Chicago Transit Authority
The Chicago Transit Authority is the operator of mass transit in Chicago and some of its surrounding suburbs, including the trains of the Chicago "L" and CTA bus service. The CTA is an Illinois independent governmental agency that started operations on October 1, 1947 upon the purchase and combination of the transportation assets of the Chicago Rapid Transit Company and the Chicago Surface Lines streetcar system. In 1952, CTA purchased the assets of the Chicago Motor Coach Company, under the control of Yellow Cab Company founder John D. Hertz, resulting in a unified system. Today, the CTA is one of the three service boards financially supported by the Regional Transportation Authority and CTA service connects with the commuter rail Metra, suburban bus and paratransit service, Pace; the Chicago Transit Authority provides service in 10 surrounding suburbs. The CTA provided a total of 532 million rides in 2011, a 3 percent increase over 2010 with ridership rising to levels not seen for 20 years.
CTA operates 24 hours each day and on an average weekday provides 1.7 million rides on buses and trains. It has 1,800 buses that operate over 140 routes traveling along 2,230 route miles. Buses provide about one million passenger trips a day and serve more than 12,000 posted bus stops; the Chicago Transit Authority's 1,450 train cars operate over eight routes and 222 miles of track. Its trains provide about 750,000 customer trips each weekday and serve 145 stations in Chicago and seven suburbs; the CTA operates in Chicago and the bordering suburbs of Forest Park, Skokie, Oak Park, Cicero, North Riverside and Wilmette. The CTA accepts payment with a Ventra Card which can be purchased with a single-ride, 1 day unlimited ride, 3 day unlimited ride, 7 day unlimited ride, 30 day unlimited ride, a Ventra disposable ticket, contactless credit or debit card, certain smartphones. Unlimited ride. CTA buses accept cash. Up to three children under 7 can ride free with a fare-paying rider; the CTA has many free and discounted fare options, for elementary and high school students and university students, people with disabilities, senior citizens, military service members.
Only buses allow riders to pay directly with cash at a farebox and no change is given. Exact fare is required. Since January 7, 2018, the bus full fare is $2.50, disabled & seniors is $1.25 and students is $.75. No cash transfers are available; some rail station turnstiles accepted cash but this feature has been removed in an effort to speed up boarding. Cash at rail stations is only accepted at Ventra Vending Machines to purchase Ventra paper fare cards; the CTA no longer sells Transit Cards. All remaining Transit Cards must have been used by July 1, 2014. In its place CTA has adopted the Ventra Card system; the Ventra Card can be purchased online, Ventra Vending Machines at CTA rail stations, at authorized retailers like Walgreens, CVS Pharmacies and check cashing locations. Ventra is an electronic fare payment system for the Chicago Transit Authority and Pace that replaced the Chicago Card and the Transit Card automated fare collection system. Ventra launched in August 2013, with a full system transition slated for July 1, 2014.
The Ventra payment system includes several options of payment, including a contactless smart card powered by RFID, a single day or use ticket powered by RFID, any personal bank-issued credit card or debit card that has an RFID chip, a compatible mobile phone. Which includes Samsung Pay and Android Pay. Ventra is operated by Cubic Transportation Systems. Riders when using Ventra pay. Disabled & seniors who are 65 or older pay. Elementary and high school students 7-20 years old: Valid 5:30 a.m. to 8:30 p.m. on school days pay $.75 during school hours and pay $1.10 during weekends and holidays. Transfers within two hours are $.25 full fare, $.15 for disabled and students. Ventra readers on buses and rail station turnstiles can accept contactless payments directly from mobile devices. Riders can pay a PAYG fare by touching mobile phones with Apple Pay, Google Pay and Samsung Pay—or any contactless bankcard with the contactless wave symbol; the Chicago Transit Authority produced a monthly television show, from May 2003 through December 2011.
