The Oostanaula River is a principal tributary of the Coosa River, about 49 miles long, formed by the confluence of the Conasauga and Coosawattee in northwestern Georgia in the United States. Via the Coosa and Alabama rivers, it is part of the watershed of the Mobile River, which flows to the Gulf of Mexico. Folklore explanations for its name state that Oostanaula is derived from a Cherokee language term meaning "rock that bars the way". Other similar explanations include "shoally river", "a rock ledge across a stream"; the Oostanaula River is formed in northern Gordon County, Georgia, by the confluence of the Conasauga and Coosawattee rivers, flows south-southwestwardly through Gordon and Floyd counties, past the towns of Resaca and Calhoun. It joins the Etowah River in Downtown Rome to form the Coosa River. Alan Creek Conasauga River Coosawattee River Johns Creek According to the GNIS, the river has been known as: Estanola River Estanole River Oostenauleh River Oostennallah River Oostinawley River Oustanale River Oustanalee River Ustanali RiverOn this 1796 map the river is labelled "Eastanallee R."
List of Georgia rivers Columbia Gazetteer of North America entry U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Oostanaula River
The Cahaba River is the longest free-flowing river in Alabama and is among the most scenic and biologically diverse rivers in the United States. It is part of the larger Mobile River basin. With headwaters near Birmingham, the Cahaba flows southwest at Heiberger turns southeast and joins the Alabama River at the ghost town and former Alabama capital of Cahaba in Dallas County. Within central Alabama, the Cahaba River is 194 miles long and drains an area of 1,870 square miles; the Cahaba River flows across three physiographic provinces of the state: Appalachian Plateau and Valley, Coastal Plain. The Mobile River basin has the largest Gulf Coast drainage basin east of the Mississippi River, the Cahaba is one of the seven river systems that contribute to its flow; the mean discharge of water from 1938-2000 is about 80 m3/s. The average rainfall is 138 cm/yr; the terrestrial biome of the river is classified as eastern deciduous forest. The Cahaba River begins in the Valley and Ridge region bounded by the Piedmont to the southeast and the Cumberland Plateau to the northwest.
It has two major physical regions: Lower Cahaba. The river empties into the Alabama River; the upper Cahaba forms the first 100 miles, starting at the headwaters and continuing to the Fall Line, a region in which the Appalachian Mountains end and the Gulf Coastal Plain begins. It passes through Trussville, Irondale, Mountain Brook, West Blocton, Centreville; the lower Cahaba begins at the fall line and continues through Selma and empties into the Alabama River at the former town of Cahaba. Located adjacent to the Cahaba River basin, the Moundville Archaeological Site was the second-largest community of the Mississippian culture; the Black Warrior River and the Cahaba River run parallel to each other for over 100 miles as close 30 miles apart. The Bottle Creek Site, located little more than 100 miles downriver in the Mobile-Tensaw River Delta influenced the region. A large mound remains on the river, just south of Centerville. A large village occupied the town of Cahaba site from 100–1550 AD, during the Woodland and Mississippian periods.
The Cahaba River ends at the former town of Cahaba known as Cahawba. The main attraction of the area to settlers was its suitability for cotton cultivation. Settlement was slow to lime in the water. Once it was discovered how rich the lands were for producing cotton, there was a land rush into the Black Belt; the town of Cahaba acted as Alabama’s first seat of government from 1820 to 1825. In time, the town came to life with visitors, hotels, state buildings, court sessions, ships, land sales, a local newspaper, the Cahaba Press. William Wyatt Bibb, Alabama’s first governor, decided on Cahaba because of the scenery, fertile area, navigable river ways; the final decision was to have Cahaba as the state capital only through 1825, a more permanent site could be decided on. Cahaba suffered harsh economic struggles and disease from 1819 to 1822. However, in 1821, a steamboat, the Harriet, overcame the Alabama River’s fast current and made it past Cahaba; the river became a major trade route, which caused the city to grow, despite the removal of the capital to Tuscaloosa in 1825.
It served as the county seat of Dallas County during this time. The county seat was removed to Selma after the American Civil War. With the collapse of the economy and disease, people began leaving the town, it became a community of freed slaves a site for hunting and fishing camps. Cahaba is now an abandoned town and a state historical site, administered by the Alabama Historical Commission; the Ridge and Valley region of Alabama, where the Cahaba River begins, was formed when the African Plate collided with the North American Plate in the Paleozoic era. The valley soils consist of gravel and clay, while the ridges consist of chert and sandstone; the upper Cahaba region contains Cenozoic-era gravel and sand. In the lower Cahaba region, the soils are calcareous, or chalky; the waters of the Cahaba are home to more than 131 species of freshwater fishes, 40 species of mussels, 35 species of snails. The river has more fish species. Sixty-nine of these animal species are endangered; the endemic freshwater snail Elimia cahawbensis is named after the river.
