ABET, incorporated as the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc. is a non-governmental organization that accredits post-secondary education programs in applied and natural science, computing and engineering technology. The accreditation of these programs occurs in the United States but internationally; as of October 2017, 4,005 programs are accredited, distributed over 793 universities and colleges in 32 countries. ABET is the recognized U. S. accreditor of college and university programs in applied and natural science, computing and engineering technology. ABET provides leadership internationally through workshops, memoranda of understanding and mutual recognition agreements, such as the Washington Accord. ABET evaluates programs offered in a 100-percent online format. ABET was established in 1932 as the Engineers' Council for Professional Development by seven engineering societies: the American Society of Civil Engineers, the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers – now the American Institute of Mining and Petroleum Engineers, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the American Institute of Electrical Engineers – now the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education – now the American Society for Engineering Education, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers and the National Council of State Boards of Engineering Examiners – now the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying.
ECPD was founded to provide a "joint program for upbuilding engineering as a profession." However, it immediately began developing as an accreditation agency, evaluating its first engineering program in 1936 and its first engineering technology program in 1946. By 1947, 580 programs at 133 institutions had been accredited. ECPD changed its name to the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc. in 1980 and began doing business as ABET in 2005. In 1985, ABET helped establish the Computing Sciences Accreditation Board, now one of ABET's largest member societies with over 300 programs, in response to a dramatic rise in interest of computer science education. ABET is a federation of 35 professional and technical member societies representing the fields of applied science, computing and engineering technology. Member societies AAEES – American Academy of Environmental Engineers and Scientists AAMI – Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation ACerS – American Ceramic Society with their National Institute of Ceramic Engineers AIAA – American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics AIChE – American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIHA – American Industrial Hygiene Association ANS – American Nuclear Society ASABE – American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers ASCE – American Society of Civil Engineers ASEE – American Society for Engineering Education ASHRAE – American Society of Heating and Air-Conditioning Engineers ASME – American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASSP – American Society of Safety Professionals AWS - American Welding Society BMES – Biomedical Engineering Society CMAA – Construction Management Association of America CSAB – called the Computing Sciences Accreditation Board IEEE – still the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IISE – Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers INCOSE – International Council on Systems Engineering ISA – the Instrument Society of America, now International Society of Automation MRS – Materials Research Society NCEES – National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying NSPE – National Society of Professional Engineers NSPS – National Society of Professional Surveyors SAE International – called the Society of Automotive Engineers SFPE – Society of Fire Protection Engineers SME – Society of Manufacturing Engineers SME-AIME – Society for Mining and Exploration, Inc.
SNAME – Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers SPE – Society of Petroleum Engineers SPIE – called the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers SWE – Society of Women Engineers TMS – The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society WEPAN – Women in Engineering ProActive Network ABET accredits post-secondary degree-granting programs offered by institutions that are regionally accredited in the U. S. and nationally accredited outside of the U. S. Certification, training or doctoral programs are not accredited. ABET accreditation is voluntary. Accreditation is given to individual programs within an institution rather than to the institution as a whole. Accredited programs must request re-evaluation every six years to retain accreditation. Programs without previous accreditation can apply for accreditation as long as they have produced at least one program graduate; the first step in securing or retaining ABET accreditation is for an institution to request an evaluation of its program by January 31 of the year in which accreditation is being sought.