The show was hosted by Dale Rivera, Jeanne Sparrow, Omar Barragan. Connections was broadcast on City of Chicago Public-access television cable TV channels 23 & 49, as well as on Comcast's CN100 in the Chicago media market, including areas of Michigan and Indiana. Connections featured news and information about the CTA and services it provides. Individual segments from Connections are available on CTA's YouTube channel; as mandated by the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 for all transit operators in the U. S. all CTA buses are handicap accessible, the ramp on every bus is available for use upon request by anyone who has trouble with steps temporarily. The majority of train stations CTA operates have elevators or ramps to provide access for customers with disabilities. All trains include accessible rail cars. CTA provides the means to view alerts regarding elevator status at the CTA's Elevator Status Alerts page or by calling an Elevator Status Hotline at 1-888-YOUR-CTA. Accessibility alert notifications appear, by default, in CTA "Train Tracker", a station arrival prediction tool appearing on its website.
Until 1973, CTA's fleet included a large number of electric trolley buse
The Invictus Games is an international adaptive multi-sport event, created by Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex, in which wounded, injured or sick armed services personnel and their associated veterans take part in sports including wheelchair basketball, sitting volleyball, indoor rowing. Named after Invictus, Latin for "unconquered" or "undefeated", the event was inspired by the Warrior Games, a similar event held in the United States; the first Invictus Games took place in September 2014 at the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in London, United Kingdom. The 2014 opening ceremony was attended by Prince Harry, British Prime Minister David Cameron, Prince Charles, Duchess of Cornwall, Prince William, Frederik, Crown Prince of Denmark; the event included a recorded message from the First Lady of the United States Michelle Obama. The second games opened on 8 May 2016 at the ESPN Wide World of Sports Complex at Walt Disney World, near Orlando, United States; the opening ceremony was attended by Prince Harry, First Lady of the United States Michelle Obama, former U.
S. President George W. Bush and many other dignitaries. U. S. President Barack Obama and Queen Elizabeth II helped make a promotional video for the 2016 event; the third games were held in September 2017 in Toronto, Canada. The 2018 games were held in Sydney, New South Wales and attended by both Prince Harry and his wife, the former Meghan Markle, Duchess of Sussex; the 2020 games are scheduled to be held in The Hague, Netherlands. The Games were launched on 6 March 2014 by Prince Harry at London's Copper Box arena, used as a venue during the 2012 Olympics. Having seen a British team competing at the US Warrior Games held in Colorado in 2013, the Prince wished to bring the concept of a similar international sporting event to the United Kingdom. With the backing of Mayor of London Boris Johnson, the London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games and the Ministry of Defence, the event was put together over ten months. £1m of funding for the project was provided by the Royal Foundation, a charity established by Prince Harry along with the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, with an equal amount being pledged by Chancellor George Osborne from Treasury funds generated by fines imposed on banks as a result of the Libor scandal.
The Games were sponsored by Jaguar Land Rover. Speaking at the launch, the Prince said that the Games would "demonstrate the power of sport to inspire recovery, support rehabilitation and demonstrate life beyond disability", he said that their long-term objective was to ensure that injured troops are not forgotten as Britain's involvement with the War in Afghanistan comes to an end. The Invictus Games Foundation was created as the legacy of the first-ever Invictus Games, it governs the process of the future Games. The bidding process for future games started in November 2014; the people who govern the foundation are: Patron: His Royal Highness The Duke of Sussex Chairman: Sir Keith MillsTrusteesDavid Henson Debbie Jevans Edward Lane Fox Terry Miller Guy Monson Paddy Nicoll. Mary Reilly Staff: Managing Director: Dominic Reid Operations Manager: Rose Hall Lewis Hamilton, a five time Formula 1 World Champion, was appointed as the first ambassador. Hamilton visited Tedworth House before the announcement 3 July 2015, Lewis invited some Invictus Games athletes to the British Grand Prix.
The first Invictus Games were held on 10–14 September 2014. Around 300 competitors from 13 countries which have fought alongside the United Kingdom in recent military campaigns participated; these included the United States, Canada, Germany, New Zealand and Afghanistan. Competitive events were held at many of the venues used during the 2012 Olympics, including the Copper Box and the Lee Valley Athletics Centre; the Games were broadcast by the BBC.14 countries were invited to the 2014 games, 8 from Europe, 2 from Asia, 2 from North America and 2 from Oceania. No countries from Africa were invited. There were teams from all the invited countries, except Iraq, competing in the games; the closing concert was broadcast on BBC Two hosted by Greg James. The concert was hosted by Nick Grimshaw and Fearne Cotton, with live performances from Foo Fighters, Kaiser Chiefs, James Blunt, Rizzle Kicks, Ryan Adams and Ellie Goulding. On 14 July 2015, Prince Harry, Patron of Invictus Games Foundation, announced the 2016 Invictus Games would take place from 8–12 May 2016 at the ESPN Wide World of Sports Complex in Orlando, Florida.
