Australian Book Review
Australian Book Review is an Australian arts and literary review. Created in 1961, ABR is an independent non-profit organisation that publishes articles, commentaries and new writing; the aims of the magazine are'to foster high critical standards, to provide an outlet for fine new writing, to contribute to the preservation of literary values and a full appreciation of Australia's literary heritage'. Australian Book Review was established by Max Harris and Rosemary Wighton as a monthly journal in Adelaide, Australia, in 1961. In 1971 production was reduced to quarterly releases, lapsed in 1974. In 1978 the journal was revived by the National Book Council and, moving to Melbourne, began producing ten issues per year. ABR is in partnership with Monash University and Flinders University, supported by various organisations including the Australia Council for the Arts, Creative Victoria, Arts SA, Copyright Agency Limited. 1961 to 1974 - Geoffrey Dutton, Max Harris and Rosemary Wighton 1978 to 1986 - John McLaren 1986 to 1987 - Kerryn Goldsworthy 1988 - Louise Adler 1989 to 1995 - Rosemary Sorensen 1995 to 2000 - Helen Daniel 2001 to present day - Peter Rose The Calibre Essay Prize is given annually.
The prize, first awarded in 2007, is worth a total of A$7,500. The prize is open to authors around the world writing in English. ABR accepts entries from published authors commentators, emerging writers. All non-fiction subjects are eligible. 2007 - Elisabeth Holdsworth: An die Nachgenborenen: For Those Who Come After 2008 - Rachel Robertson: Reaching One Thousand and Mark Tredinnick: A Storm and a Teacup 2009 - Kevin Brophy: "What're yer looking at yer fuckin' dog": Violence and Fear in Žižek's Post-political Neighbourhood and Jane Goodall: Footprints 2010 - Lorna Hallahan: On being Odd and David Hansen: Seeing Truganini 2011 - Dean Biron: The Death of the Writer and Moira McKinnon: Who Killed Matilda? 2012 - Matt Rubinstein: Body and Soul: Copyright and Law Enforcement in the Age of the Electronic Book 2013 - Martin Thomas: "Because it's your country": Bringing Back the Bones to West Arnhem Land 2014 - Christine Piper: Unearthing the past 2015 - Sophie Cunningham: Staying with the trouble 2016 - Michael Winkler: The Great Red Whale 2017 - Michael Adams: Salt Blood Australian Book Review established its annual Poetry Prize in 2005, in 2011 renamed it the Peter Porter Poetry Prize in memory of the Australian poet Peter Porter.
The Prize is one of Australia's most lucrative awards for poetry. Winning and short-listed entries are published in ABR. To date, Judith Bishop is the only poet to win the prize twice; the prize is open to poets around the world writing in English. Entrants can submit a single poem of no more than 75 lines. Multiple entries are permitted, all poems are judged anonymously. 2005: Stephen Edgar: Man on the Moon 2006: Judith Bishop: Still Life with Cockles and Shells 2007: Alex Skovron:Sanctum 2008: Ross Clark:"Danger: Lantana 2009: Tracy Ryan: Lost Property 2010: Anthony Lawrence: Domestic Emergencies 2011: Judith Bishop:'Openings' and Tony Lintermans: Self-portrait at Sixty 2012: Michael Farrell: Beautiful Mother 2013: John A. Scott: Four Sonnets 2014: Jessica L. Wilkinson: Arrival Platform Humlet 2015: Judith Beveridge: As Wasps Fly Upwards 2016: Amanda Joy: Tailings 2017: Louis Klee: Sentence to Lilacs and Damen O'Brien: pH Australian Book Review revived its annual short story competition in 2010, in 2011 renamed it the ABR Elizabeth Jolley Short Story Prize in memory of the late Australian writer, Elizabeth Jolley.
The total prize money is now $12,500. The prize is open to authors around the world writing in English. 2010: Maria Takolander: A Roānkin Philosophy of Poetry 2011: Carrie Tiffany: Before He Left the Family Gregory Day: The Neighbour's Beans 2012: Sue Hurley: Patterns in Nature 2013: Michelle Michau-Crawford: Leaving Elvis 2014: Jennifer Down: Aokigahara 2015: Rob Magnuson Smith: The Elector of Nossnearly 2016: Josephine Rowe: Glisk 2017: Eliza Robertson: Pheidippides 2018: Madelaine Lucas: Ruin In 2012, Australian Book Review launched an extension of its coverage of Australian culture, Arts Update, now known as ABR Arts. It presents reviews of film and television, operas, concerts and art exhibitions. In 2015, Australian Book Review launched two podcasts: Poem of The ABR Podcast. ABR's Fellowship program began in 2011. Funded by ABR's patrons and by philanthropic foundations, the Fellowship program is intended to reward Australian writers. Most ABR Fellowships are now worth $7,500. Patrick Allington, "What is Australia, anyway?"
