Aspect ratio (image)
The aspect ratio of an image describes the proportional relationship between its width and its height. It is expressed as two numbers separated by a colon, as in 16:9. For an x:y aspect ratio, no matter how big or small the image is, if the width is divided into x units of equal length and the height is measured using this same length unit, the height will be measured to be y units. For example, in a group of images that all have an aspect ratio of 16:9, one image might be 16 inches wide and 9 inches high, another 16 centimeters wide and 9 centimeters high, a third might be 8 yards wide and 4.5 yards high. Thus, aspect ratio concerns the relationship of the width to the height, not an image's actual size; the most common aspect ratios used today in the presentation of films in cinemas are 1.85:1 and 2.39:1. Two common videographic aspect ratios are 4:3, the universal video format of the 20th century, 16:9, universal for high-definition television and European digital television. Other cinema and video aspect ratios are used infrequently.
In still camera photography, the most common aspect ratios are 4:3, 3:2, more found in consumer cameras, 16:9. Other aspect ratios, such as 5:3, 5:4, 1:1, are used in photography as well in medium format and large format. With television, DVD and Blu-ray Disc, converting formats of unequal ratios is achieved by enlarging the original image to fill the receiving format's display area and cutting off any excess picture information, by adding horizontal mattes or vertical mattes to retain the original format's aspect ratio, by stretching the image to fill the receiving format's ratio, or by scaling by different factors in both directions scaling by a different factor in the center and at the edges. In motion picture formats, the physical size of the film area between the sprocket perforations determines the image's size; the universal standard is a frame, four perforations high. The film itself is 35 mm wide, but the area between the perforations is 24.89 mm × 18.67 mm, leaving the de facto ratio of 4:3, or 1.3:1.
With a space designated for the standard optical soundtrack, the frame size reduced to maintain an image, wider than tall, this resulted in the Academy aperture of 22 mm × 16 mm or 1.375:1 aspect ratio. The motion picture industry convention assigns a value of 1.0 to the image's height. After 1952, a number of aspect ratios were experimented with for anamorphic productions, including 2.66:1 and 2.55:1. A SMPTE specification for anamorphic projection from 1957 standardized the aperture to 2.35:1. An update in 1970 changed the aspect ratio to 2.39:1. This aspect ratio of 2.39:1 was confirmed by the most recent revision from August 1993. In American cinemas, the common projection ratios are 1.85:1 and 2.39:1. Some European countries have 1.6:1 as the wide screen standard. The "Academy ratio" of 1.375:1 was used for all cinema films in the sound era until 1953. During that time, which had a similar aspect ratio of 1.3:1, became a perceived threat to movie studios. Hollywood responded by creating a large number of wide-screen formats: CinemaScope, Todd-AO, VistaVision to name just a few.
The "flat" 1.85:1 aspect ratio was introduced in May 1953, became one of the most common cinema projection standards in the U. S. and elsewhere. The goal of these various lenses and aspect ratios was to capture as much of the frame as possible, onto as large an area of the film as possible, in order to utilize the film being used; some of the aspect ratios were chosen to utilize smaller film sizes in order to save film costs while other aspect ratios were chosen to use larger film sizes in order to produce a wider higher resolution image. In either case the image was squeezed horizontally to fit the film's frame size and avoid any unused film area. Development of various film camera systems must cater to the placement of the frame in relation to the lateral constraints of the perforations and the optical soundtrack area. One clever wide screen alternative, VistaVision, used standard 35 mm film running sideways through the camera gate, so that the sprocket holes were above and below frame, allowing a larger horizontal negative size per frame as only the vertical size was now restricted by the perforations.
There were a limited number of projectors constructed to run the print-film horizontally. However, the 1.50:1 ratio of the initial VistaVision image was optically converted to a vertical print to show with the standard projectors available at theaters, was masked in the projector to the US standard of 1.85:1. The format was revived by Lucasfilm in the late 1970s for special effects work that required larger negative size, it went into obsolescence due to better cameras and film stocks available to standard four-perforation formats, in addition to increased lab costs of making prints in comparison to more standard vertical processes. Super 16 mm film was used for televisi
ABS-CBN (TV network)
ABS-CBN is a Filipino commercial broadcast television network, the flagship property of ABS-CBN Corporation, a company under the Lopez Group. The network is headquartered at the ABS-CBN Broadcasting Center in Quezon City, with additional offices and production facilities in 25 major cities including Baguio, Bacolod, Iloilo and Davao. ABS-CBN is formally referred to as "The Kapamilya Network"; this was introduced in 1999 and was introduced in 2003 during the celebration of its 50th anniversary. It is the largest television network in the country in terms of revenues and international coverage. ABS-CBN is the oldest television broadcaster in Southeast Asia and one of the oldest commercial television broadcasters in Asia, it is the leading television network in the Philippines with advertising revenues of 21.2 billion pesos for the fiscal year of 2015. ABS-CBN's first television broadcast was on October 23, 1953, as Alto Broadcasting System on DZAQ-TV, just 3 months after the first broadcast of Japan's NHK General TV and Nippon Television.