On 28 October 2015, Prince Harry and USA's First Lady Michelle Obama and Second Lady Jill Biden, launched Invictus Games 2016 at Fort Belvoir. In order to bring Invictus Games to the USA, Military Adaptive Sports Inc. was created, worked to build on the success of the Invictus Games 2014 held in London. Ken Fisher served as Chairman and CEO for Invictus Games Orlando 2016. All 14 countries from the 2014 Games were invited back. Toronto hosted the 2017 Invictus Games in Septem
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination based on disability. It affords similar protections against discrimination to Americans with disabilities as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which made discrimination based on race, sex, national origin, other characteristics illegal. In addition, unlike the Civil Rights Act, the ADA requires covered employers to provide reasonable accommodations to employees with disabilities, imposes accessibility requirements on public accommodations. In 1986, the National Council on Disability had recommended enactment of an Americans with Disabilities Act and drafted the first version of the bill, introduced in the House and Senate in 1988; the final version of the bill was signed into law on July 1990, by President George H. W. Bush, it was amended in 2008 and signed by President George W. Bush with changes effective as of January 1, 2009. ADA disabilities include both physical medical conditions. A condition does not need to be permanent to be a disability.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission regulations provide a list of conditions that should be concluded to be disabilities: deafness, blindness, an intellectual disability or missing limbs or mobility impairments requiring the use of a wheelchair, cancer, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia. Other mental or physical health conditions may be disabilities, depending on what the individual's symptoms would be in the absence of "mitigating measures", during an "active episode" of the condition. Certain specific conditions that are considered anti-social, or tend to result in illegal activity, such as kleptomania, exhibitionism, etc. are excluded under the definition of "disability" in order to prevent abuse of the statute's purpose. Additionally, other specific conditions, such as gender identity disorders, are excluded under the definition of "disability".
See US labor law and 42 U. S. C. §§ 12111–12117. The ADA states that a "covered entity" shall not discriminate against "a qualified individual with a disability"; this applies to job application procedures, hiring and discharge of employees, job training, other terms and privileges of employment. "Covered entities" include employers with 15 or more employees, as well as employment agencies, labor organizations, joint labor-management committees. There are strict limitations on when a covered entity can ask job applicants or employees disability-related questions or require them to undergo medical examination, all medical information must be kept confidential. Prohibited discrimination may include, among other things, firing or refusing to hire someone based on a real or perceived disability and harassment based on a disability. Covered entities are required to provide reasonable accommodations to job applicants and employees with disabilities. A reasonable accommodation is a change in the way things are done that the person needs because of a disability, can include, among other things, special equipment that allows the person to perform the job, scheduling changes, changes to the way work assignments are chosen or communicated.
An employer is not required to provide an accommodation that would involve undue hardship, the individual who receives the accommodation must still perform the essential functions of the job and meet the normal performance requirements. An employee or applicant who engages in the illegal use of drugs is not considered qualified when a covered entity takes adverse action based on such use. There are many ways to discriminate against people based on disabilities, including psychological ones. Anyone known to have a history of mental disorders can be considered disabled. Employers with more than 15 employees must take care to treat all employees and with any accommodations needed; when an employee is doing a job exceptionally well, she or he is not no longer disabled. Part of Title I was found unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court as it pertains to states in the case of Board of Trustees of the University of Alabama v. Garrett as violating the sovereign immunity rights of the several states as specified by the Eleventh Amendment to the United States Constitution.
