one dwelling unit are called a duplex or an apartment building. A condominium is an apartment rather than rents. Houses may be built in pairs, in terraces where all but two of the houses have others either side. Houses which were built as a single dwelling may be divided into apartments or bedsitters. Building types may range from huts to multimillion-dollar high-rise apartment blocks able to house thousands of people. Increasing settlement density in buildings is a response to high ground prices resulting from many people wanting to live close to work or similar attractors. Other common building materials are concrete or combinations of either of these with stone. Residential buildings have different names for their use depending if they are seasonal include holiday cottage or timeshare.
If the residents are in need of special care such as a nursing home, orphanage or prison. Many people lived in communal buildings called longhouses, smaller dwellings called pit-houses and houses combined with barns sometimes called housebarns. Buildings are defined to be substantial, permanent structures so other dwelling forms such as houseboats and motorhomes are dwellings but not buildings. Sometimes a group of inter-related builds are referred to as a complex – for example a housing complex, educational complex, hospital complex, etc; the practice of designing and operating buildings is most a collective effort of different groups of professionals and trades. Depending on the size and purpose of a particular building project, the project team may include: A real estate developer who secures funding for the project. Other possible design Engineer specialists may be involved such as Fire, facade engineers, building physics, Telecomms, AV (Audio V