An Emmy Award, or Emmy, is an American award that recognizes excellence in the television industry, is the equivalent of an Academy Award, the Tony Award, the Grammy Award. Because Emmys are given in various sectors of the American television industry, they are presented in different annual ceremonies held throughout the year; the two events that receive the most media coverage are the Primetime Emmy Awards and the Daytime Emmy Awards, which recognize outstanding work in American primetime and daytime entertainment programming, respectively. Other notable Emmy Award ceremonies are those honoring national sports programming, national news and documentary shows, national business and financial reporting, technological and engineering achievements in television, including the Primetime Engineering Emmy Awards. Regional Emmy Awards are presented throughout the country at various times through the year, recognizing excellence in local and statewide television. In addition, International Emmys are awarded for excellence in TV programming produced and aired outside the United States.
Three related but separate organizations present the Emmy Awards: the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, the National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, the International Academy of Television Arts and Sciences. Each is responsible for administering a particular set of Emmy ceremonies; the Los Angeles–based Academy of Television Arts & Sciences established the Emmy Award as part of an image-building and public relations opportunity. The first Emmy Awards ceremony took place on January 25, 1949, at the Hollywood Athletic Club, but to honor shows produced and aired locally in the Los Angeles area. Shirley Dinsdale has the distinction of receiving the first Emmy Award for Most Outstanding Television Personality, during that first awards ceremony; the term "Emmy" is a French alteration of the television crew slang term "Immy", the nickname for an "image orthicon", a camera tube used in TV production. In the 1950s, the ATAS expanded the Emmys into a national event, presenting the awards to shows aired nationwide on broadcast television.
In 1955, the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences was formed in New York City as a sister organization to serve members on the East Coast, help to supervise the Emmys. The NATAS established regional chapters throughout the United States, with each one developing their own local Emmy awards show for local programming; the ATAS still however maintained its separate regional ceremony honoring local programming in the Los Angeles Area. There was only one Emmy Awards ceremony held per year to honor shows nationally broadcast in the United States. In 1974, the first Daytime Emmy Awards ceremony was held to honor achievement in national daytime programming. Other area-specific Emmy Awards ceremonies soon followed; the International Emmy Awards, honoring television programs produced and aired outside the U. S. was established in the early 1970s. Meanwhile, all Emmys awarded prior to the emergence of these separate, area-specific ceremonies are listed along with the Primetime Emmy Awards in the ATAS's official records.
In 1977, due to various conflicts, the ATAS and the NATAS agreed to split ties. However, they agreed to share ownership of the Emmy statue and trademark, with each responsible for administering a specific set of award ceremonies. There was an exception regarding the Engineering Awards: the NATAS continues to administer the Technology & Engineering Emmy Awards, while the ATAS holds the separate Primetime Engineering Emmy Awards. With the rise of cable television in the 1980s, cable programs first became eligible for the Primetime Emmys in 1988 and the Daytime Emmys in 1989. In 2011, the ABC Television Network cancelled the soap operas All My Children and One Life to Live and sold the two shows' licensing rights to the production company Prospect Park so they could be continued on web television; the ATAS began accepting original online-only web television programs in 2013. The Emmy statuette, depicting a winged woman holding an atom, was designed by television engineer Louis McManus, who used his wife as the model.
The TV Academy rejected forty-seven proposals before settling on McManus's design in 1948. The statuette "has since become the symbol of the TV Academy's goal of supporting and uplifting the art and science of television: The wings represent the muse of art. However, "Ike" was the popular nickname of World War II hero and future U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Academy members wanted something unique. Television engineer and the third academy president Harry Lubcke suggested the name "Immy", a term used for the image orthicon tube used in the early cameras. After "Immy" was chosen, it was feminized to Emmy to match their female statuette; each Primetime Emmy statuette weighs six pounds, twelve-and-a-half ounces, is made of copper, nickel and gold. The statue stands 15.5 inches tall with weight of 88 oz. The Regional Emmy Award statuette is 11.5 inches tall with a base diameter of 5.5 inches and weight of 48 oz. Each takes five and a half hours to
Michael Sylvester Gardenzio Stallone is an American actor, director and producer. He is well known for his Hollywood action roles, including boxer Rocky Balboa in the Rocky series, soldier John Rambo in the five Rambo films, mercenary Barney Ross in the three The Expendables films and structural engineer Ray Breslin in the three Escape Plan films, he wrote or co-wrote most of the 16 films in the first three popular franchises and directed many of them. Stallone's film Rocky was inducted into the National Film Registry, had its props placed in the Smithsonian Museum, his use of the front entrance to the Philadelphia Museum of Art in the Rocky series led the area to be nicknamed the Rocky Steps, Philadelphia has a statue of his Rocky character placed permanently near the museum. It was announced on December 7, 2010, that he was voted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame in the non-participant category. In 1977, Stallone was nominated for two Academy Awards for Rocky, for Best Original Screenplay and Best Actor.