It is the first television network in Southeast Asia to broadcast in color, the first television network in the Philippines to formally launch a digital terrestrial television service, the first broadcast television network in the Philippines to formally launch in high-definition. Today, the flagship television station of ABS-CBN is DWWX-TV; the network operates across the Philippine archipelago through the ABS-CBN Regional division which controls 80 television stations. Its programs are available outside the Philippines through the global subscription television channel The Filipino Channel, now available in over three million paying households worldwide as well as terrestrially in Guam through KEQI-LP. Since 2011, the network is on test broadcast for digital terrestrial television using the Japanese standard ISDB-T in select areas in the Philippines. On October 3, 2015, ABS-CBN started to broadcast in high-definition through its affiliate direct-to-home cable and satellite television providers.
ABS-CBN traces its history to the first Philippine television station DZAQ-TV, owned by Bolinao Electronics Corporation, renamed Alto Broadcasting System. James Lindenberg, the owner of BEC, was the first to apply for a license to the Philippine Congress to establish a television station in 1949, his request was granted on June 14, 1950, under Republic Act 511. Because of the strict import controls and the lack of raw materials needed to open a TV station in the Philippines during the mid-20th century, Lindenberg branched to radio broadcasting instead. Judge Antonio Quirino, brother of former President Elpidio Quirino tried to apply for a license to Congress, but was denied, he purchased stocks from BEC and subsequently consummated the controlling stock to rename the company from BEC to Alto Broadcasting System. DZAQ-TV began commercial television operations on October 23, 1953; the first program to air was a garden party at the Quirino residence in San Juan. After the premiere telecast, the station followed a four-hour-a-day schedule, from six to ten in the evening.
In 1955, Manila Chronicle owner Eugenio Lopez, Sr. and former Vice President Fernando Lopez, acquired a radio-TV franchise from the Congress and established Chronicle Broadcasting Network in 1956, which focused only on radio broadcasting. On February 24, 1957, Lopez invited Judge Quirino to his house for breakfast and ABS was bought under a contract written on a table napkin; the corporate name was reverted to Bolinao Electronics Corporation after the purchase of ABS. With the establishment of DZXL-TV 9 of CBN in April 19, 1958, the Lopez brothers controlled both television channels in the archipelago, culminating in the first wave of expansion; the monopoly in television was broken in 1960, when DZTV-TV 13 was established by the Inter-Island Broadcasting Corporation, owned by Dick Baldwin. In 1961, BEC launched the nation's first provincial television station in Cebu City. In the same year, BEC merged ABS and CBN to form the ABS-CBN network, a brand name that would become official in a few years.
In 1966, ABS-CBN became the first TV network to broadcast certain shows in color by using the American NTSC standard and by December 18, 1968, ABS-CBN opened its present-day Broadcast Center complex in Bohol Avenue, Quezon City, moving from its Roxas Boulevard studios, opened in 1958. It was among the most advanced broadcasting facility of its kind in Asia. Full-color broadcasts began in 1971 on ABS-CBN 2 with the availability of more color television sets around Manila and neighboring municipalities and cities. In 1967, the company was renamed ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation; this company became the formal merger of the two stations DZAQ-TV 3 and DZXL-TV 9. In 1969, DZAQ-TV transferred to channel 2, while its sister station DZXL-TV transferred to channel 4; this frequency adjustment was done to make room for Kanlaon Broadcasting System or KBS to occupy the channel 9 frequency. ABS-CBN sold its headquarters and studios in Roxas Boulevard to KBS; when then-President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law in 1972, the station was forced, along with its regional stations and other television networks to shut down, with the co
A mobile device is a computing device small enough to hold and operate in the hand. Any handheld computer device will have an LCD or OLED flatscreen interface, providing a touchscreen interface with digital buttons and keyboard or physical buttons along with a physical keyboard. Many such devices can connect to the Internet and interconnect with other devices such as car entertainment systems or headsets via Wi-Fi, cellular networks or near field communication. Integrated cameras, digital media players, the ability to place and receive telephone calls, video games, Global Positioning System capabilities are common. Power is provided by a lithium battery. Mobile devices may run mobile operating systems that allow third-party apps specialized for said capabilities to be installed and run. Early smartphones were joined in the late 2000s by larger, but otherwise the same, tablets. Input and output is now via a touch-screen interface. Phones/tablets and personal digital assistants may provide much of the functionality of a laptop/desktop computer but more conveniently, in addition to exclusive features.