The glorious limitations of the Miles Franklin Literary Award Rachel Buchanan, Sweeping Up the Ashes Felicity Plunkett, Sound Bridges: A Profile of Gurrumul Jennifer Lindsay, Man on the Margins Ruth Starke, Media Don: A political enigma in pink shorts Kerryn Goldsworthy, Everyone's a Critic Helen Ennis, Olive Cotton at Spring Forest: The modernist photographer at Spring Forest Arthur Furhrmann, Patrick White: A theatre of his own Danielle Clode, Seeing the wood for the trees James McNamara, The Golden Age of Television? Shannon Burns, The scientist of his own experience: A Profile of Gerald Murnane Ashley Hay, The forest at the edge of time Michael Aiken, extract from Satan Repentant Alan Atkinson, How Do We Live With Ourselves? The Australian National Conscience Philip Jones, Beyond Songlines Stephen Orr, Ambassadors from Another Time Elisabeth Holdsworth, If This Is A Jew Marguerite Johnson, "Picnic at Hanging Rock" fifty years on Australian Book Review
Adaptive bitrate streaming
Adaptive bitrate streaming is a technique used in streaming multimedia over computer networks. While in the past most video or audio streaming technologies utilized streaming protocols such as RTP with RTSP, today's adaptive streaming technologies are exclusively based on HTTP and designed to work efficiently over large distributed HTTP networks such as the Internet, it works by detecting a user's bandwidth and CPU capacity in real time and adjusting the quality of the media stream accordingly. It requires the use of an encoder; the player client switches between streaming the different encodings depending on available resources. "The result: little buffering, fast start time and a good experience for both high-end and low-end connections."More and as the implementations in use today are, adaptive bitrate streaming is a method of video streaming over HTTP where the source content is encoded at multiple bit rates each of the different bit rate streams are segmented into small multi-second parts.
The streaming client is made aware of the available streams at differing bit rates, segments of the streams by a manifest file. When starting, the client requests the segments from the lowest bit rate stream. If the client finds the download speed is greater than the bit rate of the segment downloaded it will request the next higher bit rate segments. If the client finds the download speed for a segment is lower than the bit rate for the segment, therefore the network throughput has deteriorated it will request a lower bit rate segment; the segment size can vary depending on the particular implementation, but they are between two and ten seconds. Post-production houses, content delivery networks and studios use adaptive bit rate technology in order to provide consumers with higher quality video using less manpower and fewer resources; the creation of multiple video outputs for adaptive bit rate streaming, adds great value to consumers. If the technology is working properly, the end user or consumer's content should play back without interruption and go unnoticed.
Media companies have been using adaptive bit rate technology for many years now and it has become standard practice for high-end streaming providers. Traditional server-driven adaptive bitrate streaming provides consumers of streaming media with the best-possible experience, since the media server automatically adapts to any changes in each user's network and playback conditions; the media and entertainment industry benefit from adaptive bitrate streaming. As the video space grows, content delivery networks and video providers can provide customers with a superior viewing experience. Adaptive bitrate technology requires additional encoding, but simplifies the overall workflow and creates better results. HTTP-based adaptive bitrate streaming technologies yield additional benefits over traditional server-driven adaptive bitrate streaming. First, since the streaming technology is built on top of HTTP, contrary to RTP-based adaptive streaming, the packets have no difficulties traversing firewall and NAT devices.
Second, since HTTP streaming is purely client-driven, all adaptation logic resides at the client. This reduces the requirement of persistent connections between client application. Furthermore, the server is not required to maintain session state information on each client, increasing scalability. Existing HTTP delivery infrastructure, such as HTTP caches and servers can be seamlessly adopted. A scalable CDN is used to deliver media streaming to an Internet audience; the CDN receives the stream from the source at its Origin server replicates it to many or all of its Edge cache servers. The end-user is redirected to the "closest" Edge server; this can be tested using libdash and the Distributed DASH dataset, which has several mirrors across Europe and the US. The use of HTTP-based adaptive streaming allows the Edge server to run a simple HTTP server software, whose licence cost is cheap or free, reducing software licensing cost, compared to costly media server licences; the CDN cost for HTTP streaming media is similar to HTTP web caching CDN cost.