The Court determined. State employees can, file complaints at the Department of Justice or the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, who can sue on their behalf. Title II prohibits disability discrimination by all public entities at the local level, e.g. school district, city, or county, at state level. Public entities must comply with Title II regulations by the U. S. Department of Justice; these regulations cover access to all services offered by the entity. Access includes physical access described in the ADA Standards for Accessible Design and programmatic access that might be obstructed by discriminatory policies or procedures of the entity. Title II applies to public transportation provided by public entities through regulations by the U. S. Department of Transportation, it includes the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, along with all other commuter au
Freedom Pass is a concessionary travel scheme, which began in 1973, to provide free travel to residents of Greater London, who are aged 60 and over or who have a disability. The scheme is coordinated by London Councils; the pass was a paper ticket, but since 2004 it has been encoded on to a contactless smartcard compatible with Oyster card readers. The scheme was created in 1973 by the Greater London Council, although there had been concessionary bus fare schemes in London before that; when the council was abolished in 1986, responsibility for the scheme passed to the London borough councils. The cost of providing the travel concession is negotiated between London Councils and the local transport operator Transport for London, it is funded through a mixture of national council tax. In 2007 there was a dispute between Mayor of London Ken Livingstone and London Councils on the negotiation process, in particular the ability for the Greater London Authority to impose a charge should no agreement be reached.
Freedom Passes have two main versions, an Older Person's Freedom Pass and a Disabled Person's Freedom Pass. Greater London residents who turned 60 before 6 April 2010 were eligible for an OPFP but from on the qualifying age increases in a graduated way, until it becomes 66 by 6 October 2020, although the 2011 government spending review proposes speeding the process to be implemented by 2018. London residents over 60 can get a 60+ oystercard on payment of £20; this has all the benefits of the Freedom Pass, but only within Greater London. Unlike the Freedom Pass, it is not valid on buses outside Greater London. Disabled residents for whom an Older Person's Freedom Pass is inappropriate are, if they do not automatically qualify, assessed to determine whether their degree of disability allows issue of a disabled person's pass. In early 2010 the responsibility for judging the degree of disability passed to local councils, there were complaints of people, assessed as needing a pass for many years not having their passes renewed although their condition had not improved.
The Freedom Pass webpage links to pages with information on the "national scheme statutory disabled pass" which list the seven main categories of disability set out by the Transport Act 2000 to assess eligibility for a Freedom Pass, the "London-only discretionary disabled pass" which may be issued by local councils at their discretion in exceptional circumstances to disabled people who do not meet the criteria. Those with statutory disabilities entitling them to a DPFP are: People who are blind or sighted People who are profoundly or deaf People without speech People who have a disability, or have suffered an injury, which has left them with a substantial and long-term adverse effect on their ability to walk People who do not have arms or have a long-term loss of the use of both arms People who have a learning disability, defined as'a state of arrested or incomplete development of mind which includes significant impairment of intelligence and social functioning' People who, if they applied for the grant of a licence to drive a motor vehicle under Part III of the Road Traffic Act 1988, would have their application refused pursuant to section 92 of the Act otherwise than on the ground of persistent misuse of drugs or alcohol.
The Freedom Pass is valid at all times on London Underground, London Overground, Bus and Docklands Light Railway services in Greater London. It is accepted at most times on many rail services in and outside Greater London that are within London fare zones 1-9. Outside Greater London the card can be used in England wherever and whenever the English National Concessionary Bus Travel Scheme applies, allows free travel on any local bus route. Most previous Freedom Passes expired on 31 March 2015, were automatically renewed until 2020. Up-to-date information, which changes from time to time, is available on the TfL and the Association of London Councils websites. On most London National Rail services only passes issued because of disability rather than age can be used between 04:30 and 09:30 on working days; the Freedom Pass is not valid for travel on many longer-distance train services if they stop within Greater London or for non-London Underground trains to Heathrow airport. They may be used on London Overground trains to Watford Junction in Hertfordshire, but can only be used as far as Harrow and Wealdstone on London Midland and Southern Railway services.
For travel which crosses the boundary of the area of validity of the Freedom Pass at a time and on a service where the Pass is valid, it is necessary to buy a ticket only for the section not covered by the Pass, i.e. a ticket from the Freedom Pass boundary, or from a named station within the zone of validity. A ticket from a named station may technically not be valid on a train that does not stop at that station.
