The Republic of China calendar is the method of numbering years currently used in Taiwan by officials and other territories under the control of the Republic of China. It was used in mainland China from 1912 until the founding of the Peoples Republic of China in 1949, for example,2017 is the 106th year of the Republic. Months and days are numbered according to the Gregorian calendar, the Gregorian calendar was adopted by the nascent Republic of China effective 1 January 1912 for official business, but the general populace continued to use the traditional Chinese calendar. The status of the Gregorian calendar was unclear between 1916 and 1921 while China was controlled by several competing warlords each supported by colonial powers. From about 1921 until 1928 warlords continued to fight over northern China, after the Kuomintang reconstituted the Republic of China on 10 October 1928, the Gregorian calendar was officially adopted, effective 1 January 1929. The Peoples Republic of China has continued to use the Gregorian calendar since 1949, despite the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, the numbering of the years was still an issue.
Chinese imperial tradition was to use the era name and year of reign. One alternative to this approach was to use the reign of the half-historical, in the early 20th century, some Chinese Republicans began to advocate such a system of continuously numbered years, so that year markings would be independent of the Emperors regnal name. Following the establishment of the Republic, hence the lack of an Emperor and this reduced the issue of frequent change in the calendar, as no Emperor ruled more than 61 years in Chinese history — the longest being Kangxi Emperor who ruled from 1662–1722. As Chinese era names are two characters long, 民國 is employed as an abbreviation of 中華民國. The first year,1912, is called 民國元年 and 2010, for example,3 May 2004 may be written 2004-05-03 or ROC 93-05-03. The ROC era numbering happens to be the same as the used by the Juche calendar of North Korea, because its founder. The years in Japans Taishō period coincide with those of the ROC era, the use of the ROC era system extends beyond official documents.
Misinterpretation is more likely in the cases when the prefix is omitted, there have been legislative proposals by pro-Taiwan Independence political parties, such as the Democratic Progressive Party to abolish the Republican calendar in favor of the Gregorian calendar. Generally, the ROC era is obtained by subtracting 1911 from the Gregorian calendar year, since the release of Java 8, the Minguo calendar is supported in the new Date and Time API. East Asian age reckoning Public holidays in Taiwan
A seven- to eight-year gap between the Ethiopian and Gregorian calendars results from an alternate calculation in determining the date of the Annunciation. Like the Coptic calendar, the Ethiopic calendar has twelve months of 30 days plus five or six epagomenal days, the Ethiopian months begin on the same days as those of the Coptic calendar, but their names are in Geez. The sixth epagomenal day is added every four years without exception on August 29 of the Julian calendar, thus the first day of the Ethiopian year,1 Mäskäräm, for years between 1900 and 2099, is usually September 11. It, falls on September 12 in years before the Gregorian leap year, in the Gregorian year 2015, the Ethiopian calendar year 2008 begins on September 12, rather than September 11, on account of this additional epagomenal day occurring every four years. It occurs on September 11 in the Gregorian calendar, except for the following a leap year. The Ethiopian calendar year 1998 Amätä Məhrät began on September 11,2005, the Ethiopian years 1996 and 1992 began on September 12,2003 and 1999, respectively.
This date correspondence applies for the Gregorian years 1900 to 2099, as the Gregorian year 2000 is a leap year, the current correspondence lasts two centuries instead. 400, thus its first civil year began seven months earlier on August 29, Europeans eventually adopted the calculations made by Dionysius Exiguus in AD525 instead, which placed the Annunciation eight years earlier than had Annianus. This causes the Ethiopian year number to be eight years less than the Gregorian year number from January 1 until September 10 or 11, in the past, a number of other eras for numbering years were widely used in Ethiopia and the Kingdom of Aksum. Respective to the Gregorian and Julian New Years Days,3 1/2 to four months and it is because 532 is the product of the Metonic cycle of 19 years and the solar cycle of 28 years. Around AD400, an Alexandrine monk called Panodoros fixed the Alexandrian Era, after the 6th century AD, the era was used by Egyptian and Ethiopian chronologists. The twelfth 532-year-cycle of this era began on 29 August AD360, bishop Anianos preferred the Annunciation style as New Years Day,25 March.
