Android (operating system)
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google. It is based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software, is designed for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. In addition, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, Wear OS for wrist watches, each with a specialized user interface. Variants of Android are used on game consoles, digital cameras, PCs and other electronics. Developed by Android Inc. which Google bought in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007, with the first commercial Android device launched in September 2008. The operating system has since gone through multiple major releases, with the current version being 9 "Pie", released in August 2018. Google released the first Android Q beta on all Pixel phones on March 13, 2019; the core Android source code is known as Android Open Source Project, is licensed under the Apache License. Android is associated with a suite of proprietary software developed by Google, called Google Mobile Services that frequently comes pre-installed in devices, which includes the Google Chrome web browser and Google Search and always includes core apps for services such as Gmail, as well as the application store and digital distribution platform Google Play, associated development platform.
These apps are licensed by manufacturers of Android devices certified under standards imposed by Google, but AOSP has been used as the basis of competing Android ecosystems, such as Amazon.com's Fire OS, which use their own equivalents to GMS. Android has been the best-selling OS worldwide on smartphones since 2011 and on tablets since 2013; as of May 2017, it has over two billion monthly active users, the largest installed base of any operating system, as of December 2018, the Google Play store features over 2.6 million apps. The name Andrew and the noun Android share the Greek root andros. Andy Rubin picked android.com as his personal website, his colleagues used Android as his nickname at work. That became the name of the company he founded, the name of the operating system they developed. Android Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California, in October 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, Chris White. Rubin described the Android project as "tremendous potential in developing smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner's location and preferences".
The early intentions of the company were to develop an advanced operating system for digital cameras, this was the basis of its pitch to investors in April 2004. The company decided that the market for cameras was not large enough for its goals, by five months it had diverted its efforts and was pitching Android as a handset operating system that would rival Symbian and Microsoft Windows Mobile. Rubin had difficulty attracting investors early on, Android was facing eviction from its office space. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope, shortly thereafter wired an undisclosed amount as seed funding. Perlman refused a stake in the company, has stated "I did it because I believed in the thing, I wanted to help Andy."In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc. for at least $50 million. Its key employees, including Rubin and White, joined Google as part of the acquisition. Not much was known about the secretive Android at the time, with the company having provided few details other than that it was making software for mobile phones.
At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system. Google had "lined up a series of hardware components and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation". Speculation about Google's intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006. An early prototype had a close resemblance to a BlackBerry phone, with no touchscreen and a physical QWERTY keyboard, but the arrival of 2007's Apple iPhone meant that Android "had to go back to the drawing board". Google changed its Android specification documents to state that "Touchscreens will be supported", although "the Product was designed with the presence of discrete physical buttons as an assumption, therefore a touchscreen cannot replace physical buttons". By 2008, both Nokia and BlackBerry announced touch-based smartphones to rival the iPhone 3G, Android's focus switched to just touchscreens.
The first commercially available smartphone running Android was the HTC Dream known as T-Mobile G1, announced on September 23, 2008. On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC, Motorola and Samsung, wireless carriers such as Sprint and T-Mobile, chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop "the first open and comprehensive platform for mobile devices". Within a year, the Open Handset Alliance faced two other open source competitors, the Symbian Foundation and the LiMo Foundation, the latter developing a Linux-based mobile operating system like Google. In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony. Since 2008, Android has seen numerous updates which have incrementally improved the operating system, adding new features and fixing bugs in previous releases.
Each major release is named in alphabetical order after a dessert or sugary treat, with the first few Android versions being called "Cupcake", "Donut"
The Voice of the Philippines
The Voice of the Philippines is a Filipino reality television singing competition on ABS-CBN. It is based on the reality singing competition The Voice of Holland, created by Dutch television producer John de Mol as part of The Voice franchise. Toni Gonzaga has been hosting the show since the first season. Both are accompanied by Robi Domingo and Alex Gonzaga who serves as the show's V-Reporters or the social media and backstage correspondents. Sarah Geronimo, Bamboo Mañalac, Lea Salonga, apl.de.ap serve as the four coaches and the judging panel of the show. The show first aired on June 15, 2013, has aired for two seasons, it is the fourth national franchise in the Southeast Asian region after Vietnam and Indonesia. The series is part of The Voice franchise and is based on a similar competition format in the Netherlands entitled The Voice of Holland; the Voice is a reality television series that started from a format originating from the Netherlands named "The Voice of Holland". The whole format features four coaches or judges searching for a batch of talented new artists, who could become the Philippines' new singing superstar.