He became the third man in history to receive these two nominations for the same film, after Charlie Chaplin and Orson Welles. He received positive reviews, as well as his first Golden Globe Award win and a third Academy Award nomination, for reprising the role of Rocky Balboa in Ryan Coogler's 2015 film Creed. Michael Sylvester Gardenzio Stallone was born in the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood of Manhattan, New York, on July 6, 1946, the elder son of Francesco "Frank" Stallone Sr. a hairdresser and beautician, Jacqueline "Jackie" Stallone, an astrologer and promoter of women's wrestling. His Italian father was born in Gioia del Colle and moved to the U. S. in the 1930s, while his American mother is of French and Ukrainian-Jewish descent. His younger brother is musician Frank Stallone. Complications suffered by Stallone's mother during labor forced her obstetricians to use two pairs of forceps during his birth; as a result, the lower left side of his face is paralyzed, an accident which gave him his signature snarling look and slurred speech.
He was baptized Catholic. His father moved the family to Washington, D. C. in the early 1950s to open a beauty school. In 1954, his mother opened a women's gym called Barbella's. Stallone attended Notre Dame Academy and Lincoln High School in Philadelphia, as well as Charlotte Hall Military Academy, prior to attending Miami Dade College and the University of Miami. While Stallone was in Switzerland, he played a restaurant patron, in a scene with Robert Redford and Camilla Sparv, in the sports drama, Downhill Racer. Stallone had his first starring role in the softcore pornography feature film The Party at Kitty and Stud's, he was paid US$200 for two days' work. Stallone explained that he had done the film out of desperation after being evicted from his apartment and finding himself homeless for several days, he has said that he slept three weeks in the Port Authority Bus Terminal in New York City prior to seeing a casting notice for the film. In the actor's words, "it was either do that movie or rob someone, because I was at the end – the end – of my rope".
The film was released several years as Italian Stallion, in order to cash in on Stallone's newfound fame. Stallone starred in the erotic off-Broadway stage play Score which ran for 23 performances at the Martinique Theatre from October 28 to November 15, 1971, was made into the 1974 film Score by Radley Metzger. In 1972, Stallone appeared in the film No Place to Hide, re-cut and retitled Rebel, the second version featuring Stallone as its star. After the style of Woody Allen's What's Up, Tiger Lily?, this film, in 1990, was re-edited from outtakes from the original movie and newly shot matching footage redubbed into an award-winning parody of itself titled A Man Called... Rainbo. Stallone's other first few film roles were minor, included brief uncredited appearances in Pigeons as a party guest, Woody Allen's Bananas as a subway thug, in the psychological thriller Klute as an extra dancing in a club, in the Jack Lemmon film The Prisoner of Second Avenue as a youth. In the Lemmon film, Jack Lemmon's character chases and mugs Stallone, thinking that Stallone's character is a pickpocket.