The eligibility of the institution must be established, which can be satisfied if the institution is accredited by a regional accreditation agency. Each program is assigned to one of four accreditation commissions within ABET: Applied and Natural Science Accreditation Commission Computing Accreditation Commission Engineering Accreditation Commission Engineering Technology Accreditation Commission The program is assigned to a commission based on its title; each commission has di
Bundles is the eighth studio album by the jazz rock band Soft Machine, released in 1975. By Bundles, only keyboardist and founding member Mike Ratledge was left from the early Soft Machine line-ups. Guitarist Allan Holdsworth's prominent contributions set the album apart from previous Soft Machine recordings, which had not featured a guitarist for seven years, since their debut single; this is the last studio album featuring Ratledge listed as a full band member. Only two compositions by him are featured, one of, less than two minutes long. All compositions by Karl Jenkins except. "Hazard Profile Part One" – 9:18 "Hazard Profile Part Two" – 2:21 "Hazard Profile Part Three" – 0:33 "Hazard Profile Part Four" – 1:25 "Hazard Profile Part Five" – 5:29 "Gone Sailing" – 0:59 "Bundles" – 3:14 "Land of the Bag Snake" – 3:35 "The Man Who Waved at Trains" – 1:50 "Peff" – 3:37 "Four Gongs Two Drums" – 2:31 "The Floating World" – 7:07 Roy Babbington – bass guitar Allan Holdsworth – electric, 12-string guitars Karl Jenkins – oboe, electric piano, soprano saxophone John Marshall – drums, percussion Mike Ratledge – organ, electric piano, synthesizerAdditional personnelRay Warleigh – alto flute and bass flute on "The Floating World" Discography at Calyx
Sarah Mytton Maury was an English author, born in Liverpool to Bridget Tobin and William Hughes. Sarah had a sister named Elizabeth Hughes. Sarah graduated from school in Liverpool in 1821 and married William Maury, the eldest son of "Consul" James Maury Sarah and William Maury had eight sons and three daughters: James Maury Harriet Van Ness Maury William Morris Maury Jr. called affectionately "the Doctor" Anne Fontaine Maury Rutson Maury Matthew Fontaine Maury Sarah Fanny Maury Charles William Maury Mytton Maury, father of astronomer Antonia Maury Walker Maury Tobin Morris Maury Sarah Maury emigrated to the United States in 1846 on a Packet ship, crowded with steerage passengers, among whom smallpox had broken out on the third day from Liverpool. Upon her arrival in America, she labored for the passage of an act of Congress requiring that sanitary provision should be made on emigrant vessels. On her return to England she procured the passage of a similar act of England's Parliament. Upon her return, the London Times wrote of her: We can account for Mrs. Maury's enthusiasm for America.
Such a man as her father-in-law, the late James Maury, the friend and play-fellow of Thomas Jefferson, was one whose merits could never fail to be appreciated by any. Some of Mr. Maury's earliest impressions of America must have been derived from her communications with that excellent man, the inheritors of his name, not less of his amiable qualities, these, together with the pleasure he must have had in her friendly communications with the many agreeable and intelligent American families residing in Liverpool, would give her a more favourable impression of the people of that country; the courtesy with which everyone bearing the name of Maury, a lady, would be received in the United States must have made her visit to Washington delightful, have cast a couleur de rose on everything that she saw. Add to this, that America is full of objects calculated to excite the admiration and respect of every intelligent traveler, we cannot wonder that Mrs. Maury has come back more American than the Americans themselves.
She wrote Etchings from the Caracci. She died of typhus fever contracted from an infected well and was buried in the city cemetery of Fredericksburg, Virginia beside her husband. Maury, Anne Fontaine, Intimate Virginiana: a century of Maury family travels by land and sea. Richmond, Virginia: Dietz Press, 1941. Appleton's Encyclopedia, vol. 4, p. 266 An Englishwoman in America, free.pdf book The Statesmen of America in 1846, free.pdf book
An energy crisis is any significant bottleneck in the supply of energy resources to an economy. In literature, it refers to one of the energy sources used at a certain time and place, in particular those that supply national electricity grids or those used as fuel in Industrial development and population growth have led to a surge in the global demand for energy in recent years. In the 2000s, this new demand — together with Middle East tension, the falling value of the U. S. dollar, dwindling oil reserves, concerns over peak oil, oil price speculation — triggered the 2000s energy crisis, which saw the price of oil reach an all-time high of $147.30 a barrel in 2008. Most energy crisis have been caused by localized shortages and market manipulation; some have argued that government actions like tax hikes, nationalisation of energy companies, regulation of the energy sector, shift supply and demand of energy away from its economic equilibrium. However, the recent historical energy crisis listed below were not caused by such factors.
Market failure is possible. A crisis can develop due to industrial actions like union organized strikes and government embargoes; the cause may be over-consumption, aging infrastructure, choke point disruption or bottlenecks at oil refineries and port facilities that restrict fuel supply. An emergency may emerge during cold winters due to increased consumption of energy. Large fluctuations and manipulations in future derivatives can have a substantial impact on price. Large investment banks control 80% of oil derivatives as of May 2012, compared to 30% only a decade ago; this increase contributed to an improvement of global energy output from 117 687 TWh in 2000 to 143 851TWh in 2008. Limitations on free trade for derivatives could reverse this trend of growth in energy production. Kuwaiti Oil Minister Hani Hussein stated that "Under the supply and demand theory, oil prices today are not justified," in an interview with Upstream. Pipeline failures and other accidents may cause minor interruptions to energy supplies.
