International Organization for Standardization
The International Organization for Standardization is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promotes worldwide proprietary and commercial standards, it is headquartered in Geneva and works in 164 countries. It was one of the first organizations granted general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council; the International Organization for Standardization is an independent, non-governmental organization, the members of which are the standards organizations of the 164 member countries. It is the world's largest developer of voluntary international standards and facilitates world trade by providing common standards between nations. Over twenty thousand standards have been set covering everything from manufactured products and technology to food safety and healthcare. Use of the standards aids in the creation of products and services that are safe, reliable and of good quality.
The standards help businesses increase productivity while minimizing errors and waste. By enabling products from different markets to be directly compared, they facilitate companies in entering new markets and assist in the development of global trade on a fair basis; the standards serve to safeguard consumers and the end-users of products and services, ensuring that certified products conform to the minimum standards set internationally. The three official languages of the ISO are English and Russian; the name of the organization in French is Organisation internationale de normalisation, in Russian, Международная организация по стандартизации. ISO is not an acronym; the organization adopted ISO as its abbreviated name in reference to the Greek word isos, as its name in the three official languages would have different acronyms. During the founding meetings of the new organization, the Greek word explanation was not invoked, so this meaning may have been made public later. ISO gives this explanation of the name: "Because'International Organization for Standardization' would have different acronyms in different languages, our founders decided to give it the short form ISO.
ISO is derived from the Greek isos, meaning equal. Whatever the country, whatever the language, the short form of our name is always ISO."Both the name ISO and the ISO logo are registered trademarks, their use is restricted. The organization today known as ISO began in 1928 as the International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations, it was suspended in 1942 during World War II, but after the war ISA was approached by the formed United Nations Standards Coordinating Committee with a proposal to form a new global standards body. In October 1946, ISA and UNSCC delegates from 25 countries met in London and agreed to join forces to create the new International Organization for Standardization. ISO is a voluntary organization whose members are recognized authorities on standards, each one representing one country. Members meet annually at a General Assembly to discuss ISO's strategic objectives; the organization is coordinated by a Central Secretariat based in Geneva. A Council with a rotating membership of 20 member bodies provides guidance and governance, including setting the Central Secretariat's annual budget.
The Technical Management Board is responsible for over 250 technical committees, who develop the ISO standards. ISO has formed two joint committees with the International Electrotechnical Commission to develop standards and terminology in the areas of electrical and electronic related technologies. ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 was created in 1987 to "evelop, maintain and facilitate IT standards", where IT refers to information technology. ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 2 was created in 2009 for the purpose of "tandardization in the field of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources". ISO has 163 national members. ISO has three membership categories: Member bodies are national bodies considered the most representative standards body in each country; these are the only members of ISO. Correspondent members are countries; these members do not participate in standards promulgation. Subscriber members are countries with small economies, they can follow the development of standards. Participating members are called "P" members, as opposed to observing members, who are called "O" members.
ISO is funded by a combination of: Organizations that manage the specific projects or loan experts to participate in the technical work. Subscriptions from member bodies; these subscriptions are in proportion to each country's gross national trade figures. Sale of standards. ISO's main products are international standards. ISO publishes technical reports, technical specifications, publicly available specifications, technical corrigenda, guides. International standards These are designated using the format ISO nnnnn: Title, where nnnnn is the number of the standard, p is an optional part number, yyyy is the year published, Title describes the subject. IEC for International Electrotechnical Commission is included if the standard results from the work of ISO/IEC JTC1. ASTM is used for standards developed in cooperation with ASTM International. Yyyy and IS are not used for an incomplete or unpublished standard and may under some
Deutsches Institut für Normung
Deutsches Institut für Normung e. V. is the German ISO member body. DIN is a German Registered Association headquartered in Berlin. There are around thirty thousand DIN Standards, covering nearly every field of technology. Founded in 1917 as the Normenausschuß der deutschen Industrie, the NADI was renamed Deutscher Normenausschuß in 1926 to reflect that the organization now dealt with standardization issues in many fields. In 1975 it was renamed again to Deutsches Institut für Normung, or'DIN' and is recognized by the German government as the official national-standards body, representing German interests at the international and European levels; the acronym,'DIN' is incorrectly expanded as Deutsche Industrienorm. This is due to the historic origin of the DIN as "NADI"; the NADI indeed published their standards as DI-Norm. For example, the first published standard was'DI-Norm 1' in 1918. Many people still mistakenly associate DIN with the old DI-Norm naming convention. One of the earliest, the best known, is DIN 476 — the standard that introduced the A-series paper sizes in 1922 — adopted in 1975 as International Standard ISO 216.