Mainstreaming, in the context of education, is the practice of placing students with special education services in a general education classroom during specific time periods based on their skills. To clarify, this means students who are a part of the special education classroom will join the regular education classroom at certain times which are fitting for the special education student; these students may attend art or physical education in the regular education classrooms. Sometimes these students will attend math and science in a self-contained special education classroom, but attend English in a general education classroom. Schools that practice mainstreaming believe that students with special needs who cannot function in a general education classroom to a certain extent belong in the special education environment. Access to a special education classroom called a "self-contained classroom or resource room", is valuable to the student with a disability. Students have the ability to work one-to-one with special education teachers, addressing any need for remediation during the school day.
Many researchers and parents have advocated the importance of these classrooms amongst political environments that favor their elimination. Oftentimes mainstreamed students will have certain supports they will bring to the general education classroom. A common support is to bring a one-on-one aide to assist them. Other equipment may be tools from their special education classroom that assist them in keeping up with the demands of the general education classroom; this may be a device that helps a deaf student communicate with their peers, a special chair for a student diagnosed with A. D. H. D. or a special desk for a student, in a wheelchair. Some of these students may need accommodations on tests. Proponents of both the philosophy of educational inclusion assert that educating children with disabilities alongside their non-disabled peers fosters understanding and tolerance, better preparing students of all abilities to function in the world beyond school. Children with special needs may face social stigma as a result of being mainstreamed, but may help them develop.
There is a lot of confusion between the terms mainstreaming and inclusion. These terms are used interchangeably, but they mean two different things. Mainstreamed students are part of the special education classroom; when they enter the regular education classroom for certain subjects, this is considered mainstreaming. In comparison, inclusion students are regular education classroom students who receive special education services. Whether is not a student's education is mainstreamed or inclusion is based on, the least restrictive environment, which can be determined in the students IEP. Dr. Kenneth Shore comments on the least restrictive environment by claiming, “Determining what is the least restrictive environment for a particular student requires balancing the need for the child to learn to integrate with his non-disabled peers with the need for the child to receive instruction appropriate to his abilities.” Higher academic achievement: Mainstreaming has shown to be more academically effective than exclusion practices.
For instance, The National Research Center on Learning Disabilities found that graduation rates of all students with disabilities in the U. S. increased by 14% from 1984 to 1997, although this report does not differentiate between students enrolled in mainstreaming, inclusive, or segregated programs. Access to a resource room for direct instruction has shown to be effective in increasing students academic skills and thus increasing the abilities applied by students in a general education setting. Compared to full-time placement in a special education class or special school, both part-time and full-time placement in the regular classroom have been shown to improve academic achievement in students with mild academic disabilities, as well as to improve their long-term behavior. Higher self-esteem: By being included in a regular-paced education setting, students with disabilities have shown to be more confident and display qualities of raised self-efficacy. All students in California who went to a different school prior to attending a mainstreaming program were asked to fill out an assessment of their old school as compared to inclusion program.
The assessments showed that out of all students with disabilities 96% felt they were more confident, 3% thought they had the same experience as an excluded student, 1% felt they had less self-esteem. Overall, students felt that they were equal to their peers and felt that they should not be treated any differently. Better social skills: Any kind of inclusion practice, including mainstreaming, allows students with disabilities to learn social skills through observation, gain a better understanding of the world around them, become a part of the "regular" community. Mainstreaming is beneficial for children with autism and ADHD. By interacting with same-aged non-disabled children, children with autism were observed to be six times more to engage in social relations outside of the classroom; because children with autism spectrum disorders have restricted interests and abnormalities in communication and social interaction, the increased interaction with typical children may be beneficial to them.
The same 1999 study showed that students with Down's syndrome were three times more to communicate with other people. Mainstreaming benefits other children, it opens the lines of communication between those students with their peers. If they are included into classroom activities, all students become more sensitive to the fact that these students may need extra assistance. There is research that suggests that educating non-disabled students a
National Telecommuting Institute
National Telecommuting Institute, Inc. is a 501 non-profit organization focused on placing Americans with Disabilities and Disabled Veterans in jobs since 1995. NTI is headquartered in Downtown Boston with virtual personnel across the United States; as the pioneers in the industry, NTI has initiated the evolution of telecommuting, helping Americans with Disabilities and has set the standards for a work-at-home environment for over 20 years. Since the inception of NTI, the non-profit has expanded into 3 Divisions: NTI@Home, LandAjob, The Staffing Connection; the Medical Transcription division was disbanded at the end of 2014. The NTI@Home division is dedicated to placing Disabled Veterans and Americans with Disabilities in Work at Home positions; the primary roles NTI fulfills include Call Centers, Customer Service, Tier I and Tier II Help Desk roles for Fortune 500 companies such as IBM, Meijer and Sykes. In addition, NTI has provided third party services to staffing agencies to help with their 508 needs.