Thus he shifted the Panodoros era by about six months, to begin on 25 March 5492 BC, in the Ethiopian calendar this was equivalent to 15 Magabit 5501 B. C. The Anno Mundi era remained in usage until the late 19th century, the four-year leap-year cycle is associated with the four Evangelists, the first year after an Ethiopian leap year is named in honour of John, followed by the Matthew-year and the Mark-year. The year with the sixth day is traditionally designated as the Luke-year. There are no exceptions to the four-year leap-year cycle, like the Julian calendar and these dates are valid only from March 1900 to February 2100. This is because 1900 and 2100 are not leap years in the Gregorian calendar, while they are leap years in the Ethiopian calendar, meaning dates before 1900. The Ethiopian Calendar, Appendix IV, C. F, The Prester John of the Indies
The Berber calendar is the agricultural calendar traditionally used by Berbers. It is known as the fellaḥi, the calendar is utilized to regulate the seasonal agricultural works. It is used in lieu of the Islamic calendar, a calendar considered ill-adapted for agriculture because it does not relate to seasonal cycles. The current Berber calendar is a legacy of the Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis, the latter calendar was used in Europe before the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, with month names derived from Latin. Berber populations previously used various indigenous calendars, such as that of the Guanche autochthones of the Canary Islands, relatively little is known of these ancient calendrical systems. Not much is known about the division of time among the ancient Berbers, some elements of a pre-Islamic, and almost certainly a pre-Roman calendar, emerge from some medieval writings, analyzed by Nico van den Boogert. Some correspondences with the traditional Tuareg calendar suggest that in antiquity there existed, with degree of diffusion.
According to a 17th-century manuscript by Tomás Marín de Cubas, they computed their year, called Acano and it began in summer, when the sun enters in Cancer, on June 21, at the first conjunction they celebrated nine festival days for the crop. The name of one month is known in the native language. It seems it was the month of the year, corresponding to August. Such a name, in case it was made up by something like *wen that of + smet, may correspond, in the list of medieval Berber month names, with the ninth and tenth months, but data are too scarce for this hypothesis to be deepened. The agricultural Berber calendar still in use is almost certainly derived from the Julian calendar, the only slight discrepancy lies in that the extra day in leap years is not usually added at the end of February, but at the end of the year. Jean Servier has doubted that the calendar descends directly from the Julian calendar of the Latin era, there are standard forms for the names of the Amazigh calendar. The table below provides the forms used in Morocco and Tunisia.
In some areas they may be different due to communication and manipulation by the government. Moreover, pronunciation differs according to the region, the coldest period is made up by 20 white nights, from 12 to 31 dujamber, and 20 black nights, beginning on the first day of yennayer, corresponding to the Gregorian 14 January. The first day of the year is celebrated in various ways in the different parts of North Africa, a widespread tradition is a meal with particular foods, which vary from region to region, but in many zones it is provided by the sacrifice of an animal. In Algeria, such a holiday is celebrated even by people who dont use the Berber calendar in daily life
The Bengali Calendar or Bangla Calendar is a solar calendar used in the region of Bengal. A revised version of the calendar is the national and official calendar in Bangladesh, the New Year in the Bengali calendar is known as Pôhela Bôishakh. The Bengali Era or Anno Bengal, the Bengali year is 594 less than the AD or CE year in the Gregorian calendar if it is before Pôhela Bôishakh, the revised version of the Bengali calendar was officially adopted in Bangladesh in 1987. However, it is not followed in India where the traditional version continues to be followed due to occurrence of Hindu festivals based on a particular sidereal solar day. The Bengali calendar is a solar calendar, the calendar was developed by Alauddin Husain Shah, a Hussain Shahi sultan of Bengal by combining the lunar Islamic calendar with the solar calendar, prevalent in Bengal. All theories agree that the Mughal Emperor, Akbar was instrumental in promulgating the Bengali calendar, Akbar modified, developed and re introduced the Bengali Calendar in order to make tax collection easier in Bengal.