Common examples in modern technology include DIN and mini-DIN connectors for electronics, the DIN rail. The designation of a DIN standard shows its origin: DIN # is used for German standards with domestic significance or designed as a first step toward international status. E DIN # is a draft standard and DIN V # is a preliminary standard. DIN EN # is used for the German edition of European standards. DIN ISO # is used for the German edition of ISO standards. DIN EN ISO # is used if the standard has been adopted as a European standard. DIN 476: international paper sizes DIN 1451: typeface used by German railways and on traffic signs DIN 31635: transliteration of the Arabic language DIN 72552: electric terminal numbers in automobiles Austrian Standards Institute Swiss Association for Standardization Die Brücke, an earlier German institute aiming to set standard paper sizes DIN film speed DIN connector DQS - Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Zertifizierung von Managementsystemen, a subsidiary of DIN DGQ - Deutsche Gesellschaft für Qualität, founded DQS in 1985 together with DIN DIN home page DIN home page DIN online dictionary of classes and units of measure DQS Holding GmbH DQS HK
Roller skates are shoes, or bindings that fit onto shoes, that are worn to enable the wearer to roll along on wheels. The first roller skate was an ice skate with wheels replacing the blade; the "quad" style of roller skate became more popular consisting of four wheels arranged in the same configuration as a typical car. While the first reported use of roller skates was on a London stage in 1743, the first patented roller skate was introduced in 1760 by Belgian inventor John Joseph Merlin, his roller skate wasn't much more than an ice skate with wheels where the blade goes, a style we would call inline today. They were hard to steer and hard to stop because they didn't have brakes and, as such, were not popular; the initial "test piloting" of the first prototype of the skate was in the city of Huy, which had a party with Merlin playing the violin. In the 1840s, Meyerbeer's Opera, Le prophète featured a scene in which performers used roller-skates to simulate ice-skating on a frozen lake set on stage.
The result was to popularize roller skating throughout the Continent. As ice skaters subsequently developed the art of figure skating, roller skaters wanted the ability to turn in their skates in a similar fashion. In 1863, James Plimpton from Massachusetts invented the "rocking" skate and used a four-wheel configuration for stability, independent axles that turned by pressing to one side of the skate or the other when the skater wants to create an edge; this was a vast improvement on the Merlin design, easier to use and drove the huge popularity of roller skating, dubbed "rinkomania" in the 1860s and 1870s, which spread to Europe and around the world, continued through the 1930s. The Plimpton skate is still used today. Roller skating evolved from just a pastime to a competitive sport. In the mid 1990s roller hockey, played with a ball rather than a puck, became so popular that it made an appearance in the Olympics in 1992; the National Sporting Goods Association statistics showed, from a 1999 study, that 2.5 million people played roller hockey.
Roller Skating has never become an Olympic event. Other roller skating sports include roller derby. Roller skating popularity tapered off in the 80s and 90s; the Roller Skating Rink Operators Association was developed in the U. S in 1937, it is named the Roller Skating Association. The association promotes roller skating and offers classes to the public, aiming to educate the population about roller skating; the current president is Bobby Pender. The Roller Skating Association headquarters is located in Indianapolis; the Roller Skating Association's web page offers some health benefits of roller skating. Some of the benefits they list include: Providing a complete aerobic workout Burning 330 calories per hour while skating 6 miles per hour for a 143-pound person or 600 calories while skating 10 miles per hour. A study from the University of Massachusetts found that in-line skating causes less than 50% of the impact shock to joints compared to running. Roller skating is equivalent to jogging in terms of health benefits The American Heart Association recommends roller skating as an aerobic fitness sport.