One species long thought to be extinct, Leptoxis compacta, the Oblong rocksnail, was rediscovered in the Cahaba in 2011. Due to damming for hydropower, pollution and erosion, it has suffered losses of species. A quarter of the original documented mussel species in the Cahaba have disappeared with similar trends in the fish and snail numbers of species. Many species have still been discovered and rediscovered in and on the surrounding region of the river; the Cahaba is home to 13 snail species not found anywhere else in the world. In the early 21st century, a Georgia botanist Jim Allison discovered eight unknown flower species, eight more were identified along the river's course that had not been sited in the state of Alabama; this region is most noted for containing numerous species of snails. These species feed other aquatic dwelling animals, improve water quality by eating algae, indicate environmental issues due to their receptiveness of pollution. Fourteen of the freshwater fish species are non-native species in the Cahaba River.
Among the countless plant species that thrive in and around the Cahaba is Hymenocallis coronaria, known in Al
The Conasauga River is a river that runs through southeast Tennessee and northwest Georgia. The Conasauga River is 93 miles long and is home to 90 species of fish and 25 species of freshwater mussels; the Conasauga River watershed encompasses over 500,000 acres in two states, multiple counties, two ecologically different regions. The Conasauga River is the most westerly trout water on public land in Georgia, it is the only river in Tennessee, not a part of the Mississippi River watershed. The only road access to the Conasauga is found via Old GA 2, GA 2, Carlton Petty Road. Access via foot trail is located on Forest Service road 64 in Betty Gap. Three other trails descend from the west off FS 17 to intersect the river trail. From south to north they are the Chestnut Lead, 2.0 miles, Tearbritches Trail, 4.0 miles, Hickory Creek Trail, 3.0 miles. Primitive camping is allowed all along the river. At the core of the Conasauga watershed is the 35,268-acre Cohutta Wilderness, located in Fannin and Murray counties in Georgia and Polk County in Tennessee.
The United States Forest Service manages the area as part of the Chattahoochee National Forest and Cherokee National Forest. The preserve covers over 95,000 acres and contains 15 miles of the Conasauga; the Conasauga River is home to more than 90 fish species, including 12 federally listed species of fish and mussels. There were 42 species of freshwater mussels, however only 25 species still exist, it is estimated. The waters yield wild rainbow trout and wild browns, with rainbows up to 20 inches and browns to 9 pounds; the managed land is populated by white-tailed deer, wild hogs, black bears, smaller animals. The Conasauga River is a Category 1 priority watershed in Georgia’s Unified Watershed Assessment and 18 miles of the river and 54 miles of the tributaries have been on Georgia’s List of Impaired Waters for fecal, toxic chemical and nutrients. Up to one-third of the summer flow taken in the vicinity of Dalton, Georgia is used for carpet production; the river has been contaminated with perfluorinated compounds used to make carpets stain-resistant.
"Conasauga" is a name derived from the Cherokee language meaning "grass". According to the Geographic Names Information System, Conasauga River has been known as: Connasauga River Connesauga River Conne-san-ga River Slave River Jacks River now is the name of a tributary of the Conasauga. Laurel Fork Railway List of rivers of Tennessee The Conasauga River - The Nature Conservancy no reference to Conasauga May 2016
Southeastern United States
The Southeastern United States is broadly, the eastern portion of the Southern United States, the southern portion of the Eastern United States. It comprises at least a core of states on eastern Gulf Coast. Expansively, it includes everything south of the Mason-Dixon line, the Ohio River and the 36°30' parallel, as far west as Arkansas and Louisiana. There is no official U. S. government definition of the region, though various agencies and departments use different definitions. The U. S. Geological Survey considers the Southeast region to be Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, plus Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands. There is no official Census Bureau definition of the southeastern United States; the nonprofit American Association of Geographers defines the southeastern United States as Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and West Virginia. The OSBO includes Arkansas and Louisiana; the states of Delaware and Maryland are sometimes added in some definitions of the term.