The calendar was called as Tarikh-e-Elahi. Sources credit the idea to Alauddin Husain Shah, akbars royal astronomer Fathullah Shirazi developed the Bengali calendar, by synthesizing the Lunar Islamic and Solar calendars. The calendar started with the Islamic calendar value, but the Sanskrit month names were used from the earlier version, the distinctive characteristic of the Bengali year was that rather than being a lunar calendar, it was based on a union of the solar and lunar year. This was essentially a great promotion as the solar and lunar years were formulated in very diverse systems, primarily this calendar was named as Fasli Sôn and Bônggabdô. The Bengali Year was launched on 1584 AD or 992 AH and this was the day that Akbar defeated Hemu in the clash of Panipat to ascend the throne. The month of Muharram in the year 963 AH was equal to the month of Boishakh in the Bengali calendar, in the Tarikh-e-Elahi version of the calendar, each day of the month had a separate name, and the months had different names from what they have now.
The Bengali calendar consists of 6 seasons, known as Rreetu ঋতু or Kal কাল, hence after some centuries the months will shift far away from the actual seasons. But the new revised version of the Bengali calendar used in Bangladesh will continue to maintain the seasons on time as mentioned above. The Bengali Calendar incorporates the seven-day week as used by other calendars. The names of the days of the week in the Bengali Calendar are based on the Navagraha, the day begins and ends at sunrise in the Bengali calendar, unlike in the Gregorian calendar, where the day starts at midnight. Pôhela Bôishakh in West Bengal and other states of India with Bengali diaspora, is celebrated on 14/15 April of the Gregorian calendar, according to the revised version of the calendar, now followed in Bangladesh, Pôhela Bôishakh always falls on 14 April. It is not clear, from what ground they start counting of 1st Bengali calendar year from the 593AD, the length of a year is counted as 365 days, as in the Gregorian calendar
Indian national calendar
The Indian national calendar, sometimes called the Saka calendar, is the official civil calendar in use in India along with the Vikram Samvat calendar. It is used, alongside the Gregorian calendar, by The Gazette of India, in broadcasts by All India Radio and in calendars. The Saka calendar is used in Java and Bali among Indonesian Hindus. Nyepi, the Day of Silence, is a celebration of the Saka new year in Bali, nepals Nepal Sambat evolved from the Saka calendar. The term may refer to the Hindu calendar, the Saka era is commonly used by other calendars. The calendar months follow the signs of the tropical zodiac rather than the sidereal zodiac normally used with Hindu calendar, in leap years, Chaitra has 31 days and starts on March 21 instead. The months in the first half of the year all have 31 days, the names of the months are derived from older, Hindu lunisolar calendars, so variations in spelling exist, and there is a possible source of confusion as to what calendar a date belongs to. Years are counted in the Saka Era, which starts its year 0 in the year 78 of the Common Era.
To determine leap years, add 78 to the Saka year - if the result is a year in the Gregorian calendar. Its structure is like the Persian calendar, despite this effort, local variations based on older sources such as the Surya Siddhanta may still exist. Senior Indian Astrophysicist Meghnad Saha was the head of the Calendar Reform Committee under the aegis of the Council of Scientific, other members of the Committee were, A. C. Banerjee, K. K. Daftari, J. S. Karandikar, Gorakh Prasad, R. V. Vaidya and it was Saha’s effort, which led to the formation of the Committee. The task before the Committee was to prepare an accurate calendar based on scientific study, the Committee had to undertake a detailed study of different calendars prevalent in different parts of the country. The task was complicated by the fact that religion and local sentiments were integral to those calendars. Indias first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, in his preface to the Report of the Committee, published in 1955, wrote, “They represent past political divisions in the country….