According to actor Elliott Gould, Stallone confessed to being in MASH as an extra. He had his second starring role in The Lords of Flatbush, in 1974. In 1975, he played supporting roles in Farewell, My Lovely, he made guest appearances on the TV series Police Kojak. Stallone gained worldwide fame with his starring role in the smash hit Rocky. On March 24, 1975, Stallone saw the Muhammad Ali–Chuck Wepner fight; that night Stallone went home, after three days and 20 straight hours, he had written the script, but Stallone subsequently denied that Wepner provided any inspiration for it. Other possible inspirations for the film may have included Rocky Graziano's autobiography Somebody Up There Likes Me, the movie of the same name. Wepner filed a lawsuit, settled with Stallone for an undisclosed amount. Stallone attempted to sell the script to multiple studios, with the intention of playing the lead role himself. Irwin Winkler and Robert Chartoff became interested and offered Stallone US$350,000 for the rights, but had their own casting ideas for the lead role, including Robert Redford and Burt Reynolds.
Stallone refused to sell unless he played the le
Aliens is a 1986 American science-fiction action horror film written and directed by James Cameron, produced by Gale Anne Hurd and starring Sigourney Weaver. It is the second installment in the Alien franchise; the film follows Weaver's character Ellen Ripley as she returns to the moon where her crew encountered the hostile Alien creature, this time accompanied by a unit of space marines. Additional roles are played by Carrie Henn, Michael Biehn, Paul Reiser, Lance Henriksen, Jenette Goldstein, William Hope, Al Matthews, Bill Paxton. Gordon Carroll, David Giler, Walter Hill of Brandywine Productions, who produced the first film and its sequels, served as executive producers on Aliens, they were interested in a follow-up to Alien as soon as its 1979 release, but the new management at 20th Century Fox postponed those plans until 1983. Brandywine picked Cameron to write after reading his script for The Terminator, it was filmed in England at a decommissioned power plant in Acton, London. Aliens grossed $180 million worldwide.
It was nominated for seven Academy Awards, including a Best Actress nomination for Sigourney Weaver, winning both Sound Effects Editing and Visual Effects. It won eight Saturn Awards, a Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation. Empire magazine voted it the'Greatest Film Sequel Of All Time'. Aliens was the seventh-highest-grossing film of 1986 in North America. A sequel, Alien 3, was released in 1992, with Weaver reprising her role as Ripley and Henriksen as Bishop in the film. Ellen Ripley has been in stasis in a shuttle for 57 years, she is debriefed by her employers at the Weyland-Yutani Corporation. The exomoon LV-426, where the Nostromo encountered the derelict ship containing alien eggs, is now home to the terraforming colony Hadleys Hope; when contact is lost with the colony, Weyland-Yutani representative Carter Burke and Colonial Marine Lieutenant Gorman ask Ripley to accompany Burke and a Colonial Marine unit to investigate the disturbance. Despite suffering from recurring nightmares about her original experience with the alien, she joins the expedition on Burke's word that their mission is to exterminate the creatures.
Aboard the spaceship USS Sulaco, she is introduced to the Colonial Marines and the android Bishop, toward whom Ripley is hostile following her experience with the traitorous android Ash aboard the Nostromo. A dropship delivers the expedition to the surface of LV-426. Inside, they find makeshift signs of a struggle, but no bodies; the crew uses the colony's computer to locate the colonists grouped beneath the fusion powered atmosphere processing station. They head to the location. At the center of the station, the Marines find the colonists cocooned, serving as incubators for the creatures' offspring; when the Marines kill a chestburster, the other aliens are roused and ambush the troops, killing Frost, Crowe and Drake while capturing Apone and Dietrich alive to be cocooned as hosts. When the inexperienced Gorman panics, Ripley assumes command, taking control of their armored personnel carrier, rams the nest to rescue Corporal Hicks, Private Hudson and Private Vasquez, the only three survivors.
Hicks orders the dropship to recover the survivors, but a stowaway alien kills the pilots Spunkmeyer and Ferro, causing it to crash into the station. The remaining group barricade themselves inside the colony command center. Ripley discovers that Burke sent the colonists to investigate the derelict spaceship where the Nostromo crew first encountered the eggs, believing he could become wealthy by recovering alien specimens for use as biological weapons, she threatens to expose him, but Bishop informs the group that the power plant was damaged by the dropship crash along with the previous firefight that ruptured the cooling system and will soon explode with the force of a 40-megaton thermonuclear weapon. He volunteers to crawl through several hundred meters of piping conduits to reach the colony's transmitter and remotely pilot the Sulaco's remaining dropship to the surface. Ripley and Newt fall asleep in the medical laboratory, awakening to find themselves locked in the room with the two "facehuggers", which have been released from their tanks.