The show's concept is indicated by its title: The four coaches will only judge a singer hopeful termed by the show as "Artist" with only his or her vocal talent without prejudice to his/her physical bearing. It is this concept that makes The Voice franchise rise above other known reality talent searches which airs in any known media platform such as The X Factor franchise, the Got Talent franchise or the Idol franchise; the artists who have advanced from the audition round would be split into four teams, whom are coached/mentored by the 4 well-known personalities in terms of singing which in the show, termed "Coaches" who in turn would collaborate with them and choose songs for their artists to perform. Only 16 years old and above can participate. There are four known different stages: Producers' auditions, Blind auditions, the Battles, the Live shows; as for any "The Voice" franchise, the first stage is the producers' auditions, which are not shown on television. In the Voice of the Philippines, ABS-CBN headed by their regional partners nationwide and abroad are tasked to conduct the "Unseen Auditions."
At this stage, there will be different judges that will use the power of media to conduct three types of screening. The first televised stage is the blind auditions, where artists will be given a minimum of 90 seconds to sing their audition piece; the official coaches of the show will be sitting on a chair facing away from the artist. The coaches will only judge by the power, clarity and uniqueness of the artists singing capability. If they like what they hear and want to mentor the artist for the next stage, they will push a button on their chair that would turn the chair around to face the artists for the first time; this concept was created to avoid any due prejudice of their physical life-story. If a coach turns for an artist, that artist will be included in his/her team. If more than one coach turns around, the choice to pick a who will he/she be mentored goes to the artist. If no coach turns his/her chair the auditioning artist's journey ends. At the end, each of the coaches will have a certain number of artists in his or her team who will be advancing to the next round.
The next stage called "The Battles," is where a coach will build from his team pairs of 2. A pair will be given a single song to sing together, they are developed by their respective coach in the process. A vocal showdown will commence in the Battle stage where only the artist whom the coach deemed sung the song assigned better will advance to the next round; the power to steal a losing artist from the other teams was implemented in the second season. In this new twist, a coach can steal two artists during the entire the Battles. Along with the'steals' in the Battles, the Knockouts was a new addition to the format of the show starting from the second season; each artist had to sing to pick them for the Live shows. Each artist will decide. At the end of this round, six artists per team will moved to the Live shows; the next round known as the "Live shows" is where the remaining artists per team perform in front the coaches and Live Broadcast. An artist will be given a song to sing for a chance to advance to the finals.
During the first two Live shows, each coach will pit three of his/her artists in a head-to-head battle to win the public's vote. The voting results are announced on the same night as the live shows; the coaches have the power to save one artist. The artist not chosen by their coach will be eliminated from the competition. At the end of the first two Live shows, only four artists per team will proceed. From the third and fourth live shows, the public and the coaches will have equal share of power on which artist would advance to the final four, with each team being represented by one remaining artist. During the finals, the winner will only be decided upon by the public through different platforms; the most voted artist of the competition will be crowned as The Voice of the Philippines. The voting system for the Live shows is based on the decision of the pu
The Voice Kids (Philippine TV series)
The Voice Kids is a Philippine reality singing television competition on ABS-CBN. It is based on the Dutch reality singing competition of the same name; the show aired on May 24, 2014. The original coaches of the show is composed of Lea Salonga, Bamboo Mañalac, Sarah Geronimo. Geronimo was replaced by Sharon Cuneta, it is hosted by Luis Manzano, together with Alex Gonzaga for the first season and Robi Domingo and Yeng Constantino for the second season. On the third season, Kim Chiu joins Manzano and Domingo on the hosting duties, replacing Constantino, it is the third national franchise in the Southeast Asian region after Vietnam. The series is part of franchise and is based on a similar competition format in the Netherlands with the same name; the Voice Kids is a reality television series that started from a format originating from the Netherlands with the same, a spin-off of the main series The Voice of Holland. The whole format features three coaches or judges searching for a batch of talented new kids, who could become the Philippines' new child singing superstar.