Enterprise digital assistants can provide additional business functionality such as integrated data capture via barcode, RFID and smart card readers. By 2010, mobile devices contained sensors such as accelerometers and gyroscopes, allowing detection of orientation and motion. Mobile devices may provide biometric user authentication such as face recognition or fingerprint recognition. Major global manufacturers of mobile devices are Apple, Sony, Google, HTC, LG, Motorola Mobility and Nokia. Device mobility can be viewed in the context of several dimensions: Physical dimensions and weight Whether or not the device is mobile or some kind of host to which it is attached to is mobile What kind of host devices can be bound to How devices are attached to a host When the mobility occursStrictly speaking, many so-called mobile devices are not mobile, it is the host, mobile, i.e. a mobile human host carries a non-mobile smartphone device. An example of a true mobile computing device, where the device itself is mobile, is a robot.
Another example is an autonomous vehicle. There are three basic ways mobile devices can be physically bound to mobile hosts: accompanied, surface-mounted or embedded into the fabric of a host, e.g. an embedded controller embedded in a host device. Accompanied refers to an object being loosely bound and accompanying a mobile host, e.g. a smartphone can be carried in a bag or pocket but can be misplaced. Hence, mobile hosts with embedded devices such as an autonomous vehicle can appear larger than pocket-sized; as stated earlier, the most common size of mobile computing device is pocket-sized that can be hand-held, but other sizes for mobile devices exist, too. Mark Weiser, known as the father of ubiquitous computing, computing everywhere, referred to device sizes that are tab-sized and board sized, where tabs are defined as accompanied or wearable centimetre-sized devices, e.g. smartphones, pads are defined as hand-held decimetre-sized devices, e.g. laptops. If one changes the form of the mobile devices in terms of being non-planar, one can have skin devices and tiny dust-sized devices.
Dust refers to miniaturised devices without direct HCI interfaces, e.g. micro electro-mechanical systems, ranging from nanometres through micrometers to millimetres. See Smart dust. Skin: fabrics based upon light emitting and conductive polymers and organic computer devices; these can be formed into more flexible non-planar display surfaces and products such as clothes and curtains, see OLED display. See smart device. Although mobility is regarded as synonymous with having wireless connectivity, these terms are different. Not all network access by mobile users and devices need be via wireless networks and vice versa. Wireless access devices can be static and mobile users can move in between wired and wireless hotspots such as in Internet cafés; some mobile devices can be used as mobile Internet devices to access the Internet while moving but they do not need to do this and many phone functions or applications are still operational while disconnected to the Internet. What makes the mobile device unique compared to other technologies is the inherent flexibility in the hardware and the software.
Flexible applications include Web browsing, payment systems, NFC, audio recording etc.. As mobile devices become ubiquitous there, will be a proliferation of services which include the use of the cloud. Although a common form of mobile device, a smartphone, has a display, another even more common form of smart computing device, the smart card, e.g. used as a bank card or travel card, does not have a display. This mobile device has a CPU and memory but needs to connect, or be inserted into a reader in order to display its internal data or state. There are many kinds of mobile devices, designed for different applications; this includes: Mobile computers Mobile Internet devices Tablets/Smartphones Laptops Wearable computers Calculator watches Smartwatches Head-mounted displays Personal digital assistants Enterprise digital assistants Graphing calculators Handheld game consoles Portable media players Calculators Ultra-mobile PCs Digital media player Digital still cameras Digital video cameras or digital camcorders Feature phones Pagers Personal navigation devices Smart cards Handheld devices have become ruggedized for use in mobile field management.