Ripley triggers a fire alarm to alert the Marines, who kill the creatures. Ripley accuses Burke of releasing the facehuggers so that they would impregnate her and Newt, allowing him to smuggle the embryos past Earth's quarantine, of planning to kill the rest of the Marines so that no one could contradict his version of events. Before the Marines can kill Burke, the power is cut, aliens assault through the ceiling. In the ensuing firefight, Burke attempts to flee but is cornered by an alien, while Hudson is dragged away after covering the others' retreat. Gorman and the injured Vasquez sacrifice themselves. Ripley and Hicks reach Bishop in the second dropship, but Ripley refuses to abandon N
Mr. Smith Goes to Washington
Mr. Smith Goes to Washington is a 1939 American political comedy-drama film directed by Frank Capra, starring Jean Arthur and James Stewart, featuring Claude Rains and Edward Arnold; the film is about a newly appointed United States Senator who fights against a corrupt political system, was written by Sidney Buchman, based on Lewis R. Foster's unpublished story "The Gentleman from Montana"; the film was controversial when it was first released, but was successful at the box office, made Stewart a major movie star. Mr. Smith Goes to Washington was nominated for eleven Academy Awards, winning for Best Original Story. Considered to be one of the greatest films of all time, the film was selected by the Library of Congress for preservation in the United States National Film Registry in 1989, deeming it "culturally or aesthetically significant"; the governor of an unnamed western state, Hubert "Happy" Hopper, has to pick a replacement for deceased U. S. Senator Sam Foley, his corrupt political boss, Jim Taylor, pressures Hopper to choose his handpicked stooge, while popular committees want a reformer, Henry Hill.
The governor's children want him to select the head of the Boy Rangers. Unable to make up his mind between Taylor's stooge and the reformer, Hopper decides to flip a coin; when it lands on edge – and next to a newspaper story on one of Smith's accomplishments – he chooses Smith, calculating that his wholesome image will please the people while his naïveté will make him easy to manipulate. Junior Senator Smith is taken under the wing of the publicly esteemed, but secretly crooked, Senator Joseph Paine, Smith's late father's friend. Smith develops an immediate attraction to Susan. At Senator Paine's home, Smith has a conversation with Susan and bumbling, entranced by the young socialite. Smith's naïve and honest nature allows the unforgiving Washington press to take advantage of him tarnishing Smith's reputation with ridiculous front page pictures and headlines branding him a bumpkin. To keep Smith busy, Paine suggests he propose a bill. With the help of his secretary, Clarissa Saunders, the aide to Smith's predecessor and had been around Washington and politics for years, Smith comes up with a bill to authorize a federal government loan to buy some land in his home state for a national boys' camp, to be paid back by youngsters across America.
Donations pour in immediately. However, the proposed campsite is part of a dam-building graft scheme included in an appropriations bill framed by the Taylor political machine and supported by Senator Paine. Unwilling to crucify the worshipful Smith so that their graft plan will go through, Paine tells Taylor he wants out, but Taylor reminds him that Paine is in power through Taylor's influence. Through Paine, the machine in his state accuses Smith of trying to profit from his bill by producing fraudulent evidence that Smith owns the land in question. Smith is too shocked by Paine's betrayal to defend himself, runs away. Saunders, who looked down on Smith at first, but has come to believe in him, talks him into launching a filibuster to postpone the appropriations bill and prove his innocence on the Senate floor just before the vote to expel him. In his last chance to prove his innocence, he talks non-stop for about 25 hours, reaffirming the American ideals of freedom and disclosing the true motives of the dam scheme.