Roller skating Inline skates Ice skates Roller shoe "How Rink Rollers Are Made", by George W. Waltz – November 1951 article on how roller skates are manufactured Court Case Brought by Roller Skating Rinks About Taxes History of Roller Skating In Canada homepage for USA Roller Sports Roller Skating Museum
A skateboard is a type of sports equipment used for the sport of skateboarding. It consists of a specially designed maplewood board combined with a polyurethane coating used for making smoother slides and stronger durability. Most skateboards are made with 7 plies of this wood. A skateboard is moved by pushing with one foot while the other remains on the board, or by pumping one's legs in structures such as a bowl or half pipe. A skateboard can be used by standing on the deck while on a downward slope and allowing gravity to propel the board and rider. If the rider's leading foot is their right foot, they are said to ride "goofy. If the rider is regular but chooses to ride goofy, they are said to be riding in "switch," and vice versa. A skater is more comfortable pushing with their back foot. Electric skateboards have appeared; these no longer require the propelling of the skateboard by means of the feet. There is no governing body that declares any regulations on what constitutes a skateboard or the parts from which it is assembled.
The skateboard has conformed both to contemporary trends and to the ever-evolving array of stunts performed by riders/users, who require a certain functionality from the board. The board shape depends upon its desired function. Longboards are a type of skateboard with larger, softer wheels; the two main types of skateboards are the shortboard. The shape of the board is important: the skateboard must be concaved to perform tricks. Longboards are faster and are used for cruising and racing, while shortboards are used for doing tricks and riding in skateparks. Main: SkateboardingSkateboarding started in California in the 1950s; the first skateboards were made from roller skates. Skateboarding gained in popularity because of surfing. Skateboards were handmade from wooden boxes and planks by individuals. Companies started manufacturing skateboards in 1959. During this time, postwar America, was carefree with children playing in the streets. Boards are continuing to evolve as companies try to make them lighter and stronger or improve their performance.
Skateboarding is a individual activity. There is no wrong way to skate. Skateboarding still hasn't stopped evolving, skaters are coming up with new tricks all the time. Skateboarding has gone through its downs over the years. However, since 2000, due to attention in the media and products like skateboarding video games, children's skateboards and commercialization, skateboarding has been pulled into the mainstream; as more interest and money has been invested into skateboarding, more skate parks, better skateboards have become available. In addition, the continuing interest has motivated skateboarding companies have to keep innovating and inventing new things. In 2020 Skateboarding will appear for the first-time in the Olympics in Japan; the following descriptions cover skateboard parts that are most prevalent in popular and modern forms of skateboarding. Many parts exist with alternative constructions. A traditional complete skateboard consists of the deck, wheels, bushings and bolts to fasten the truck and wheel assembly to the bottom of the deck.
Older decks included plastic parts such as side and nose guards. Modern decks vary in size. Wider decks can be used for greater stability. Standard skateboard decks are between 28 and 33 inches long; the underside of the deck can be printed with a design by the manufacturer, blank, or decorated by any other means. "Long" boards are over 36 inches long. Plastic "penny" boards are about 22 inches long; some larger penny boards over 27 inches long are called "nickel" boards. The longboard, a common variant of the skateboard, is used for higher speed and rough surface boarding, they are much more expensive. "Old school" boards are wider and have only one kicktail. Variants of the 1970s have little or no concavity, whereas 1980s models have deeper concavities and steeper kicktails. Grip tape is a sheet of paper or fabric with adhesive on one side and a surface similar to fine sandpaper on the other. Grip tape is applied to the top surface of a board to allow the rider's feet to grip the surface and help the skater stay on the board while doing tricks.