Not only does NTI supply the people, but the call center technology as well. On June 23, 1995, NTI was started by the 3 founders, Dr. Paul Corcoran, Chairman of the Rehabilitation Department at the Tufts New England Medical Center. J. Willard, Behavioral Psychologist who had spent the prior 15 years working with individuals with severe physical disabilities function within their home environment. Prior to NTI, Dr. Willard had spent three years as a research assistant to famed psychologist B. F. Skinner and concluded that his behavior-modification methods could be used to train monkeys to help the disabled. Dr. Willard focused her efforts on a non-profit called Helping Hands: Simian Aides for the Disabled, started in 1977, she spearheaded the concept of using moneys to assist quadriplegics in daily tasks.. In the early 90’s Dr. Willard further explored existing work opportunities for individuals with physical disabilities who wanted to work from their homes. In her quest, Dr. Willard discovered.
At the time, work at home positions were scarce and she was able to place individuals only on a one on one basis. The original work at home positions consisted of appointment reminder calls for medical practices and hospitals, data entry, book indexing and medical or legal transcription services. However, Dr. Willard was faced with a dilemma having too many individuals with disabilities to place and not enough work-from-home positions in the workforce. With research funding from the Department of Education, Dr Willard interviewed experts in the employment field, who recommended she look at the areas of customer service and the call center industry. Industry experts felt. Forty years ago, virtual call center agents did not exist. Today the industry employs over 3 million Americans. 53% of call centers in the US employ remote call center agents. Experts predict. Software and hardware technology has improved to where call center managers have many options that let them monitor and escalate calls to remote agents with the same ease as if the agent was located in a physical call center facility.
The call center environment did indeed prove a good source of jobs for people with disabilities who needed to work from home. NTI's trained virtual agents meet the business needs of both government and commercial call centers. NTI places between 500 and 600 people with disabilities into call center jobs every year. National Telecommuting Institute has developed partnerships with government and commercial entities. NTI receives its primary funding from participating state vocational rehabilitation agencies, competitive grant programs, charitable donations, the Social Security Administration's Ticket to Work program as a participating Employment Network. Organizations and programs that have generously provided grants and donations to NTI include The AT&T Foundation, the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation, The Fidelity Foundation, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation the U. S. Department of Education: RSA Project With Industries, the U. S. Department of Labor: Office of Disability Employment Policy; the fields such as indexing, medical billing and medical transcription and appointment reminder services were amenable to telecommuting.
However, over the past 14 years most of these positions have faded away due to the evolution of cloud based services and technology such as Dragon Dictate that have revolutionized transcription. Now, the greatest opportunity to employ individuals with disabilities in at home positions exists within the fields of Customer Service and Technology Services. Customer Service Representatives handling the inbound customer service calls within over 30,000 call centers throughout the country. Over 90% of NTI's work-at-home placements within the past three years have been within call centers and help desks. Previous NTI work-at-home agents with disabilities have been hired by employers including the IRS, Ticket Master, Home Shopping Network, Lens Express, GE Financial Services, AT&T, 1-800-Flowers, The GAP, California Pizza Kitchen, AAA Roadside Assistance. In 2004, NTI was awarded a JWOD contract with the Internal Revenue Service, placing hundreds of employees for tax forms assistance; the 70-year-old federal/state VR system is the largest network providing help to the 1.2 million Americans in the disability community who request government assistance in finding work each year.