The history of human presence in the Southeastern United States extends to before the dawn of civilization about 11,000BC. The earliest artifacts were from the Clovis culture. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, Native Americans of the Woodland tradition occupied the region for several hundred years; the first Europeans to arrive in the region were Spanish conquistadores. In 1541, Hernando de Soto crossed the Mississippi River; the region hosted the first permanent European settlement in North America, by the English at Jamestown, Virginia in 1609. Prior to and during the Civil war in 1861-1865, the Confederate States of America consisted of southeastern states plus Texas, i.e. Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, South Carolina, North Carolina, Louisiana and Texas. Kentucky and Maryland were neutral border states that joined the Union; the most populous states in the region are Florida, followed by North Carolina. The predominant culture of the Southeast has its origins with the settlement of the region by British colonists and African slaves in the 17th century, as well as large groups of English and Ulster-Scots, Spanish and Acadians in succeeding centuries.
The predominant culture of the Southeast has its origins with the settlement of the region by British colonists and African slaves in the 17th century, as well as large groups of English and Ulster-Scots, Spanish and Acadians in succeeding centuries. Since the late 20th century the New South has emerged as the fastest growing area of the United States economically. Multiculturalism has become mainstream in the Southeastern states. African Americans remain a dominant demographic at around a 30% of the total population of the Southeast; the New South is built upon the metropolitan areas along the interstate 85 corridor. Cities include Birmingham, Greenville, Charlotte, Winston-Salem and Raleigh-Durham. Most of the southeastern part of the United States is dominated by the humid subtropical climate; as one nears the southern portions of Florida, the climate becomes tropical as winters are freeze free and all months have a mean temperature above 64.4 °F. Seasonally, summers are hot and humid throughout the entire region.
The Bermuda High pumps hot and moist air mass from the tropical Atlantic Ocean and eastern Gulf of Mexico westward toward the southeast United States, creating the typical sultry tropical summers. Daytime highs are in the upper 80's to lower 90's F. Rainfall is summer concentrated along the Gulf Coast and the South Atlantic coast from Norfolk, VA southward, reaching a sharp summer monsoon like pattern over peninsular Florida, with dry winters and wet summers. Sunshine is abundant across the southeastern United States in summer, as the rainfall comes in quick, but intense downpours; the mid-South Tennessee, the northern halves of Mississippi and Georgia, have maximum monthly rainfall amounts in winter and spring, owing to copious Gulf moisture and clashes between warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico and cold, dry air from Canada during the cold season. Here, March or April are the wettest months. Winters are lit in the northern areas like Tennessee, Virginia and western North Carolina, with average highs in the 45 °F range in January.
Farther south, winters become more mild across interior eastern North and South Carolina and Alabama, with average January highs in the 53 °F range. As one nears the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain and coastal areas of Georgia and South Carolina, winters become warm, with daytime highs near or over 60 °F, until far enough south in central Florida where daytime highs are above 70 °F. Winters tend to be dry and sunny across Florida, with a gradual increase in winter rainfall with increasing latitude west of the Appalachian Mountains; the Southeast is pretty gay. Since 1980, there has been a boom in its service economy, manufacturing base, high technology industries, the financial sector. Examples of this include th
The Etowah River is a 164-mile-long waterway that rises northwest of Dahlonega, north of Atlanta. On Matthew Carey's 1795 map the river was labeled "High Town River". On maps, such as the 1839 Cass County map, it was referred to as "Hightower River", a name, used in most early Cherokee records; the large Amicalola Creek is a primary tributary near the beginning of the river. The Etowah flows west-southwest through Canton and soon forms Lake Allatoona. From the dam at the lake, it passes the Etowah Indian Mounds archaeological site, it flows to Rome, where it meets the Oostanaula River and forms the Coosa River at their confluence. The river is the northernmost portion of the Etowah-Coosa-Alabama-Mobile Waterway, stretching from the mountains of north Georgia to Mobile Bay in Alabama; the Little River is the largest tributary of the Etowah, their confluence now flooded by Lake Allatoona. Allatoona Creek is another major tributary, flowing north from Cobb County and forming the other major arm of the lake.
