Uthman ibn Sa'id al-Asadi

Uthman ibn Sa'id al-Asadi al-Amri was the first of the Four Deputies of the twelfth Imam, Imam al-Mahdi in Twelver Shia Islam. He was appointed as an agent and deputy of Imam al-Mahdi while the Imam was in the Minor Occultation, a period in which he would only contact his followers through the Four Deputies. After ibn Sa'id's death, his son Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Uthman was appointed as the second deputy by Hujjat-Allah al-Mahdi. Uthman ibn Sai'd had Abu Amr and Abu Muhammad. Abu Amr because his grandfather's name is Amr and Abu Muhammad since his son's name is Muhammad, he is known as Samman because he took up selling oil to support his critical activities against Bani Abbas and duties of his deputyship from Bani Abbas to protect the Shias' lives. He would cover trusts for Hasan al-Askari in oil barrels, he is called Asadi because his tribe was Banu Asad and al-Askari because he stayed in a place in Samarra called Askar, meaning "garrison". When he was just eleven years old, ibn Sa'id worked in the house of Muhammad al-Jawad, the 9th Imam of Twelver Shia Islam.

He became the representative of Ali al-Hadi, the 10th Imam of Shia, his son Hasan al-Askari, the 11th Imam of Shia. He was trusted by these Shia Imams. For instance, a quotation attributed to Imam Ali al-Hadi says: "Amri and his son are trusted by me, so whatever he gives and tells you is from me. Listen to them and obey them." After the death of Hujjat-Allah al-Mahdi's father Hasan al-Askari, al-Mahdi appointed Uthman ibn Sa'id al-Asadi as his representative, thus making al-Asadi the channel of communication between Imam al-Mahdi and the Shia community. After the death of the Hasan al-Askari, Uthman ibn Sa'id performed the ritual bathing of his body, as well as the burial, he became the deputy of Imam al-Mahdi and moved from Samarra to Karkh, where the Shia were living. He stayed in Karkh until his death. During this period he delivered the letters and religious taxes, such as the Zakat and Khums, the Shias gave to Imam al-Mahdi, he was buried there. After his death, his son Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Uthman was appointed as his successor, becoming the second deputy by Hujjat-Allah al-Mahdi

History of enslavement of indigenous peoples in California

Although the Spanish Empire forbade and persecuted slavery of indigenous people over a century before California was settled by the Spanish, some instances of forced labor are recorded in California under their rule. Enslavement of Native American people became more widespread after Spanish rule ended and after California's admission as a free state into the United States which resulted in the genocide of Native Americans in this territory. 24,000 to 27,000 California Native Americans were took as forced laborers by settlers including 4,000 to 7,000 children. In 1542, Spanish explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo first landed in California, but the region wasn't settled by the Spanish until 1769. In 1769, Padre Junípero Serra founded the first Spanish mission in California, el Misión San Diego de Alcalá; the padres would baptize Native Californian villages and relocate them to the missions, where they would work either voluntarily or by force from location to location. There, Native Californians became cobblers, masons, planters and cattle slaughterers.

To the padres, the Native Californians were newly baptized members of the Catholic Church and were treated with varying amounts of respect, depending on the priest in question. Some of the missions planned on handing the missions over to the Native Americans after ten years. However, this never occurred. Many of the soldiers, saw them as manpower to be exploited; the soldiers would force the Native Californians to perform most of the manual labor needed in their fortresses, would hunt down any natives who tried to escape. These four military installations in place to reinforce Spanish claims to Alta California, were known as el Presidio Real de San Carlos de Monterey, el Presidio Real de San Diego, el Presidio Real de San Francisco, el Presidio Real de Santa Bárbara; the soldiers would rape the native women of the villages. There were several recorded uprisings of Indians resisting Spanish rule, one of the earliest being the attack on the Mission San Diego de Alcala on November 4, 1775; the Tipai-Ipai organized nine villages into a force of around 800 people to destroy the mission and kill three of the Spanish, one of them being Padre Luis Jayme.

However, not every uprising was violent. In September 1795, over two hundred natives, including many old neophytes deserted San Francisco all in different directions; when uprisings occurred, the natives did not go unpunished: some Indians were put to death. The padres treated native Americans as slaves. From 1821 to 1846, after Mexico gained its independence from Spain, California was under Mexican rule. In 1824, the Mexican constitution guaranteed citizenship to all persons, providing natives with the right to continue occupying their villages. Additionally, the Mexican National Congress passed the Colonization Act of 1824 which granted large sections of unoccupied land to individuals; this act enforced a class division in which Native Americans were treated like slaves because the native Californians became the labor force for these ranchos. In 1833, the government secularized missions, saying that the missions needed to give their land to catholic Indians. Instead of doing that, many civil authorities confiscated most of the land for themselves.

Californios gained prominence by conducting military attacks on indigenous settlements. By 1846, Mexico's Assembly had passed resolutions calling for funds to locate and destroy Indian villages. While they had more rights than they had under Spanish rule, the native population still was the labor force for ranchos or in developing towns; the entire economy shifted from work on the missions to work on large land estates of wealthy Mexicans. Anglo-American settlers had begun flooding California from the 1820s and, following a brief period of independence, California was acquired by the United States in 1848, bringing in more Anglo immigrants due to the gold rush. Although the indigenous population of California under Spanish rule dropped from 300,000 prior to 1769, to 250,000 in 1834, this was due to contact with Old World diseases and assimilation. After gaining independence from Spain in 1821 and the secularization of the coastal missions by the Mexican government in 1834, the indigenous population suffered a much more drastic decrease in population.

Indeed, the period following the U. S. conquest of California has been characterized by numerous sources as a genocide. Under US sovereignty, after 1848, the Indian population plunged from 150,000 to 30,000 in 1870 and reached a low of 16,000 in 1900; the Anglo-Americans came in with an initial dislike of the Native Americans and fearing them for no historical reason. The confrontation between Anglos and Indians was brutal, resulting in the murder and rape of native Californians. In those 10 years the Indian population of the Central Valley and adjacent hills and mountains decreased from around 150,000 to 50,000. Many hostile interactions began to occur such as the Clear Lake Massacre of 1849. At the Clear Lake Massacre, local Pomo killed two white men, exploiting local Indians, enslaving them and abusing them and sexually assaulting Indian women; as a result, the whites created a massive military campaign of brutality. On the April 22, 1850, to "craft its own code of compulsory labor", an "Act for the Government and Protection of Indians" was passed which curtailed rights of Indians.

It provided that: "White persons or proprietors could apply to