A crisis could emerge after infrastructure damage from severe weather. Attacks by terrorists or militia on important infrastructure are a possible problem for energy consumers, with a successful strike on a Middle East facility causing global shortages. Political events, for example, when governments change due to regime change, monarchy collapse, military occupation, coup may disrupt oil and gas production and create shortages. Fuel shortage can be due to the excess and useless use of the fuels. 1970s energy crisis - caused by the peaking of oil production in major industrial nations and embargoes from other producers 1973 oil crisis - caused by an OAPEC oil export embargo by many of the major Arab oil-producing states, in response to Western support of Israel during the Yom Kippur War 1979 oil crisis - caused by the Iranian Revolution 1990 oil price shock - caused by the Gulf War The 2000–2001 California electricity crisis - Caused by market manipulation by Enron and failed deregulation.
North American natural gas crisis 2000-2008 2004 Argentine energy crisis North Korea has had energy shortages for many years. Zimbabwe has experienced a shortage of energy supplies for many years due to financial mismanagement. Political riots occurring during the 2007 Burmese anti-government protests were sparked by rising energy prices. 2000s energy crisis - Since 2003, a rise in prices caused by continued global increases in petroleum demand coupled with production stagnation, the falling value of the U. S. dollar, a myriad of other secondary causes. 2008 Central Asia energy crisis, caused by abnormally cold temperatures and low water levels in an area dependent on hydroelectric power. At the same time the South African President was appeasing fears of a prolonged electricity crisis in South Africa."Mbeki in pledge on energy crisis". Financial Times. Retrieved 2008-02-10. In February 2008 the President of Pakistan announced plans to tackle energy shortages that were reaching crisis stage, despite having significant hydrocarbon reserves.
In April 2010, the Pakistani government announced the Pakistan national energy policy, which extended the official weekend and banned neon lights in response to a growing electricity shortage. South African electrical crisis; the South African crisis led to large price rises for platinum in February 2008 and reduced gold production. China experienced severe energy shortages towards the end of 2005 and again in early 2008. During the latter crisis they suffered severe damage to power networks along with diesel and coal shortages. Supplies of electricity in Guangdong province, the manufacturing hub of China, are predicted to fall short by an estimated 10 GW. In 2011 China was forecast to have a second quarter electrical power deficit of 44.85 - 49.85 GW. Nepal experienced severe energy crisis in 2015. Nepal faced the shortages of various kinds of petroleum products and food materials which affected on Nepal's economy; the Gaza electricity crisis is a result of the tensions between Hamas, who rules the Gaza Strip, the Palestinian Authority/Fatah, who rules the West Bank over custom tax revenue, funding of the Gaza Strip, political authority.
Residents receive electricity for a few hours a day on a rolling blackout schedule. “Peak oil” is the period when the maximum rate of global petroleum extraction is reached, after which the rate of production enters terminal decline. It relates to a long-term decline in the availabl
Gressitt Glacier is a broad glacier, about 45 nautical miles long, draining the area between the Daniels Range and the Emlen Peaks in the Usarp Mountains of Victoria Land and flowing northeast to enter the Rennick Glacier just north of the Morozumi Range. This geographical feature was first mapped by the United States Geological Survey from surveys and U. S. Navy air photos, 1960–63, was so named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names for biologist J. Linsley Gressitt, Program Director, who made biological studies in the Ross Sea area, during six austral summers, 1959–60 to 1965–66; the glacier lies situated on the Pennell Coast, a portion of Antarctica lying between Cape Williams and Cape Adare. Gressitt Glacier on USGS website Gressitt Glacier on the Antarctica New Zealand Digital Asset Manager website Gressitt Glacier on AADC website Gressitt Glacier on SCAR website Gressitt Glacier distance calculator This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Gressitt Glacier"
Patrice Émery Lumumba was a Congolese politician and independence leader who served as the first Prime Minister of the independent Democratic Republic of the Congo from June until September 1960. He played a significant role in the transformation of the Congo from a colony of Belgium into an independent republic. Ideologically an African nationalist and Pan-Africanist, he led the Congolese National Movement party from 1958 until his assassination. Shortly after Congolese independence in 1960, a mutiny broke out in the army, marking the beginning of the Congo Crisis. Lumumba appealed to the United States and the United Nations for help to suppress the Belgian-supported Katangan secessionists led by Moise Tshombe. Both refused, so Lumumba turned to the Soviet Union for support; this led to growing differences with President Joseph Kasa-Vubu and chief-of-staff Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, as well as with the United States and Belgium, who opposed the Soviet Union in the Cold War. Lumumba was subsequently imprisoned by state authorities under Mobutu and executed by a firing squad under the command of Katangan authorities.