”Usage started officially at Chaitra 1,1879, Saka Era, or March 22,1957, Dionysian Era. However, government officials seem to ignore the New Years Day of this calendar in favour of the religious calendar. Mapping Time, The Calendar and its History by E. G, Calendars and their History Indian Calendars Positional astronomy in India Indian National Calendar abstract
1st century BC
The 1st century BC, known as the last century BC, started on the first day of 100 BC and ended on the last day of 1 BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a zero, astronomical year numbering does use a zero, as well as a minus sign. This is the 100th century in the Holocene calendar, it spans the years 9,901 to 10,000, octavians ascension to total power as the emperor Augustus is considered to mark the point in history where the Roman Republic ends and the Roman Empire begins. Some scholars refer to this event as the Roman Revolution and it is believed that the birth of Jesus, the central figure of Christianity took place at the close of this century. In the eastern mainland, the Han Dynasty began to decline, trapped in a difficult situation, the Xiongnu had to begin emigration to the west or attach themselves to the Han. 97 BC, Ariarathes VIII forced out of Cappadocia by Mithridates VI of Pontus,96 BC, Cyrene is left to the people of Rome by its ruler Ptolemy Apion. 96 BC, King Alexander Jannaeus of Judea wins the Siege of Gaza,95 BC, Tigranes the Great becomes king of Armenia 93 BC, Ariobarzanes I Philoromaios becomes king of Cappadocia with Roman backing.
91 BC, The assassination of Marcus Livius Drusus leads to the Social War in Italy 91 BC,89 BC, Mithridates VI of Pontuss invasion of Cappadocia leads to the First Mithridatic War with the Roman Republic. 88-87 BC, Sullas first civil war - Sulla marches on Rome and defeats Gaius Marius 86 BC,86 BC, The death of the regent of China Jin Midi unleashes the rivalry of his co-regents Shangguang Jie and Huo Guang. 85 BC, Sulla defeats the forces of Mithridates VI in Greece at the Battle of Orchomenus 85 BC,83 BC, Sulla makes peace with Mithridates VI and marches on Rome. 83-81 BC, Lucius Licinius Murena wages the Second Mithridatic War,82 BC, Sertorius flees from Sulla to North Africa via Hispania c.83 BC, Tigranes of Armenia takes control of Syria after the implosion of the Seleucid dynasty. 81 BC, End of Sullas second civil war - Sulla is appointed dictator of the Roman state,80 BC, Sertorius invades Hispania and sets up his own regime, beginning the Sertorian War. 80 BC, Conflict between the regents Shangguang Jie and Huo Guang results in the destruction of the Shangguang clan, C.80 BC, King of the Sakas, conquers Gandhara and Taxila.
77 BC, Fu Jiezi assassinated the king of Loulan on behalf of the Han dynasty, C.75 BC, Kanva dynasty replaces the Shunga dynasty in Magadha. 74 BC, Mithridates VI of Pontus disputes Nicomedes IV of Bithynias bequest of his kingdom to the Roman Republic,74 BC, Emperor Zhao of Han dies and is succeeded by the unsuitable Prince He of Changyi and by Xuan. Huo Guang continues to be de facto ruler of China,73 BC, A slave rebellion led by the escaped gladiator Spartacus leads to the Third Servile War. 73-72 BC, Lucullus defeats Mithridates at Tenedos and the Rhyndacus and he flees east to Armenia 71 BC, Pompey the Great ends the Sertorian War,71 BC, Wusun and China attack the Xiongnu. 69 BC, Lucullus invades Armenia and reestablishes the Seleucids in Syria,68 BC, Pompey replaces Lucullus as leader of the Roman forces in the Third Mithridatic War
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to date events in many Muslim countries and it is used by Muslims to determine the proper days of Islamic holidays and rituals, such as the annual period of fasting and the proper time for the pilgrimage to Mecca. The Islamic calendar employs the Hijri era whose epoch was retrospectively established as the Islamic New Year of AD622, during that year and his followers migrated from Mecca to Yathrib and established the first Muslim community, an event commemorated as the Hijra. In the West, dates in this era are usually denoted AH in parallel with the Christian, in Muslim countries, it is sometimes denoted as H from its Arabic form. In English, years prior to the Hijra are reckoned as BH, the current Islamic year is 1438 AH. In the Gregorian calendar,1438 AH runs from approximately 3 October 2016 to 21 September 2017, four of the twelve Hijri months are considered sacred and the three consecutive months of Dhū al-Qa‘dah, Dhu al-Ḥijjah and Muḥarram.