The show's concept is indicated by its title: The 3 coaches will only judge a singer hopeful termed by the show as "Artist" with only his/her vocal talent without prejudice to his/her physical bearing. It's with this concept that makes The Voice franchise rise above other known reality talent searches which airs in any known media platform such as The X Factor franchise, the Got Talent franchise or the Idol franchise; the lucky Artists who have advanced from the audition round would be split into three teams, whom are mentored by three well-known personalities in terms of singing which in the show, termed "coaches" who in turn would collaborate with them and choose songs for their artists to perform. Only kids ages eight to fourteen years-old can participate. There are five known different stages: Producers' auditions, Blind auditions, the Battles, the Sing-offs, the Live shows; as for any The Voice franchise the first stage is the producers' auditions, which are not shown on television. In the Voice of the Philippines, ABS-CBN headed by their regional partners nationwide and abroad are tasked to conduct the "Unseen Auditions."
At this stage, there will be different judges that will use the power of media to on-ground auditions where the team will travel in and out of the country to find the best of the best to participate in the next set of auditions, "The Blind Auditions." The first televised stage is the blind auditions, where artists will be given a minimum of ninety seconds to sing their audition piece. The official coaches of the show will be sitting on a chair facing away from the artist; the coaches will only judge by the power, clarity and uniqueness of the artists singing capability. If they like what they hear and want to mentor the artist for the next stage, they will push a button on their chair that would turn the chair around to face the artists for the first time; this concept was created to avoid any due prejudice of their physical life-story. If a coach turns for an artist, that artist will be included in his/her team. If more than one coach turns around, the choice to pick a who will he/she be mentored goes to the artist.
If no coach turns his/her chair the auditioning artist's journey ends. At the end, each of the coach will have a certain number of artists in his or her team who will be advancing to the next round; the second stage called "The Battles," is where a coach will build his team for "The Sing-offs". A coach will group his artists into groups of three. Per group, they will be given a single song to sing together, they are developed by their respective coach in the process. A vocal showdown will commence in the Battle stage where only the artist whom the coach deemed sung the song assigned better will advance to the next round; the third stage called "The Sing-offs," is a added round in the local franchise. It is similar to "The Sing-offs" of The Voice Kids of the Netherlands where each coach will pick only a certain number of artists in order to advance to the semi-finals. After "the Sing-offs", the artists will go directly to the Live shows, which will be the semifinal round. Only an elite group of finalists voted by the public will advance to the finals.
On November 18, 2013, Lauren Dyogi, the franchise's business unit head, announced on Twitter that there will be a kids version of The Voice of the Philippines. The franchise was launched after the success of the first season of the main version which had garnered high ratings and was trending topic online. Auditions schedule were announced in the same month. On March 9, 2014, the show released its first teaser. On March 17, 2014, the production team of the program started to provide updates of the filming of the Blind auditions, posting teasers of the new improved set and chairs and of the coaches in the show's official social media accounts. A second teaser was aired on April 2, 2014. A new season was announced last February 18, 2015; the first open call auditions was held on November 23, 2013 at Metro Gaisano Pacific Mall in Mandaue and was open to kids aged 8 to 14 years old. It was followed by an audition held on December 2013 at the Newport Mall in Resorts World Manila. In 2014, auditions for the Visayas and Metro Manila were held on January 11, 18, 25 respectively.
A separate audition for Luzon was held on February 1. The auditions for the second season will be held on March 7, 2015 at the Araneta Coliseum in Quezon City. Other auditions will be held at several key cities on a yet to be announced dates. For this season
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, academic and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies; the Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web, electronic mail and file sharing. Some publications no longer capitalize "internet"; the origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s; the funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, the merger of many networks.
The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was used by academia since the 1980s, commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into every aspect of modern life. Most traditional communication media, including telephony, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, video streaming websites. Newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators; the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "brick and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or sell goods and services online.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The Internet has no single centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force, a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today's list of New Seven Wonders; when the term Internet is used to refer to the specific global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, the word is a proper noun that should be written with an initial capital letter.
In common use and the media, it is erroneously not capitalized, viz. the internet. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, but not capitalized when used as an adjective; the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. As early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, meaning interconnected or interwoven; the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are used interchangeably in everyday speech. However, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. As another point of comparison, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is the language used on the Web for information transfer, yet it is just one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet.