Yet none of the Senators are convinced. The constituents try to rally around him, but the entrenched opposition is too powerful, all attempts are crushed. Owing to the influence of Taylor's machine and radio stations in Smith's home state, on Taylor's orders, refuse to report what Smith has to say and distort the facts against the senator. An effort by the Boy Rangers to spread the news in support of Smith results in vicious attacks on the children by Taylor's minions. Although all hope seems lost, the senators begin to pay attention as Smith approaches utter exhaustion. Paine has one last card up his sleeve: he brings in bins of letters and telegrams from Smith's home state, purportedly from average people demanding his expulsion. Nearly broken by the news, Smith finds a small ray of hope in a friendly smile from the President of the Senate. Smith vows to press on until people believe him, but collapses in a faint. Overcome with guilt, Paine leaves the Senate chamber and attempts to commit suicide by gunshot, but is stopped by onlooking senators.
He bursts back into the Senate chamber, shouting a confession to the whole scheme. The President of the Senate observes the ensuing chaos with amusement. Cast notes: Among the unbilled veteran character actors seen in the film are Guy Kibbee's brother, Milton Kibbee, who has a bit as a reporter. In the film in minor roles are Dub Taylor and Jack Carson well-known actors. Silent film star Hank Mann played a photographer. Columbia Pictures purchased Lewis R. Foster's unpublished story, variously called "The Gentleman from Montana" and "The Gentleman from Wyoming", as a vehicle for Ralph Bellamy, but once Frank Capra came on board as director – after Rouben Mamoulian had expressed interest – the film was to be a sequel to his Mr. Deeds Goes to Town, called Mr. Deeds Goes to Washington, with Gary Cooper reprising his role as Longfellow Deeds; because Cooper was unavailable, Capra "saw it as a vehicle for Jimmy Stewart and Jean Arthur", Stewart was borrowed from MGM. Capra said of Stewart: "I
Casablanca is a 1942 American romantic drama film directed by Michael Curtiz based on Murray Burnett and Joan Alison's unproduced stage play Everybody Comes to Rick's. The film stars Humphrey Bogart, Ingrid Bergman, Paul Henreid. Set during contemporary World War II, it focuses on an American expatriate who must choose between his love for a woman and helping her and her husband, a Czech Resistance leader, escape from the Vichy-controlled city of Casablanca to continue his fight against the Nazis. Warner Bros. story editor Irene Diamond convinced producer Hal B. Wallis to purchase the film rights to the play in January 1942. Brothers Julius and Philip G. Epstein were assigned to write the script. However, despite studio resistance, they left to work on Frank Capra's Why We Fight series early in 1942. Howard Koch was assigned to the screenplay. Principal photography began on May 25, 1942, ending on August 3. Studios in Burbank, California with the exception of one sequence at Van Nuys Airport in Van Nuys, Los Angeles.
Although Casablanca was an A-list film with established stars and first-rate writers, no one involved with its production expected it to be anything other than one of the hundreds of ordinary pictures produced by Hollywood that year. Casablanca was rushed into release to take advantage of the publicity from the Allied invasion of North Africa a few weeks earlier, it had its world premiere on November 26, 1942, in New York City and was released nationally in the United States on January 23, 1943. The film was a solid if unspectacular success in its initial run. Exceeding expectations, Casablanca went on to win the Academy Award for Best Picture, while Curtiz was selected as Best Director and the Epsteins and Koch were honored for writing the Best Adapted Screenplay, its reputation improved, to the point that its lead characters, memorable lines, pervasive theme song have all become famous and it ranks near the top of lists of the greatest films in history. In December 1941, American expatriate Rick Blaine owns an upscale nightclub and gambling den in Casablanca.
"Rick's Café Américain" attracts a varied clientele, including Vichy French and German officials, refugees desperate to reach the still-neutral United States, those who prey on them. Although Rick professes to be neutral in all matters, he ran guns to Ethiopia during its war with Italy and fought on the Loyalist side in the Spanish Civil War. Petty crook Ugarte boasts to Rick of "letters of transit" obtained by murdering two German couriers; the papers allow the bearers to travel around German-occupied Europe and to neutral Portugal, are priceless to the refugees stranded in Casablanca. Ugarte plans to sell them at the club, asks Rick to hold them. Before he can meet his contact, Ugarte is arrested by the local police under the command of Captain Louis Renault, the unabashedly corrupt Vichy prefect of police. Ugarte dies in custody without revealing; the reason for Rick's bitterness—former lover Ilsa Lund—enters his establishment. Spotting Rick's friend and house pianist, Ilsa asks him to play "As Time Goes By."