Adaptive bit rate over HTTP was created by the DVD Forum at the WG1 Special Streaming group in October 2002. The group was co-chaired by Toshiba and Phoenix Technologies, The expert group count with the collaboration of Microsoft, Apple Computer, DTS Inc. Warner Brothers, 20th Century Fox, Digital Deluxe, Disney and Akamai; the technology was called DVDoverIP and was an integral effort of the DVD ENAV book. The concept came from storing MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 DVD TS Sectors into small 2KB files, which will be served using an HTTP server to the player; the MPEG-1 segments provided the lower bandwidth stream, while the MPEG-2 provided a higher bit rate stream. The original XML schema provided a simple playlist of bit rates and url servers; the first working prototype was presented to the DVD Forum by Phoenix Technologies at the Harman Kardon Lab in Villingen Germany. Adaptive bit rate streaming was introduced by Move Networks and is now being developed and utilized by Adobe Systems, Apple and Octoshape.
In October 2010, Move Networks was awarded a patent for their adaptive bit rate streaming. MPEG-DASH is the only adaptive bit-rate HTTP-based streaming solution, an international standard MPEG-DASH technology was developed under MPEG. Work on DASH started in 2010.
Decentralized wastewater system
Decentralized wastewater systems convey and dispose or reuse wastewater from small communities and dwellings in remote areas, individual public or private properties. Wastewater flow is generated when appropriate water supply is available within the buildings or close to them. Decentralized wastewater systems treat, reuse or dispose the effluent in close vicinity to its source of generation, they have the purpose to protect public health and the natural environment by reducing health and environmental hazards. They are referred as "decentralized wastewater treatment systems" because the main technical challenge is the adequate choice of a treatment and/or disposal facility. A used acronym for decentralized wastewater treatment system, is DEWATS. Centralized wastewater systems are the most applied in well-developed urban environments and the oldest approach to the solution of the problems associated with wastewater, they collect wastewater in large and bulk pipeline networks referred as sewerage, which transport it at long distances to one or several treatment plants.
Storm water can be collected in a separate storm water drains. The latter consists of two separate pipeline systems, one for the wastewater and one for the storm water; the treated effluent is disposed in different ways, most discharged into natural water bodies. The treated effluent may be used for beneficial purposes and in this case it is referred as reclaimed water; the main difference between decentralized and centralized systems is in the conveyance structure. In decentralized systems the treatment and disposal or reuse of the effluent is close to the source of generation; this results in some cases limited only to one pipeline. The size of the network allows for applications of different conveyance methods, in addition to the well-known gravity sewers, such as pressurized sewers and vacuum sewers; the quantity of the effluent is characterized by significant fluctuations. In locations with developed infrastructure, decentralized wastewater systems could be a viable alternative of the conventional centralized system in cases of upgrading or retrofitting existing systems.
Many different combinations and variations of hybrid systems are possible. The development of new treatment technologies allows for decentralized solutions, which are technically and aesthetically sound and acceptable. Decentralized applications are a necessity in cases of new urban developments, where the construction of the infrastructure is not ready or will be executed in future. In many countries and locations, the infrastructure development is executed years after the housing development. In such cases decentralized wastewater facilities are considered as a temporary solution, but they are mandatory, in order to prevent public health and ecological problems. Decentralized systems allow for flow separation or source separation, which segregates different types of wastewater, based on their origin, such as: black water and urine; this approach requires separate parallel pipeline/plumbing systems to convey the segregated flows and the purpose is to apply different level of treatment and handling of each flow and to enhance the safe reuse and disposal of the end products.
In the specific case of developing countries, where localities with poor infrastructure are common, decentralized wastewater treatment has been promoted extensively because of the possibility to apply technologies with low operation and maintenance requirements. In addition, decentralized approaches require smaller scale investments, compared to centralized solutions. Based on the size of the served area, different scales of decentralization could be found: Decentralization at the level of a suburb or satellite township in an urban area – these systems could be defined as small centralized systems when applied to small towns or rural communities, but if they are applied only to selected suburbs or districts in medium or large population centres, with existing centralized system, the whole system could be defined as a hybrid system, where decentralization is applied to parts of the whole drained area. Decentralization at the level of a neighbourhood – this category includes clusters of homes, gated communities, small districts and areas, which are served by vacuum sewers.