The term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. Research into packet switching, one of the fundamental Internet technologies, started in the early 1960s in the work of Paul Baran and Donald Davies. Packet-switched networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, the Merit Network, CYCLADES, Telenet were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s; the ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. ARPANET development began with two network nodes which were interconnected between the Network Measurement Center at the University of California, Los Angeles Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science directed by Leonard Kleinrock, the NLS system at SRI International by Douglas Engelbart in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969; the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of
It's Showtime (TV program)
It's Showtime is a Philippine noontime variety show that premiered on October 24, 2009, on ABS-CBN. The show broadcasts from the ABS-CBN Studios at the ABS-CBN Broadcasting Center in Quezon City; the show airs Weekdays from 12:15 pm to 3:45 pm, Saturdays from 12:00 pm to 3:30 pm, with an encore telecast on Jeepney TV every Monday-Saturday from 8:15 pm to 11:00 pm, starting on June 11. The show broadcast worldwide through TFC or known as The Filipino Channel and live streaming online on YouTube via its channel Showtime Online Universe. It's Showtime is the second live entertainment program in the Philippines to be broadcast in high-definition; the program is ABS-CBN's longest-running daily noontime variety show after MTB. On October 24, 2009, Showtime premiered as a morning competition program, airing before the network's noontime shows, served as the replacement for Pilipinas, Game Ka Na Ba? following its successful 8-year run. The original cast consisted of Vhong Navarro, Anne Curtis, Kim Atienza, Jugs Jugueta, Teddy Corpuz, Vice Ganda as the permanent judge.
During the third season, the show added evicted judges Billy Crawford and Karylle as hosts. In its first four seasons Showtime's competition format was that three groups, each made up of two to twenty-five members, perform a single performance, either a song and/or dance number. After the group's performance, the judges give a collective "no" to the group. If the judges give a "yes", the group is considered part of the main contest, with the judges' scores of the group's performance included in the calculation of the winner. A "no" means exclusion of the group from the main contest; this segment was removed during season 2. In season 3, during the February 16, 2011, episode the segment returned, but with no random selection. Instead the group automatically performs on stage; the group with the highest average score from the judges proceeds to the weekly finals. All winners throughout the whole week perform in the weekly finals. Whoever wins in the weekly finals gets the chance to compete in the monthly finals.
Lastly, all the monthly finalists compete in the season's grand finals. Aside from the talent competition, Showtime aired quick, short-term segments that offer cash prizes to the studio audience; the show was moved temporarily to the noontime slot on January 1, 2011, before returning to its original timeslot on February 12, 2011 to give way for Happy Yipee Yehey! The show aired a special episode on January 28, 2012 to end its two-year competition format as Showtime with an impartial farewell; the program was reformatted as a noontime variety show, It's Showtime, on February 6, 2012. It's Showtime was aired on Studio 23 and CgeTV's website during its relaunch week. Showtime ended its pre-noontime slot run on January 28, 2012, to prepare for a reformat as a noontime variety show which premiered On February 6, 2012, in its new timeslot, 11:30 am, replacing former noontime program Happy Yipee Yehey!. The show retained all of its hosts, including Vice Ganda, while adding former judges Jhong Hilario, Ryan Bang and Coleen Garcia.
Eric Tai was added as a new host during the pilot episode. It's Showtime aired new long-term segments, while the competitive format returned once again as one of its segments; the competitive format was used for season five. To cater to the entire family audience, a new competition called Bida Kapamilya was introduced on April 30, 2012, as season six. Throughout the run of Bida Kapamilya, It's Showtime added Joy Rendon and Rhed Bustamante as part of the cast. Amy Perez and Mariel Rodriguez were added to the show's main hosts on January 2, 2016, after serving their stints as guest co-hosts. In December 2015, Coleen Garcia was dropped from the program because of her acting career and was replaced by Joey Marquez. Meanwhile, Eric "Eruption" Tai left the show to focus on his sports career and married life. Jhong Hilario temporarily left the show on March 2016 to run for councilor in Makati City. James Reid and Nadine Lustre were introduced on May 2017 as co-hosts for a brief period of time. Mariel Rodriguez returned on June 2018 after a two-year-long break.