Grip tape is black, but is available in many different colors such as pink, yellow, checkered and clear. They have designs die-cut to show the color of the board, or to display the board's company logo. Grip tape accumulates dirt and other substances that will inhibit grip, so use of a grip eraser or rubber eraser is necessary after riding through mud or with dirty shoes. Attached to the deck are two metal trucks, which connect the wheels and bearings to the deck; the trucks are further composed of two parts. The top part of the truck is screwed to the deck and is called the baseplate, beneath it is the hanger; the axle runs through the hange
Engineering tolerance is the permissible limit or limits of variation in: a physical dimension. Dimensions, properties, or conditions may have some variation without affecting functioning of systems, structures, etc. A variation beyond the tolerance is said rejected, or exceeding the tolerance. A primary concern is to determine how wide the tolerances may be without affecting other factors or the outcome of a process; this can be by the use of scientific principles, engineering knowledge, professional experience. Experimental investigation is useful to investigate the effects of tolerances: Design of experiments, formal engineering evaluations, etc. A good set of engineering tolerances in a specification, by itself, does not imply that compliance with those tolerances will be achieved. Actual production of any product involves some inherent variation of output. Measurement error and statistical uncertainty are present in all measurements. With a normal distribution, the tails of measured values may extend well beyond plus and minus three standard deviations from the process average.
Appreciable portions of one tails might extend beyond the specified tolerance. The process capability of systems and products needs to be compatible with the specified engineering tolerances. Process controls must be in place and an effective Quality management system, such as Total Quality Management, needs to keep actual production within the desired tolerances. A process capability index is used to indicate the relationship between tolerances and actual measured production; the choice of tolerances is affected by the intended statistical sampling plan and its characteristics such as the Acceptable Quality Level. This relates to the question of whether tolerances must be rigid or whether some small percentage of being out-of-tolerance may sometimes be acceptable. Genichi Taguchi and others have suggested that traditional two-sided tolerancing is analogous to "goal posts" in a football game: It implies that all data within those tolerances are acceptable; the alternative is that the best product has a measurement, on target.
There is an increasing loss, a function of the deviation or variability from the target value of any design parameter. The greater the deviation from target, the greater is the loss; this is described as the Taguchi loss function or quality loss function, it is the key principle of an alternative system called inertial tolerancing. Research and development work conducted by M. Pillet and colleagues at the Savoy University has resulted in industry-specific adoption; the publishing of the French standard NFX 04-008 has allowed further consideration by the manufacturing community. Dimensional tolerance is related to, but different from fit in mechanical engineering, a designed-in clearance or interference between two parts. Tolerances are assigned to parts for manufacturing purposes. No machine can hold dimensions to the nominal value, so there must be acceptable degrees of variation. If a part is manufactured, but has dimensions that are out of tolerance, it is not a usable part according to the design intent.
Tolerances can be applied to any dimension. The used terms are: Basic size The nominal diameter of the shaft and the hole; this is, in general, the same for both components. Lower deviation The difference between the minimum possible component size and the basic size. Upper deviation The difference between the basic size. Fundamental deviation The minimum difference in size between a component and the basic size; this is identical to the lower deviation for holes. If the fundamental deviation is greater than zero, the bolt will always be smaller than the basic size and the hole will always be wider. Fundamental deviation is a form of allowance, rather than tolerance. International Tolerance grade This is a standardised measure of the maximum difference in size between the component and the basic size. For example, if a shaft with a nominal diameter of 10 mm is to have a sliding fit within a hole, the shaft might be specified with a tolerance range from 9.964 to 10 mm and the hole might be specified with a tolerance range from 10.04 mm to 10.076 mm.
This would provide a clearance fit of somewhere between 0.04 0.112 mm. In this case the size of the tolerance range for both the shaft and hole is chosen to be the same, meaning that both components have the same International Tolerance grade but this need not be the case in general; when no other tolerances are provided, the machining industry uses the following standard tolerances: When designing mechanical components, a system of standardized tolerances called International Tolerance grades are used. The standard tolerances are divided into two categories: shaft, they are labelled with a let
A hobby is a regular activity done for enjoyment during one's leisure time. Hobbies include collecting themed items and objects, engaging in creative and artistic pursuits, playing sports, or pursuing other amusements. Participation in hobbies encourages acquiring substantial skills and knowledge in that area. A list of hobbies changes with renewed interests and developing fashions, making it diverse and lengthy. Hobbies tend to follow trends in society, for example stamp collecting was popular during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as postal systems were the main means of communication, while video games are more popular nowadays following technological advances; the advancing production and technology of the nineteenth century provided workers with more availability in leisure time to engage in hobbies. Because of this, the efforts of people investing in hobbies has increased with time. Hobbyists may be identified under three sub-categories: casual leisure, serious leisure, project-based leisure.