Decentralization at “on-site” level – in these cases the whole system lays within one property and serves one or several buildings. Treatment/disposal facilities requiring effluent infiltration: they are applied at on-site level and are adequate because of the low wastewater quantity generated. However, they require suitable soil conditions, permitting infiltration of the excess water, low ground water table. If not applied properly, they may be a serious source of ground water pollution. Pit latrines are applied when the water supply is scarce and wastewater flow can hardly be generated, they are the most common sanitation technique in under-developed areas. Septic tanks are the most common on-site treatment technology used, which can be applied where an adequate water supply is available and the soil/groundwater conditions are acceptable. Treatment facilities resembling natural purification processes: their application requires significant surface area, because of the slow pace of the biological processes applied.
For the same reason they are more suitable for warmer climates, because the rate of the purification process is temperature dependent. These technologies are more resilient to fluctuating loads and do not require complex maintenance and operation. Con
Addison Brown was a United States federal judge. Brown was born in West Newbury and graduated from Amherst College in 1849 and Harvard University in 1852, he married his first wife, Mary C. Barrett, on January 1, 1856, he married Hellen Carpenter Gaskin, with whom he had four children. Admitted to the bar of New York in 1855, Brown was in private practice of law in New York City until 1881, when he was appointed judge of the U. S. District Court for the Southern District of New York. Brown received a recess appointment from James A. Garfield on June 2, 1881, to a seat vacated by W. G. Choate, he was formally nominated by Chester A. Arthur on October 12, 1881, was confirmed by the United States Senate on October 14, received commission the same day, his judicial opinions, upward of 1800 in number, dealing with the law of shipping, admiralty and bankruptcy, are included in Volumes 8 through 115 of The Federal Reporter. He retired August 30, 1901. Judge Brown gained a reputation as a botanist. In 1875, he joined the Torrey Botanical Club of New York and was an active member for many years, serving as president from 1893 - 1905.
In his role as president, Brown served on the Botanical Garden Committee and is recognized as one of the founders of the New York Botanical Garden in 1891. Brown wrote many notes for the publications of the Torrey Botanical Club and published the following works: Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada The Elgin Botanical Garden and its Relation to Columbia College and the New Hampshire Grants He left a bequest for the annual publishing of a botanical magazine, subsequently called Addisonia, devoted to plants from the United States and its territorial possessions or flowering in the New York Botanical Garden or its conservatories, he died in New York. He is interred in a grandiose sarcophagus at Woodlawn Cemetery in Bronx, NY. Lomatogonium Addison Brown at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "article name needed". New International Encyclopedia.
New York: Dodd, Mead. Media related to Addison Brown at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Addison Brown at Wikispecies Works by or about Addison Brown at Internet Archive Britton, Nathaniel. An illustrated flora of the northern United States and the British Possessions From Newfoundland to the Parallel of the Southern Boundary of Virginia, from the Atlantic Ocean Westward to the 102d Meridian. Volume III, Apocynacea to Compositae. Charles Scribner's Sons. P. 643 pages. Retrieved 2008-06-24. Britton, Nathaniel. An illustrated flora of the northern United States and the British Possessions From Newfoundland to the Parallel of the Southern Boundary of Virginia, from the Atlantic Ocean Westward to the 102d Meridian. Volume II, Amaranthaceae to Loganiaceae. Charles Scribner's Sons. P. 2052 pages. Retrieved 2008-05-10. Britton, Nathaniel Lord. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and the British Possessions From Newfoundland to the Parallel of the Southern Boundary of Virginia, from the Atlantic Ocean Westward to the 102d Meridian.
Volume III Gentianaceae to Compositae -- Gentian to Thistle. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Retrieved 2008-06-17
August Burns Red
August Burns Red is an American metalcore band from Lancaster, Pennsylvania formed in 2003. The band's current lineup consists of vocalist Jake Luhrs, rhythm guitarist Brent Rambler, lead guitarist John Benjamin "JB" Brubaker and keyboardist Dustin Davidson, drummer Matt Greiner; the band was nominated for a Grammy Award in 2016 for Best Metal Performance for the song "Identity" from its 2015 release Found in Far Away Places, again in 2018 for "Invisible Enemy" from their most recent studio album Phantom Anthem. In 2018, the Christmas EP Winter Wilderness was released. August Burns Red was founded in March 2003; the original practice sessions of the band began in drummer, Matt Greiner's old egg house and basement on the Greiner family's farmland. After playing many local shows within Lancaster, they recorded their first EP, titled Looks Fragile After All with label CI Records in 2004. Vocalist Jon Hershey quit the band during the same year, which led to Josh McManness taking on the position as lead singer.