As the lunar calendar lags behind the solar calendar by about ten days every gregorian year, the cycle repeats every 33 lunar years. Each month of the Islamic calendar commences on the birth of the new lunar cycle, traditionally this is based on actual observation of the crescent marking the end of the previous lunar cycle and hence the previous month, thereby beginning the new month. Consequently, each month can have 29 or 30 days depending on the visibility of the moon, astronomical positioning of the earth and weather conditions. However, certain sects and groups, most notably Dawoodi Bohra Muslims and Shia Ismaili Muslims, use a tabular Islamic calendar in which odd-numbered months have thirty days, in Arabic, the first day of the week corresponds with Sunday of the planetary week. The Islamic weekdays, like those in the Hebrew and Baháí calendars, the Christian liturgical day, kept in monasteries, begins with vespers, which is evening, in line with the other Abrahamic traditions. Christian and planetary weekdays begin at the following midnight, Muslims gather for worship at a mosque at noon on gathering day which corresponds with Friday.
Thus gathering day is regarded as the weekly day of rest. A few others have adopted the Saturday-Sunday weekend while making Friday a working day with a midday break to allow time off for worship. Inscriptions of the ancient South Arabian calendars reveal the use of a number of local calendars, at least some of these calendars followed the lunisolar system. For Central Arabia, especially Mecca, there is a lack of epigraphical evidence, both al-Biruni and al-Masudi suggest that the Ancient Arabs used the same month names as the Muslims, though they record other month names used by the pre-Islamic Arabs. Nevertheless, the Islamic position equating Nisan with Dhū al-Ḥijja has prevailed, for a comparison between the Islamic and pre-Islamic months, see Islamic and Jahili months. The Islamic tradition is unanimous in stating that Arabs of Tihamah, the forbidden months were four months during which fighting is forbidden, listed as Rajab and the three months around the pilgrimage season, Dhu al-Qa‘dah, Dhu al-Hijjah, and Muharram
The 2nd century is the period from 101 to 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period, early in the century, the Roman Empire attained its greatest expansion under the emperor Trajan, but after his death became primarily defensive for the rest of its history. Much prosperity took place throughout the empire at this time, ruled as it were by the Five Good Emperors and this period saw the removal of the Jews from Jerusalem during the reign of Hadrian after Bar Kokhbas revolt. This set in motion its ultimate decline, until it was overthrown in 220, AD96 –180, Five Good Emperors of Rome, Trajan, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. 101 –102,105 –106, The Dacian Wars, after two conflicts, Dacia is annexed as a Roman province. 114 –116, A war with Parthia results in Armenia and Mesopotamia being temporarily annexed into the Roman Empire,115 –117, Kitos War, adjunct to the Jewish–Roman wars. 122 –132, Hadrians Wall across Northern England,127 –163, Kushan Ruler.
132 –135, Bar Kokhbas revolt against Rome,132, Chinese chronicles described the existence of diplomatic relations between Java and China. 140 –180, Kushan ruler,142, The Antonine Wall is built across central Scotland. 144, rejected by Church of Rome, founds Marcionism,161 –166, Roman–Parthian War of 161–166. 165 –180, The Antonine Plague in Rome,180 –192, Roman Emperor. 184 –205, The Yellow Turban Rebellion of the Han Dynasty in China begins,184 –189, The Liang Province Rebellion breakouts in Northwest China. 189 –220, The End of the Han dynasty,190 –191, Warlords across China launches a Campaign against Dong Zhuo. 193, Roman Year of the Five Emperors,193 –211, Septimius Severus, Roman Emperor. Herakleitos makes The Unswept Floor, mosaic variant of a 2nd-century BC painting by Sosos of Pergamon and it is now kept at the Musei Vaticani, in Rome. 2nd or 3rd century – Standing Buddha, from Gandhara, is made and it is now kept at Lahore Museum, Lahore. Nagarjuna, founder of Madhyamaka Buddhism Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, Zhang Heng, Chinese statesman, inventor, astronomer and engineer.