Though, some hobbyists engage in leisure pursuits that overlap multiple boundaries of the groups. Hobbies are found within the second category, serious leisure. In the 16th century, the term "hobyn" had the meaning of "small horse and pony"; the term "hobby horse" was documented in a 1557 payment confirmation for a "Hobbyhorse" from Reading, England. The item called a "Tourney Horse", was made of a wooden or basketwork frame with an artificial tail and head, it was designed for a child to mimic riding a real horse. By 1816 the derivative, "hobby", was introduced into the vocabulary of a number of English people. Over the course of subsequent centuries, the term came to be associated with leisure. In the 17th century, the term was used in a pejorative sense by suggesting that a hobby was a childish pursuit, however, in the 18th century with a more industrial society and more leisure time, hobbies took on greater respectability A hobby is called a pastime, derived from the use of hobbies to pass the time.
A hobby became an activity, practised and with some worthwhile purpose. Hobbies are but not always, practised for interest and enjoyment, rather than financial reward. Hobbies were described as pursuits that others thought somewhat childish or trivial. However, as early as 1676 Sir Matthew Hale, in Contemplations Moral and Divine, wrote "Almost every person hath some hobby horse or other wherein he prides himself." He was acknowledging. By the mid 18th century there was a flourishing of hobbies as working people had more regular hours of work and greater leisure time, they spent more time to pursue interests. However, there was concern that these working people might not use their leisure time in worthwhile pursuits. "The hope of weaning people away from bad habits by the provision of counter-attractions came to the fore in the 1830s, has waned since. The bad habits were perceived to be of a sensual and physical nature, the counter attractions, or more alternatives, deliberately cultivated rationality and the intellect."
The flourishing book and magazine trade of the day encouraged worthwhile pursuits. The burgeoning manufacturing trade made materials used in hobbies cheap and was responsive to the changing interests of hobbyists; the English have been identified as enthusiastic hobbyists. "nother English characteristic, so much a part of us that we notice it … is the addiction to hobbies and spare-time occupations, the privateness of English life. We are a nation of flower-lovers, but a nation of stamp-collectors, pigeon-fanciers, amateur carpenters, coupon-snippers, darts-players, crossword-puzzle fans. All the culture, most native centres round things which when they are communal are not official—the pub, the football match, the back garden, the fireside and the'nice cup of tea'."Deciding what to include in a list of hobbies provokes debate because it is difficult to decide which pleasurable pass-times can be described as hobbies. During the 20th century the term hobby suggested activities, such as stamp collecting, knitting, painting and photography.
The description did not include activities like listening to music, watching television, or reading. These latter activities bring pleasure, but lack the sense of achievement associated with a hobby, they are not structured, organised pursuits, as most hobbies are. The pleasure of a hobby is associated with making something of value or achieving something of value. "Such leisure is valorised because it produces feelings of satisfaction with something that looks much like work but, done of its own sake." "Hobbies are a contradiction: they take work and turn it into leisure, take leisure and turn it into work."Hobbies change with time. In the 21st century, the video game industry is a large hobby involving millions of kids and adults in various forms of'play'. Stamp collecting declined along with the importance of the postal system. Woodwork and knitting declined as hobbies, because manufactured goods provide cheap alternatives for handmade goods. Through the internet, an online community has become a hobby for many people.
Hobbyists are a part of a wider group of people engaged in leisure pursuits where the boundaries of each group overlap to some extent. The Serious Leisure Perspective groups hobbyists with amateurs and volunteers and identifies three broa
A fishing reel is a cylindrical device attached to a fishing rod used in winding and stowing line. Modern fishing reels have fittings aiding in casting for distance and accuracy, as well as retrieving line. Fishing reels are traditionally used in the recreational sport of competitive casting, they are attached to a fishing rod, though some specialized reels are mounted directly to boat gunwales or transoms. The fishing reel was invented in Song dynasty China, where the earliest known illustration of a fishing reel is from Chinese paintings and records beginning about 1195 AD. Fishing reels first appeared in England around 1650 AD, by the 1760s, London tackle shops were advertising multiplying or gear-retrieved reels; the first popular American fishing reel appeared in the U. S. around 1820. In literary records, the earliest evidence of the fishing reel comes from a 4th-century AD work entitled Lives of Famous Immortals; the earliest known depiction of a fishing reel comes from a Southern Song painting done in 1195 by Ma Yuan called "Angler on a Wintry Lake," showing a man sitting on a small sampan boat while casting out his fishing line.