Uses include digitizing notes and receiving invoices, asset management, recording signatures, managing parts, scanning barcodes. In 2009, developments in mobile collaboration systems enabled the use of handheld d
Sarah Asher Tua Geronimo is a Filipino singer, model and brand ambassador. Born and raised in Santa Cruz, Geronimo started a career in music at the age of 14 after winning the television singing contest Star for a Night, she signed with music label Viva Records and rose to fame with the release of her debut album Popstar: A Dream Come True which became a multi-platinum record. Her contributions to music and film made her one of the most celebrated Filipino entertainers of the 2000s and 2010s. Geronimo's music was categorized as pop until the release of her tenth studio album Expressions, when she added R&B and dance into her style. Following a crossover in musical form, she achieved two consecutive Album of the Year prize from Awit Awards for Perfectly Imperfect and "The Great Unknown". Geronimo began her television career with ABS-CBN in 2004, she appeared in projects such as ASAP, Bituing Walang Ningning, Sarah G. Live! and a coach in The Voice of the Philippines. She ventured into mainstream cinema and is best known for playing the lead role in the films: A Very Special Love, You Changed My Life and It Takes a Man and a Woman.
She received Box-office Queen titles from GMMSF Box-Office Entertainment Awards for each of these films and two nominations of FAMAS Award for Best Actress respectively. Throughout her career, Geronimo has received 12 Awit Awards, 8 Aliw Awards, 28 Myx Music Awards and a FAMAS Golden Artist Award. Sarah Asher Tua Geronimo was born on July 25, 1988 in Santa Cruz, Philippines to Delfin Geronimo, a retired PLDT employee, Divina Tua, who ran a beauty salon in their house, she is the third of four children. She started singing publicly at age two. At the age of four, she was accompanied by her mother to join auditions for different television programs. Geronimo became part of the shows Penpen De Sarapen, Ang TV and NEXT, she has played as an extra in the movie Sarah... Ang Munting Prinsesa. In between auditions, Geronimo would perform at shopping malls and hotel lounges. Geronimo age 7, was one of the performers during the 1995 visit of Pope John Paul II. Geronimo at an early age joined different singing contests the first of, Tuklas Talino sponsored by the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company.
In 2002, Geronimo competed on the television singing contest Star for a Night aired in IBC. At the age of fourteen, she won the grand prize that included PHP 1 million and a managerial contract from Viva Entertainment. Geronimo released her first album Popstar: A Dream Come True in 2003, her acting debut was a supporting role in the film Filipinas. She had another supporting role in Captain Barbell. Still managed by VIVA, Geronimo signed a TV contract with ABS-CBN network in 2004, she starred in her first television series, Sarah the Teen Princess and became a regular host and performer on the variety show ASAP. Geronimo again had supporting roles in the films Masikip sa Dibdib, Annie B. and Lastikman: Unang Banat. Geronimo sang the Philippine National Anthem at the pre-inaugural ceremonies of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on June 30, 2004. In November 2004, Geronimo released her second album, Sweet Sixteen that included the single "How Could You Say You Love Me". Geronimo performed in the Night of the Champions concert at the Araneta Coliseum with other singing competition winners Rachelle Ann Go and Erik Santos.
In 2005, Geronimo joined the cast of the teen-oriented television program SCQ Reload: Kilig Ako and hosted two seasons of the singing competition show Little Big Star. On September 30, 2005, Geronimo staged a solo concert at Araneta Coliseum entitled The Other Side. In 2006, Geronimo starred in ABS-CBN's primetime soap opera, Bituing Walang Ningning, a remake of the 1985 movie, she played the role of an aspiring singer named Dorina Pineda played by Sharon Cuneta in the movie, released a soundtrack of the series. In July 2006, Geronimo release her third studio album, produced by Christian De Walden; the album yielded three singles: "I Still Believe In Loving You", "Carry My Love" and "Iingatan Ko Ang Pag-ibig Mo". On November 18, 2006, Manny Pacquiao chose Geronimo to sing Lupang Hinirang, the Philippine national anthem, before his match against Mexico's Erik Morales at the Thomas and Mack Center in Las Vegas. Geronimo staged her second major solo concert "In Motion" on July 2007 at the Araneta Coliseum.