After several months of playing with McManness, August Burns Red signed to Solid State Records in 2005. Hershey would go on to form post-rock band Bells. August Burns Red released Thrill Seeker, their first full-length album, on November 8, 2005. In 2006, drummer Matt Greiner was endorsed by Truth Custom Drums following the release of the album. McManness departed from the band in 2006, just after one tour, he was replaced with SC resident Jake Luhrs. Bassist Jordan Tuscan left the band in 2006 for similar reasons as McManness, he was replaced by a friend of the band. The band's second album, was released on June 19, 2007. Marking the debut for Luhrs fronting the group, it became the band's breakthrough album, reaching number 81 on the Billboard 200; the album has sold a total of 108,000 copies as of May 2011. Throughout 2008, August Burns Red toured with several acts across North America and Europe to promote Messengers. From April to May they toured with As I Lay Dying and Misery Signals across the United States and Canada.
In September and October of that same year, they headlined a tour with A Skylit Drive, Sky Eats Airplane, Greeley Estates, This or the Apocalypse in the United States. The band visited Europe for a month-long headlining tour in November, playing in Germany, Norway, The United Kingdom, Republic Of Ireland, Northern Ireland, Belgium, The Netherlands, Czech Republic and France. After this series of tours, the band recorded two covers of popular songs, they recorded an instrumental version of the classic song, "Carol of the Bells" for the X Christmas compilation album, featured in trailers for the film, The Spirit, released Christmas Day 2008. They recorded a cover of "... Baby One More Time" by pop singer Britney Spears for the Punk Goes Pop 2 compilation album, released in March 2009. On February 24, 2009, the band released an EP, entitled Lost Messengers: The Outtakes, it contains material, related or was decided not to be included in the final, mastered version of Messengers. August Burns Reds' first trip to the Middle East took place on March 6, 2009 with the band playing at the Dubai Desert Rock Festival.
The band's last tour before their next album release took place in the United States, where they toured with metalcore band All That Remains throughout April and May. To promote their upcoming album, August Burns Red released several new tracks and a music video during June 2009; the tracks Thirty and Seven and Ocean of Apathy were all released on the 15th, 21st, 29th, respectively. A music video for the song Meddler was released during this month. On July 7, a week before the album's release, August Burns Red began streaming the full album on their Myspace profile for a limited time. August Burns Red released their third full-length album, Constellations, on July 14, 2009. During the week of August 1, 2009, the album charted at spot 24 on the Billboard 200. Another United States tour was organized with August Burns Red headlining and support from Blessthefall, Enter Shikari, All Shall Perish, Iwrestledabearonce. After this tour, the band joined a short tour in Australia with Architects in support of Australian band Parkway Drive.
August Burns Red toured alongside Emery in November and December 2009 as well. The band released their first live CD/DVD, Home, on September 28, 2010; the group co-headlined an Alternative Press tour throughout November. On February 23, 2010, Constellations was nominated for the Dove Award for "Best Rock Album". August Burns Red toured New Zealand in December 2010 on the No Sleep Til Festival; the band played alongside Parkway Drive, A Day to Remember, NOFX, Dropkick Murphys, Suicide Silence, Descendents and many others. On July 27, 2010, Brubaker stated that the band would be taking time off tour to write their next record, On February 12, 2011, the band announced via their official Facebook page that they had finished writing their new record and that they would be entering the studio on Valentine's Day. In March 2011, the band announced that the record was finished, that it was time for mixing. On April 5, 2011, August Burns Red revealed the name of the record as Leveler. On May 16, 2011, the band released the song "Empire" as a preview before its release.
They later premiered three other songs: "Internal Cannon", "Divisions", "Poor Millionaire", on May 31, June 6, June 14, respectively. Leveler was released on June 2011 in two forms; the deluxe version of Leveler contains four extra songs, including an acoustic version of the song "Internal Cannon". The album sold well compared to th