Another fishing reel was featured in a painting by Wu Zhen. The book Tianzhu lingqian, printed sometime between 1208 and 1224, features two different woodblock print illustrations of fishing reels being used. An Armenian parchment Gospel of the 13th century shows a reel; the Sancai Tuhui, a Chinese encyclopedia published in 1609, features the next known picture of a fishing reel and vividly shows the windlass pulley of the device. These five pictures mentioned are the only ones which feature fishing reels before the year 1651; the first English book on fishing is "A Treatise of Fishing with an Angle" in 1496. However, the book did not mention a reel. A primitive reel was first cited in the book, "The Art of Angling" 1651. Fishing reels first appeared in England around a time of growing interest in fly fishing; the fishing industry became commercialized in the 18th century, with rods and tackle being sold at the haberdashers store. After the Great Fire of London in 1666, artisans moved to Redditch which became a centre of production of fishing related products from the 1730s.
Onesimus Ustonson established his trading shop in 1761, his establishment remained as a market leader for the next century. He received a Royal Warrant from three successive monarchs starting with King George IV; some have credited Onesimus with the invention of the fishing reel - he was the first to advertise its sale. Early multiplying reels were wide and had a small diameter, their gears, made of brass wore down after extensive use, his earliest advertisement in the form of a trading card date from 1768 and was entitled To all lovers of angling. A full list of the tackles he sold included artificial flies, and'the best sort of multiplying brass winches both stop and plain'; the commercialization of the industry came at a time of expanded interest in fishing as a recreational hobby for members of the aristocracy. Modern reel design had begun in England during the latter part of the 18th century, the predominant model in use was known as the'Nottingham reel'; the reel was a wide drum which spooled out and was ideal for allowing the bait to drift along way out with the current.
Tackle design began to improve from the 1880s. The introduction of new woods to the manufacture of fly rods made it possible to cast flies into the wind on silk lines, instead of horse hair; these lines allowed for a much greater casting distance. A negative consequence of this, was that it became easy for the much longer line to get into a tangle; this problem spurred the invention of the regulator to evenly spool the line out and prevent tangling. Albert Illingworth, 1st Baron Illingworth a textiles magnate, patented the modern form of fixed-spool spinning reel in 1905; when casting Illingworth's reel design, the line was drawn off the leading edge of the spool, but was restrained and rewound by a line pickup, a device which orbits around the stationary spool. Because the line did not have to pull against a rotating spool, much lighter lures could be cast than with conventional reels. Geared multiplying reels never caught on in Britain, but had more success in the United States, where models were modified by George Snyder of Kentucky into his bait-casting reel, the first American-made design in 1810.
The American, Charles F. Orvis and distributed a novel reel and fly design in 1874, described by reel historian Jim Brown as the "benchmark of American reel design," and the first modern fly reel; the founding of The Orvis Company helped institutionalize fly fishing by supplying angling equipment via the circulation of his tackle catalogs, distributed to a small but devoted customer list. A fly reel is a single-action reel operated by stripping line off the reel with one hand, while casting the rod with the other hand; the main purpose of a fly reel is to store line, provide smooth uninterrupted tension when a fish makes a long run, counterbalance the weight of your fly rod when casting. When used in fly fishing, the fly reel or fly casting reel has traditionally been rather simple in terms of mechanical construction, little has changed from the design patented by Charles F. Orvis of Vermont in 1874. Orvis first introduced the idea of using light metals with multiple perforated holes to construct the housing, resulting in a lighter reel that allowed the spooled fly line to dry more than a conventional, solid-sided design.
Early fly reels placed. Most had no drag mechanism, but were fitted with a cl