Following his assassination, he was seen as a martyr for the wider Pan-African movement. In 2002, Belgium formally apologised for its role in the assassination. Patrice Lumumba was born on 2 July 1925 to a farmer, François Tolenga Otetshima, his wife Julienne Wamato Lomendja, in Onalua in the Katakokombe region of the Kasai province of the Belgian Congo, he was born with the name Élias Okit ` Asombo. His original surname means "heir of the cursed" and is derived from the Tetela words okitá/okitɔ́ and asombó, he had one half-brother. Raised in a Catholic family, he was educated at a Protestant primary school, a Catholic missionary school, the government post office training school, where he passed the one-year course with distinction. Lumumba spoke Tetela, Lingala and Tshiluba. Outside of his regular studies, Lumumba took an interest in the Enlightenment ideals of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Voltaire, he was fond of Molière and Victor Hugo. He wrote poetry, many of his works had an anti-imperialist theme.
He worked as a traveling beer salesman in Léopoldville and as a postal clerk in a Stanleyville Post Office for eleven years. In 1951, he married Pauline Opangu. In the period following World War II, young leaders across Africa worked for national goals and independence from the colonial powers. In 1955, Lumumba became regional head of the Cercles of Stanleyville and joined the Liberal Party of Belgium, he distributed party literature. After a study tour in Belgium in 1956, he was arrested on charges of embezzlement of $2500 from the post office, he was convicted and sentenced one year to twelve months imprisonment and a fine. After his release, Lumumba helped found the Mouvement National Congolais party on 5 October 1958, became the organization's leader; the MNC, unlike other Congolese parties developing at the time, did not draw on a particular ethnic base. It promoted a platform that included independence, gradual Africanisation of the government, state-led economic development, neutrality in foreign affairs.
Lumumba had a large popular following, due to his personal charisma, excellent oratory, ideological sophistication. As a result, he had more political autonomy than contemporaries who were more dependent on Belgian connections. Lumumba was one of the delegates who represented the MNC at the All-African Peoples' Conference in Accra, Ghana, in December 1958. At this international conference, hosted by Ghanaian President Kwame Nkrumah, Lumumba further solidified his Pan-Africanist beliefs. Nkrumah was impressed by Lumumba's intelligence and ability. In late October 1959, Lumumba, as leader of the MNC, was arrested for inciting an anti-colonial riot in Stanleyville, he was sentenced to 69 months in prison. The trial's start date of 18 January 1960 was the first day of the Congolese Round Table Conference in Brussels, intended to make a plan for the future of the Congo. Despite Lumumba's imprisonment, the MNC won a convincing majority in the December local elections in the Congo; as a result of strong pressure from delegates upset by Lumumba's trial, he was released and allowed to attend the Brussels conference.
The conference culminated on 27 January with a declaration of Congolese independence. It set 30 June 1960 as the independence date with national elections to be held from 11–25 May 1960; the MNC won a plurality in the election. Six weeks before the date of independence, Walter Ganshof van der Meersch was appointed as the Belgian Minister of African Affairs, he lived in Léopoldville, in effect becoming Belgium's de facto resident minister in the Congo, administering it jointly with Governor-general Hendrik Cornelis. He was charged with advising Baudouin on the selection of a formateur. On 8 June Ganshof flew to Brussels to meet with Baudouin, he made three suggestions for formateur: Lumumba, as the winner of the elections. Ganshof returned to the Congo on 12 June; the following day he appointed Lumumba to be informateur, tasked with investigating the possibility of forming a national unity government that included politicians with a wide range of views, with 16 June as his deadline. The same day as Lumumba's appointment