In October 2018, It's Showtime launched its own YouTube channel Showtime Online Universe. Three digital programs premiered on the channel: And I Thank You with Miss Q and A grand winner Juliana Parizcova Segovia. Showtime Online Universe is the home to the online show Showtime Online. In January 2019, Showtime Online Universe received the Silver Creator Award after getting 100,000 channel subscribers; the show spawned its first international franchise in Indonesia. It's Showtime Indonesia was premiered on MNCTV on March 25, 2019. It's Showtime became ABS-CBN's first non-narrative format to be franchised by another country. Hilario once again left the show to run for reelection as councilor in Makati City. Vice Ganda Vhong Navarro Anne Curtis Billy Crawford Karylle Teddy Corpuz Jugs Jugueta Jhong Hilario Ryan Bang Amy Perez Mariel Rodriguez Dubbed as "your all-time favorite search for outstanding amateur talents," Tawag ng Tanghalan is an amateur singing competition open to Filipino contenders from Metro Manila, Visayas and key cities overseas.
This is the second revival of the singing competition, following ABS-CBN's versions in 1953 and 1987. The segment airs
Information technology is the use of computers to store, retrieve and manipulate data, or information in the context of a business or other enterprise. IT is considered to be a subset of communications technology. An information technology system is an information system, a communications system or, more speaking, a computer system – including all hardware and peripheral equipment – operated by a limited group of users. Humans have been storing, retrieving and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed writing in about 3000 BC, but the term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review. We shall call it information technology." Their definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs. The term is used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones.
Several products or services within an economy are associated with information technology, including computer hardware, electronics, internet, telecom equipment, e-commerce. Based on the storage and processing technologies employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of IT development: pre-mechanical, electromechanical, electronic; this article focuses on the most recent period, which began in about 1940. Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years initially in the form of a tally stick; the Antikythera mechanism, dating from about the beginning of the first century BC, is considered to be the earliest known mechanical analog computer, the earliest known geared mechanism. Comparable geared devices did not emerge in Europe until the 16th century, it was not until 1645 that the first mechanical calculator capable of performing the four basic arithmetical operations was developed. Electronic computers, using either valves, began to appear in the early 1940s.
The electromechanical Zuse Z3, completed in 1941, was the world's first programmable computer, by modern standards one of the first machines that could be considered a complete computing machine. Colossus, developed during the Second World War to decrypt German messages, was the first electronic digital computer. Although it was programmable, it was not general-purpose, being designed to perform only a single task, it lacked the ability to store its program in memory. The first recognisably modern electronic digital stored-program computer was the Manchester Baby, which ran its first program on 21 June 1948; the development of transistors in the late 1940s at Bell Laboratories allowed a new generation of computers to be designed with reduced power consumption. The first commercially available stored-program computer, the Ferranti Mark I, contained 4050 valves and had a power consumption of 25 kilowatts. By comparison the first transistorised computer, developed at the University of Manchester and operational by November 1953, consumed only 150 watts in its final version.
Early electronic computers such as Colossus made use of punched tape, a long strip of paper on which data was represented by a series of holes, a technology now obsolete. Electronic data storage, used in modern computers, dates from World War II, when a form of delay line memory was developed to remove the clutter from radar signals, the first practical application of, the mercury delay line; the first random-access digital storage device was the Williams tube, based on a standard cathode ray tube, but the information stored in it and delay line memory was volatile in that it had to be continuously refreshed, thus was lost once power was removed. The earliest form of non-volatile computer storage was the magnetic drum, invented in 1932 and used in the Ferranti Mark 1, the world's first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer. IBM introduced the first hard disk drive as a component of their 305 RAMAC computer system. Most digital data today is still stored magnetically on hard disks, or optically on media such as CD-ROMs.