Collectively, state VR agencies operate with a budget of $2.8 billion. Th
Baby boomers are the demographic cohort following the Silent Generation and preceding Generation X. Though there may be a few different timelines said to represent the birth years of the Baby Boom generation, the U. S. Census Bureau and many experts agree that the Baby Boom generation spans 18 birth years from 1946 to 1964; this leaves room for demographers and researchers to define and label cohort subsets if the characteristics and experiences of the youngest or oldest members correlate with or span two generations. When the term "baby boomer" is used in a cultural context, it becomes more difficult to achieve a consensus among scholars and researchers as to the precise birth years from a cultural perspective. Baby boomers are associated with a redefinition of traditional values. Many commentators, have disputed the extent of that rejection, noting the widespread continuity of values between boomers and their parents. In Western Europe and North America, boomers are associated with privilege, as many grew up during a period of increasing affluence due in part to widespread post-war government subsidies in housing and education.
As a group, baby boomers were wealthier, more active and more physically fit than any preceding generation and were the first to grow up genuinely expecting the world to improve with time. They were the generation that reached peak levels of income in the workplace and could, enjoy the benefits of abundant food, retirement programs, "midlife-crisis" products. But, this generation has been criticized for its increases in consumerism which others saw as excessive; the boomers have tended to think of themselves as a special generation different from preceding and subsequent generations. In the 1960s and 1970s, as a large number of young people entered their late teens—the oldest turned 18 in 1964—they, those around them, created a specific rhetoric around their cohort and the changes brought about by their size in numbers; this rhetoric had an important impact in the self-perceptions of the boomers, as well as their tendency to define the world in terms of generations, a new phenomenon. The baby boom has been described variously as a "shockwave" and as "the pig in the python".
The term baby boom refers to a noticeable increase in the birth rate. The post-war population increase was described as a "boom" by various newspaper reporters, including Sylvia F. Porter in a column in the May 4, 1951, edition of the New York Post, based on the increase of 2,357,000 in the population of the U. S. in 1950. The first recorded use of "baby boomer" is in a January 1963 Daily Press article describing a massive surge of college enrollments approaching as the oldest boomers were coming of age; the Oxford English Dictionary dates the modern meaning of the term to a January 23, 1970 article in The Washington Post. Pew Research Center defines baby boomers as being born between 1946 and 1964; the United States Census Bureau defines baby boomers as "individuals born in the United States between mid-1946 and mid-1964."The Australian Bureau of Statistics defines baby boomers as those born between 1946 and 1964. Australia's Social Research Center defines baby boomers as born between 1946 and 1964.
In the U. S. the generation can be segmented into two broadly defined cohorts: The Leading-Edge Baby Boomers are individuals born between 1946 and 1955, those who came of age during the Vietnam War era. This group represents more than half of the generation, or 38,002,000 people of all races; the other half of the generation was born between 1956 and 1964. Called Late Boomers, or Trailing-Edge Boomers, this second cohort includes about 37,818,000 individuals, according to Live Births by Age and Mother and Race, 1933–98, published by the Centers for Disease Control's National Center for Health Statistics; the American term "Generation Jones" is sometimes used to describe those born between 1954 and 1965. The term is used to refer to the years of the baby boomer cohort and the early years of Generation X. Various authors have delimited the baby boom period differently. Landon Jones, in his book Great Expectations: America and the Baby Boom Generation, defined the span of the baby-boom generation as extending from 1946 through 1964, when annual births increased over 4,000,000.
Authors William Strauss and Neil Howe, well known for their generational theory, define the social generation of Boomers as that cohort born from 1943 to 1960, who were too young to have any personal memory of World War II, but old enough to remember the postwar American High. An ongoing battle for "generational ownership" has motivated a handful of marketing mavens and cultural commentators to coin or promote their own terms for sub‑segments of the baby-boomer generation; these monikers include but are not limited to "golden boomers", "generation Jones", "alpha boomers", "hippies", "yippies", "yuppies", "zoomers" and "cuspers". In Ontario, David Foot, author of Boom and Echo: Profiting from the Demographic Shift in the 21st century, defined a Canadian boomer as someone born from 1947 to 1966, the years in which more than 400,000 babies were born. However, he acknowledges that, a demographic definition, that culturally, it may not be as clear-cut. Doug Owram argues that the Canadian boom took place from 1946 to 1962, but that culturally boomers everywhere were born between the late war years and about 1955 or 1956.
He notes that those born in the years before the actual boom were the most influential people among boomers: for example, musicians such as The Beatles, Bob Dylan, The Rolling Stones, as well as writers like Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg, who were either or vastly