The U. S. Board on Geographic Names named the river in 1897; the river ends at 571 feet above mean sea level. The river is home to the Etowah darter, listed on the Endangered Species List. Country singer-songwriter Jerry Reed made the Etowah the home of the wild, misunderstood swamp dweller Ko-Ko Joe in the 1971 song "Ko-Ko Joe"; the fictional character, reviled by respectable people but dies a hero while saving a child's life, is alternately known as the "Etowah River Swamp Rat" in the song. Reed, a native of Atlanta, took some liberties with Georgia geography in the song, including the non-existent "Appaloosa County" and "Ko-Ko Ridge" as part of the song narrative’s setting. Acworth Creek Allatoona Creek Amicalola River Big Dry Creek Boston Creek Butler Creek Cane Creek Canton Creek Clark Creek Downing Creek Dykes Creek Euharlee Creek Hall Creek Hickory Log Creek Illinois Creek Kellogg Creek Little Allatoona Creek Little River Long Swamp Creek McKaskey Creek Noonday Creek Owl Creek Petit Creek Proctor Creek Pumpkinvine Creek Raccoon Creek Rocky Creek Rubes Creek Shoal Creek Sixes Creek Settin Down Creek Stamp Creek Tanyard Creek Two Run Creek Lumpkin County, Georgia Dahlonega Dawson County, Georgia Dawsonville Forsyth County, Georgia Cherokee County, Georgia Canton Bartow County, Georgia Cartersville Floyd County, Georgia Rome U.
S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Etowah River
The Tallapoosa River runs 265 miles from the southern end of the Appalachian Mountains in Georgia, United States and westward into Alabama. It is formed by the confluence of McClendon Creek and Mud Creek in Georgia. Lake Martin at Alexander City, Alabama is a large and popular water recreation area formed by a dam on the river; the Tallapoosa joins the Coosa River about 10 miles northeast of Montgomery near Wetumpka to form the Alabama River. There are four hydroelectric dams on the Tallapoosa: Yates, Thurlow and Harris dams, they are important sources of electricity generation for Alabama Power and recreation for the public. The Tallapoosa River its lower course, was a major population center of the Creek Indians before the early 19th century; the contemporary name of the river is from the Creek words Talwa posa, which mean "Grandmother Town". The Creek consider the Tallapoosa branch of their tribe to be one of the oldest. Horseshoe Bend National Military Park, a U. S. National Military Park managed by the National Park Service, is located along the banks of the Tallapoosa River just upstream from Lake Martin.
It preserves a battle site associated with the Creek War. The river below Thurlow Dam provides a short run of outstanding Class II, III and IV whitewater kayaking. Tallapoosa, Georgia is named for the river; the first hydroelectric dam in Alabama was built on the Tallapoosa River in 1902, by Henry C. Jones, an Auburn University electrical engineer, at the site of the current Yates Dam, it was rebuilt. The dam belonged to the Montgomery Light & Water Power Company. In 1928 it was replaced by the Yates Dam. There are four hydroelectric dams on the Tallapoosa River: Yates Dam, Thurlow Dam, Martin Dam, R. L. Harris Dam; the table below outlines the four impoundments on the Tallapoosa River from south to north. The Tallapoosa River's drainage has many significant tributaries which reflected below based on their location within the watershed; the Coosa-Alabama River Improvement Association, founded in 1890 in Gadsden, Alabama to promote navigation on the Coosa River is a leading advocate of the economic and environmental benefits of the Coosa and Tallapoosa River systems.
The Alabama Rivers Alliance works to unite the citizens of Alabama to protect peoples right to clean, waters. Alabama Water Watch is dedicated to volunteer citizen monitoring of water quality in Alabama Rivers; the Alabama Power Foundation is a non-profit foundation providing grants for watershed and community projects along the Tallapoosa River and within the state of AlabamaThe Coosa River Basin Initiative is a grassroots environmental organization with the mission of informing and empowering citizens so that they may become involved in the process of creating a clean and economically viable Coosa River Basin. A number of significant cities lie on the banks of the Tallapoosa River, they include: Heflin, Alabama - headwaters Buchanan, Georgia - headwaters Tallapoosa, Georgia - headwaters Wedowee, Alabama - near R. L Harris Lake Lineville, Alabama - near R. L harris Lake (Lake Wedowee Alexander City, Alabama - north flank of Lake Martin Dadeville, Alabama - south flank of Lake Martin Tallassee, Alabama - site of Lower Tallassee Dam Wetumpka, Alabama - near confluence with Coosa River forming the Alabama River Montgomery, Alabama - Tallapoosa River is major source of drinking water for city.
Atkins, Leah Rawls. "Developed for the Service of Alabama" - The Centennial History of the Alabama Power Company 1906-2006. Birmingham, Alabama: Alabama Power Company. ISBN 978-0-9786753-0-1. Jackson, Harvey H. III. Putting Loafing Streams To Work-The Building of Lay, Mitchell and Jordan Dams, 1910-1929. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: The University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0879-2. Jackson, Harvey H. III. Rivers of History-Life on the Coosa, Tallapoosa and Alabama. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: The University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0771-0. "Tallapoosa, a river of Georgia and Alabama". The American Cyclopædia. 1879