Zhang Jue, Chinese rebel leader Zhang Zhongjing, one of the most famous Chinese physicians during Han Dynasty, ptolemy compiles a catalogue of all stars visible to the naked eye
Vikram Samvat Nepali, नेपाली पात्रो, Listen ) is an era used in India and Nepal, just like the Christian era started in 1 CE. The Vikram Samvat started in 58/57 BCE in southern and 57/56 BCE in northern systems of Hindu calendar, the era is named after king Vikramaditya. The Vikram Samvat calendar is 56.7 years ahead of the solar Gregorian calendar, for example, the year 2073 BS began in 2016 CE and will end in 2017 CE. The new year begins with the first day of month Baishakh, the first day of the new year is passionately celebrated in a historical carnival that takes place every year in Bhaktapur, called Bisket Jatra. The Rana rulers of Nepal made it their official calendar, there have been calls for the Vikram Samvat to replace Saka as Indias official calendar. The classical Vikram Samvat uses lunar months and solar sidereal years, because 12 months do not match a sidereal year exactly, correctional months are added or occasionally subtracted. A Tithi or lunar day is defined as the time it takes for the angle between the moon and the Sun to increase by 12°.
Tithis begin at varying times of day and vary in duration from approximately 19 to approximately 26 hours, a Paksa or lunar fortnight consists of 15 tithis. According to popular tradition, the legendary king Vikramaditya of Ujjain established the Vikrama Samvat era after defeating the Śakas. Kalakacharya Kathanaka by the Jain sage Mahesarasuri gives the account, the then-powerful king of Ujjain, abducted a nun called Sarasvati. The enraged monk sought the help of the Śaka ruler King Sahi in Sistan, despite heavy odds but aided by miracles, the Śaka king defeated Gandharvasena and made him a captive. Sarasvati was repatriated, although Gandharvasena himself was forgiven, the defeated king retired to the forest, where he was killed by a tiger. His son, being brought up in the forest, had to rule from Pratishthana, on, Vikramaditya invaded Ujjain and drove away the Śakas. To commemorate this event, he started a new era called the Vikrama era, the Ujjain calendar started around 56-58 BCE, and the subsequent Shaka era calendar was started in 78 CE at Pratishthana.
The association of the era beginning in 57 BCE with Vikramaditya is not found in any source before the 9th century CE, the earlier sources call this era by various names, including Kṛṭa, the era of the Malava tribe, or simply, Samvat. The earliest known inscription that calls the era Vikrama is from 842 CE and this inscription of Chauhana ruler Chandamahasena was found at Dholpur, and is dated Vikrama Samvat 898, Vaishakha Shukla 2, Chanda. The earliest known inscription that associates this era with a king called Vikramaditya is dated 971 CE, the earliest literary work that connects the era to Vikramaditya is Subhashita-Ratna-Sandoha by the Jain author Amitagati. V. A. Smith and D. R. Bhandarkar believed that Chandragupta II adopted the title Vikramaditya, some scholars believed that the Vikrama Samavat corresponded to the Azes era of the Indo-Scythian king King Azes
The 1st century was the century that lasted from AD1 to AD100 according to the Julian calendar. It is often written as the 1st century AD or 1st century CE to distinguish it from the 1st century BC which preceded it, the 1st century is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. During this period Europe, North Africa and the Near East fell under increasing domination by the Roman Empire, the reforms introduced by Augustus during his long reign stabilized the empire after the turmoil of the previous centurys civil wars. Later in the century the Julio-Claudian dynasty, which had been founded by Augustus, the Roman Empire generally experienced a period of prosperity and dominance in this period and the First Century is remembered as part of the Empires golden age. The 1st Century saw the appearance of Christianity, China continued to be dominated by the Han Dynasty, despite a fourteen-year interruption by the Xin dynasty under Wang Mang. Han rule was restored in AD23, Wang Mangs rule represents the watershed between the Western/Former Han and the Eastern/Later Han, the capital was moved from Changan to Luoyang.