Unlike her first solo concert, this concert went off with no technical glitches. She spent the rest of 2007 performing concerts in the Philippines and the U. S. and recording her fourth studio album, Taking Flight, which sold more than 60,000 units and achieved double platinum status. In the latter half of 2007, Geronimo appeared in her third television series for ABS-CBN, Pangarap Na Bituin. In early 2008, Geronimo reunited with Erik Santos, Rachelle Ann Go, Christian Bautista in a Valentine's Day concert at the Araneta Coliseum, entitled "OL4LUV". Before Geronimo released her fifth studio album, she released I'll Be There as the fourth single from Taking Flight. On July 30, 2008, Geronimo starred with Filipino actor John Lloyd Cruz in A Very Special Love, produced by Star Cinema and VIVA films and grossed ₱180 million; the movie opened with ₱ 14 million pesos and Isah V. Red of The Manila Standard Today said, "This only proves that the new generation of Filipino movie audience is ready for their own screen heroine, not someone passed on to them by their parents or grandparents.
Geronimo included a track from the film, "A Very Specia
Dongles were created in the 1970s to protect computer software which would function only if the dongle was plugged in – see the "History" section below. The term is now used generically for any sort of small device or adapter plugged into a computer, games console, TV or other system. For example: WiFi adapters, Bluetooth adapters, USB "sticks" or "drives", are referred to as dongles. Other devices include digital media players such as Amazon Fire TV Stick, Roku Streaming Stick and Intel Compute Stick; the first software protection dongle was invented and named in 1978 by Graham Heggie, Pete Dowson and Mike Lake to protect the Wordcraft word processor running on the Commodore PET. It consisted of a 74LS165 shift register connected to the external cassette port on the rear of the PET; the 8 data lines of the shift register were connected at random to ground or 5V and Pete Dowson wrote obfuscated assembler routines to waggle a clock line to the shift register and shift bits in from it on another line.
The 255 random combinations were considered sufficient protection at that time. The same design was used to protect Wordcraft and other software products on 25 pin parallel, 25 pin serial and 9 pin serial ports on a variety of microcomputers including the IBM PC; the name dongle arose because a strip of Veroboard was dangling from wires connected to the cassette port of a Commodore PET on Graham Heggie's kitchen table when the device was first created. "Dangle" became "dongle" after a brief "what shall we call it?" session. The first dongles closed off the use of the port for other purposes so pass-through dongles were developed to attach to the parallel port of the IBM PC to allow normal operation of the printer. Note: IBM used a DB-25 way parallel connector, not the original 36 way Centronics connector – though the word "Centronics" had by become a generic name for parallel ports; the CD-based parts catalog used by Volkswagen Group since 2000 requires a coded dongle be plugged into a host computer's port in order to run.
Some professional digital audio workstation packages on the Atari TOS platform required the presence of the supplied dongle in the computer's cartridge port in order to run. Steinberg's Cubase range and C-Lab's Creator and Notator packages send data to the dongle, which sends a response determined by the electronics inside the cartridge; some unlicensed game cartridges have a "daisy chain" that allows licensed games to pass along their authorization, for instance to circumvent the 10NES chip on the Nintendo Entertainment System. Small devices that plug into other equipment to add functionality are referred to as dongles. MHL. A dongle enables adaptation to legacy standards such as HDMI via conversion circuitry contained in the dongle itself. MHL dongles allow USB connections and/or device charging as well. Short cables that connect large jacks to smaller plugs allowing cables to be installed and removed from equipment with limited space available for connectors; the Chromecast device mentioned above, for example, comes with a short HDMI extension cable to allow its use in cramped quarters.
Some devices come with a permanently attached length of cable that negates the need for a short adapter cable. Cassette adapters enable cassette-radios to allow AUX in, like with iPod/MP3 player/smartphone/portable CD player. Personal FM transmitters allow content from a portable media player, portable CD player, portable cassette player, or other portable audio system to be heard on an FM radio. IDE/PATA connectivity can be re-channeled with some dongles: Floppy disk drives have been emulated on solid-state "dongles" to ensure legacy recognition, allowing SD cards to serve software to old Commodore 64 and Apple II era computers. Allows SD cards to be recognized as "hard drives" on old DOS computers Old school video game consoles: The Everdrive series of game cartridges has enabled classic systems such as the Sega Mega Drive and Nintendo 64 to allow one cartridge to have a number of games that were on multiple cartridges of their own, by use of an SD card with ROMs on them; the Sega 32X was an add-on for the Sega Megadrive which allowed a 32-bit library of games to play on a system, just 16-bit, though it suffered from having its own video output, its own AC adapter in order to work.