Until 2002 most information was stored on analog devices, but that year digital storage capacity exceeded analog for the first time. As of 2007 94% of the data stored worldwide was held digitally: 52% on hard disks, 28% on optical devices and 11% on digital magnetic tape, it has been estimated that the worldwide capacity to store information on electronic devices grew from less than 3 exabytes in 1986 to 295 exabytes in 2007, doubling every 3 years. Database management systems emerged in the 1960s to address the problem of storing and retrieving large amounts of data and quickly. One of the earliest such systems was IBM's Information Management System, still deployed more than 50 years later. IMS stores data hierarchically, but in the 1970s Ted Codd proposed an alternative relational storage model based on set theory and predicate logic and the familiar concepts of tables and columns; the first commercially available relational database management system was available from Oracle in 1981. All database management systems consist of a number of components that together allow the data they store to be accessed simultan
Massively multiplayer online role-playing game
Massively multiplayer online role-playing games are a combination of role-playing video games and massively multiplayer online games in which a large number of players interact with one another within a virtual world. As in all RPGs, the player assumes the role of a character and takes control over many of that character's actions. MMORPGs are distinguished from single-player or small multi-player online RPGs by the number of players able to interact together, by the game's persistent world, which continues to exist and evolve while the player is offline and away from the game. MMORPGs are played throughout the world. Worldwide revenues for MMORPGs exceeded half a billion dollars in 2005, Western revenues exceeded a billion dollars in 2006. In 2008, the spending on subscription MMORPGs by consumers in North America and Europe grew to $1.4 billion. World of Warcraft, a popular MMORPG, has over 10 million subscribers as of November 2014. World of Warcraft's total revenue was $1.04 billion US dollars in 2014.
Star Wars: The Old Republic, released in 2011, became the world's'Fastest-Growing MMOG Ever' after gaining more than 1 million subscribers within the first three days of its launch. Although modern MMORPGs sometimes differ from their predecessors, many of them share the same basic characteristics; these include several common features: persistent game environment, some form of level progression, social interaction within the game, in-game culture, system architecture, membership in a group, character customization. The majority of popular MMORPGs are based on traditional fantasy themes occurring in an in-game universe comparable to that of Dungeons & Dragons; some employ hybrid themes that either merge or replace fantasy elements with those of science fiction and sorcery, or crime fiction. Still, others draw thematic material from American comic books, the occult, other genres; these elements are developed using similar tasks and scenarios involving quests and loot. In nearly all MMORPGs, the development of the player's character is the primary goal.
Nearly all MMORPGs feature a character progression system, in which players earn experience points for their actions and use those points to reach character "levels", which makes them better at whatever they do. Traditionally, combat with monsters and completing quests for non-player characters, either alone or in groups, are the primary ways to earn experience points; the accumulation of wealth is a way to progress in many MMORPGs. This is traditionally best accomplished via combat; the cycle produced by these conditions, combat leading to new items allowing for more combat with no change in gameplay, is sometimes pejoratively referred to as the level treadmill, or "grinding". The role-playing game Progress Quest was created as a parody of this trend. Eve Online trains skills in real time rather than using experience points as a measure of progression. In some MMORPGs, there is no limit to a player's level, allowing the grinding experience to continue indefinitely. MMORPGs that use this model glorify top ranked players by displaying their avatars on the game's website or posting their stats on a high score screen.
Another common practice is to enforce a maximum reachable level for all players referred to as a level cap. Once reached, the definition of a player's progression changes. Instead of being awarded with experience for completing quests and dungeons, the player's motivation to continue playing will be replaced with collecting money and equipment; the widened range of equipment available at the maximum level will have increased aesthetic value to distinguish high ranking players in game between lower ranked players. Colloquially known as endgame gear, this set of empowered weapons and armor adds a competitive edge to both scripted boss encounters as well as player vs player combat. Player motivation to outperform others is fueled by acquiring such items and is a significant determining factor in their success or failure in combat-related situations. MMORPGs always have tools to facilitate communication between players. Many MMORPGs offer support for in-game guilds or clans, though these will form whether the game supports them or not.
In addition, most MMOGs require some degree of teamwork in parts of the game. These tasks require players to take on roles in the group, such as protecting other players from damage, "healing" damage done to other players or damaging enemies. MMORPGs have Game Moderators or Game Masters, who may be paid employees or unpaid volunteers who attempt to supervise the world; some GMs may have additional access to features and information related to the game that are not available to other players and roles. Relationships formed in MMORPGs can be just as intense as relationships formed between friends or partners met outside the game, involve elements of collaboration and trust between players. Most MMORPGs provide different types of classes. Among those classes, a small portion of players choose to roleplay their characters, there are rules that provide functionality and content to those who do. Community resources such as forums and guides exist in support of this play style. For example, if a player wants to play a priest role in his MMORPG world, he might buy a cope from a shop and learn priestly skills, proceeding to speak and interact with others as their character would.
This may not include pursuing other goals such as wealth or experience. Guilds or similar groups with a focus on roleplaying may develop extended in-depth n