Western Asia and Parthian Empires and Arabian Kingdoms, southeast Asia, Mandala of city-states, Kingdom of Funan East Asia, Han Dynasty, Yamatai and Xianbei tribal chiefdoms, Three Kingdoms of Korea. North America, Central America, Mayan and Zapotec civilizations, South America, Moche civilizations, Tairona tribal chiefdoms. Early 1st century – Augustus of Primaporta, is made and it is now kept in Musei Vaticani, Braccio Nuovo, Rome. Early 1st century – Gemma Augustea is made and it is now kept at Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. Early 1st century – House of the Silver Wedding, Pompeii, is built, excavated in 1893, the year of the silver wedding anniversary of Italys King Humbert and his wife, Margherita of Savoy, who have supported archaeological fieldwork at Pompeii. Early 1st century - Inner shrine, Mie, Mie Prefecture, is built, AD1, Lions became extinct in Western Europe. AD2, First Census of China, the census is one of the most accurate in Chinese history, AD7, Prince Cunobeline of Catuvellauni defeats the Trinovantes in England and establishes his capital at Camulodunum.
AD9, Three Roman legions were ambushed and destroyed at Teutoberg Forest by Germans under the leadership of Arminius, AD9, Prince Cunobeline is crowned King of Catuvellauni, his Kingdom dominates Southern England. AD 9–23, Wang Mang temporarily overthrew the Han dynasty of China, AD14, Augustus Caesar, first emperor of Rome, dies. His adopted son and son-in-law Tiberius is his successor, AD25, The Han dynasty is restored by Liu Xiu who proclaims himself Emperor Guangwu of Han. AD 28–75, Emperor Ming of Han, Buddhism reaches China, humans arrive on Pentecost Island and establish the Bunlap tribe, among others. AD29, Jesus begins his ministry, AD33, The Crucifixion of Jesus
The Javanese calendar is the calendar of the Javanese people. It is used concurrently with two other calendars, the Gregorian calendar and the Islamic calendar, prior to that, Javanese had used the Hindu calendar or Saka calendar which that starts in 78 CE and uses the solar cycle for calculating time. Sultan Agungs calendar retained the Saka calendar year counting but differs by using the lunar year measurement system as the Islamic calendar. Occasionally it is referred by its Latin name Anno Javanico or AJ, the Javanese calendar contains multiple, overlapping but separate measurements of times, called cycles. Traditionally Javanese people didnt divide day and night hours. The division of a day and night are, The native Javanese system groups days into a week called Pasaran. The name, pasaran, is derived from the root word pasar, the days of the cycle have two names each, because the Javanese language has distinct vocabulary associated with two different registers of politeness and krama. The krama names for the days are less common.
ꦊꦒꦶ – ꦩꦤꦶꦱ꧀ ꦥꦲꦶꦁ – ꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀ ꦥꦺꦴꦤ꧀ – ꦥꦼꦠꦏ꧀ ꦮꦒꦺ – ꦕꦼꦩꦺꦁ ꦏ꧀ꦭꦶꦮꦺꦴꦤ꧀ – ꦲꦱꦶꦃ The origin of the names is unclear, the names may be derived from indigenous gods, like the European and Asian names. Markets no longer operate under this traditional Pasaran cycle, instead pragmatically remaining open every day of the Gregorian week, however many markets in Java still retain traditional names that indicated that once the markets only operated on certain Pasaran days, such as Pasar Legi, or Pasar Kliwon. Javanese people find great interest in their interpretations in this combination. The seven-day-long week cycle is derived from the Islamic calendar, adopted following the spread of Islam in Indonesian archipelago and this combination form the wetonan cycle explained below. The Wetonan cycle superimposes the five-day Pasaran cycle with the week cycle. Each Wetonan cycle lasts 35 days, an example of wetonan cycle, From the example above, the Weton for Tuesday May 6,2008 would be read as Selasa Wage. The Wetonan cycle is important for divinatory systems, and important celebrations, rites of passage, commemorations.
An especially prominent example widely still taught at schools is the Weton for the Proclamation of Independence of Indonesia on August 17,1945. It was coinciding with the Weton for the birth and death of Sultan Agung, Jumat Legi is considered an important night for pilgrimage. There are taboos that relate to the cycle, for example, pawukon is a 210-day cycle in Javanese calendar, related to Hindu tradition