The Nintendo DS had a secondary cartridge port to act as a dongle for several games. USB host connectivity grants more flexibility to computer-based devices Bluetooth legacy game controllers have special adapters SD card readers Flash drives Surfstick with SIM card enabling LTE, UMTS, HSUPA and EDGE mobile broadband Older cars that "externalized" their CD players and changers from the head unit can now use "emulators" that allow USB and SD cards with MP3s and other audio files to be recognized as "tracks" to the CD control unit circuitry. Adapter
Digital television adapter
A digital television adapter known as a converter box, is a television tuner that receives a digital television transmission, converts the digital signal into an analog signal that can be received and displayed on an analog television set. The input digital signal may be over-the-air terrestrial television signals received by a television antenna, or signals from a digital cable system, it does not refer to satellite TV, which has always required a set-top box either to operate the big satellite dish, or to be the integrated receiver/decoder in the case of direct-broadcast satellites. In North America, these ATSC tuner boxes convert from ATSC to NTSC, while in most of Europe and other places such as Australia, they convert from Digital Video Broadcasting to PAL; because the DTV transition did nothing to reduce the number of broadcast television system standards, due to varying frequency allocations and bandplans, there are many other combinations specific to other countries. On June 12, 2009, all full-power analog television transmissions ended in the United States.
Viewers who watch broadcast television on older analog TV sets must use a DTA. Since many of the low-power TV stations will continue to broadcast in analog for years to come, consumers who watch low-power stations will need an adapter with an analog passthrough feature that allows the viewer to watch both digital and analog signals. Viewers who receive their television signals through cable or satellite were not affected by this change and did not need a digital television adapter. Additionally, viewers who have newer televisions with built-in digital ATSC tuners will not need an external digital television adapter; the United States government had set up a program to offer consumers a $40 "coupon" which could be used toward the purchase of a coupon-eligible converter box. At the Consumer Electronics Association's Entertainment Technology Policy Summit in January 2006, Federal Communications Commission Commissioner Jonathan Adelstein said many Americans did not know about the February 17, 2006, deadline for ending analog TV.
Furthermore, he said, too many people were still buying analog TV sets, meaning more demand for converter boxes. And if people found out what they would have to do, converter boxes might not do the job adequately. Tribune Broadcasting chief technology officer Ira Goldstone said just buying a converter box did not mean getting the latest technology. Bob Seidel of CBS said companies might use cheaper tuners, people would need new television antennas for proper reception. Circuit City Chairman Alan McCollough opposed converter boxes, saying people should just buy digital TVs, television networks should offer only widescreen-format television programming as an incentive to do that. Prototypes of the first converter boxes appeared at the NAB show in 2006. LG Electronics, which took over Zenith Electronics in 1999, showed its model connected to a Zenith TV from 1980, while Thomson Consumer Electronics used an RCA TV from 1987 for its demonstration. Both boxes shown used electronic program guides using System Information Protocol.
The devices showed V-chip ratings and signal strength. Thomson's model stored three days of TV listings, allowed parental controls, could set a VCR. Cable TV systems are under no deadline to convert to digital TV. However, many Comcast customers are finding all of their non-local and non-shopping networks eliminated on various dates though only a few are needed for additional digital cable channels. CECBs will not work on these systems because cable ATSC uses 256QAM modulation instead of 8VSB, so a separate but similar DTA with a QAM tuner is necessary. If the cable company takes away analog channels, at least two of these adapters must be provided for free by the cable company for at least three years so that customers can continue to watch the same channels with existing equipment. Cable companies were required to provide some analog service until October 2006. After that, taking away analog channels allowed faster Internet and more HD channels. An adapter from the cable provider was needed for digital TVs if the company scrambled its digital signals to prevent piracy.
A digital transport adapter will allow viewing of basic channels as many as 99, but not premium channels. It will not allow video on demand or pay-per-view. Simple DTAs only allow analog sets to receive digital signals using RF output on channel 3 or 4, using coaxial cable. Other versions of the DTA are available. Pace plc developed the XiD-P digital transport adapter for Comcast, allowing 4K service and offering the potential to expand the DTA from one-way to two-way; this would involve adding IP capability. Most countries that have switched to digital TV use DVB-T broadcasting with MPEG-2 MP@ML or H.264 encoding. Some, consider switching to DVB-T2 such as the UK, being the first to test DVB-T2; this results in a number of different combinations for external digital receivers with the MPEG-2 ones sold at about €15 to €35 and the MPEG-4 ones reaching €25 to €150. All set top boxes sold in EU cannot exceed 0.5W in stand by mode. Russia has introduced digital TV and is now ending analog over-the-air transmission.
Most new TVs feature a DVB-T2 tuner which allows reception of digital over-the-air TV without need of an external device such a converter box. If using a TV set without a DVB-T2 tuner, an external converter box must be used; this converter box takes the digital signal from t
Digital terrestrial television
Digital terrestrial television is a technology for broadcast television in which land-based television stations broadcast television content by radio waves to televisions in consumers' residences in a digital format. DTTV is a major technological advance over the previous analog television, has replaced analog, in common use since the middle of the 20th century. Test broadcasts began in 1998 with the changeover to DTTV beginning in 2006 and is now complete in many countries; the advantages of digital terrestrial television are similar to those obtained by digitising platforms such as cable TV, telecommunications: more efficient use of limited radio spectrum bandwidth, provision of more television channels than analog, better quality images, lower operating costs for broadcasters. Different countries have adopted different digital broadcasting standards; the amount of data that can be transmitted is directly affected by channel capacity and the modulation method of the transmission. North America uses the ATSC standard with 8VSB modulation, which has similar characteristics to the vestigial sideband modulation used for analog television.
This provides more immunity to interference, but is not immune to multipath distortion and does not provide for single-frequency network operation. The modulation method in DVB-T is COFDM with either 16-state Quadrature Amplitude Modulation. In general, 64QAM is capable of transmitting a greater bit rate, but is more susceptible to interference. 16 and 64QAM constellations can be combined in a single multiplex, providing a controllable degradation for more important program streams. This is called hierarchical modulation. DVB-T are designed to work in single frequency networks. Developments in video compression have resulted in improvements on the original H.262 MPEG 2 codec, surpassed by H.264/MPEG-4 AVC and more H.265 HEVC. H.264 enables three high-definition television services to be coded into a 24 Mbit/s DVB-T European terrestrial transmission channel. DVB-T2 increases this channel capacity to 40 Mbit/s, allowing more services. DTTV is received either via a digital set-top box, TV gateway or more now an integrated tuner included with television sets, that decodes the signal received via a standard television antenna.
These devices now include digital video recorder functionality. However, due to frequency planning issues, an aerial capable of receiving a different channel group may be required if the DTTV multiplexes lie outside the reception capabilities of the installed aerial; this is quite common in the UK. Indoor aerials are more to be affected by these issues and need replacing. Main articles: List of digital television deployments by country, Digital television transition Afghanistan launched digital transmissions in Kabul using DVB-T2/MPEG-4 on Sunday, 31 August 2014. Test transmissions had commenced on 4 UHF channels at the start of June 2014. Transmitters were provided by GatesAir. Bangladesh had its first DTT service DVB-T2 / MPEG-4 on April 2016 launched by the GS Group; the service is called RealVU. It is done with partnership with Beximco. GS Group acts as a supplier and integrator of its in-house hardware and software solutions for the operator's functioning in accordance with the modern standards of digital television.
RealVu provides more than 100 TV channels in HD quality. The digital TV set-top boxes developed by GS Group offer such functions as PVR and time-shift, along with an EPG. India adopted DVB-T system for digital television in July 1999; the first DVB-T transmission was started on 26 January 2003 in the four major metropolitan cities by Doordarshan. The terrestrial transmission is available in both digital and analog formats. 4 high power DVB-T transmitters were set up in the top 4 cities, which were upgraded to DVB-T2 + MPEG4 and DVB-H standards. An additional 190 high power, 400 low power DVB-T2 transmitters have been approved for Tier I, II and III cities of the country by 2017; the Indian telecom regulator, TRAI, had recommended the I&B to allow private broadcast companies to use the DTT technology, in 2005. So far, the Indian I&B ministry only permits private broadcast companies to use satellite, cable and IPTV based systems; the government's broadcasting organisation Doordarshan had started the free TV service over DVB - T2 to the mobile phone users from February 25 onwards and extended to cover 16 cities including the four metros from April 5, 2016.
Israel started digital transmissions in MPEG-4 on Sunday, August 2, 2009, anal