Rick storms over, furious that Sam disobeyed his order never to perform that song, is stunned to see Ilsa. She is accompanied by Victor Laszlo, a renowned fugitive Czech Resistance leader, they need the letters to escape to America to continue his work. German Major Strasser has come to Casablanca to see; when Laszlo makes inquiries, Ferrari, a major underworld figure and Rick's friendly business rival, divulges his suspicion that Rick has the letters. Rick refuses to sell at any price, telling Laszlo to ask his wife the reason, they are interrupted when Strasser leads a group of officers in singing "Die Wacht am Rhein". Laszlo orders the house band to play "La Marseillaise"; when the band looks to Rick, he nods his head. Laszlo starts singing, alone at first patriotic fervor grips the crowd and everyone joins in, drowning out the Germans. Strasser demands Renault close the club, which he does on the pretext of discovering there is gambling on the premises. Ilsa confronts Rick in the deserted café.
When he refuses to give her the letters, she threatens him with a gun, but confesses that she still loves him. She explains that when they met and fell in love in Paris in 1940, she believed her husband had been killed attempting to escape from a concentration camp. While preparing to flee with Rick from the imminent fall of the city to the German army, she learned Laszlo was alive and in hiding, she left Rick without explanation to nurse her sick husband. Rick's bitterness dissolves, he agrees letting her believe she will stay with him when Laszlo leaves. When Laszlo unexpectedly shows up, having narrowly escaped a police raid on a Resistance meeting, Rick has waiter Carl spirit Ilsa away. Laszlo, aware of Rick's love for Ilsa, tries to persuade him to use the letters to take her to safety; when the police arrest Laszlo on a minor, trumped-up charge, Rick persuades Renault to release him by promising to set him up for a much more serious crime: possession of the letters. To allay Renault's suspicions, Rick explains.
When Renault tries to arrest Laszlo as arranged, Rick forces him at gunpoint to assist in their escape. At the last moment, Rick makes Ilsa board the plane to Lisbon with Laszlo, telling her that she would regret it if she stayed—"Maybe not today, maybe not tomorrow, but soon and for the rest of your life." Strasser, tipped off by Renault, drives up alone. Rick shoots him wh
T. E. Lawrence
Thomas Edward Lawrence, was a British archaeologist, army officer and writer. He was renowned for his liaison role during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign and the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire during the First World War; the breadth and variety of his activities and associations, his ability to describe them vividly in writing, earned him international fame as Lawrence of Arabia—a title used for the 1962 film based on his wartime activities. He was born out of wedlock in Tremadog, Wales in August 1888 to Thomas Chapman, who became Sir Thomas Chapman, 7th Baronet in 1914, an Anglo-Irish nobleman from County Westmeath, his mother was Sarah Junner, a Scottish governess for whom Chapman had left his wife and family in Ireland to cohabit. The name "Lawrence" was adopted from Sarah's father. In 1889, the family moved to Kirkcudbright in Scotland where his brother William George was born, before moving to Dinard in France. In 1896, the Lawrences moved to Oxford, where Thomas attended the high school and studied history at Jesus College from 1907 to 1910.
Between 1910 and 1914, he worked as an archaeologist for the British Museum, chiefly at Carchemish in Ottoman Syria. Soon after the outbreak of war, he was stationed in Egypt. In 1916, he was sent to Arabia on an intelligence mission and became involved with the Arab Revolt as a liaison to the Arab forces, along with other British officers, he worked with Emir Faisal, a leader of the revolt, he participated in and sometimes led military activities against the Ottoman armed forces, culminating in the capture of Damascus in October 1918. After the war, Lawrence joined the Foreign Office, working with the British government and with Faisal. In 1922, he retreated from public life and spent the years until 1935 serving as an enlisted man in the Royal Air Force, with a brief stint in the Army. During this time, he published his best-known work Seven Pillars of Wisdom, an autobiographical account of his participation in the Arab Revolt, he translated books into English and wrote The Mint, published posthumously and detailed his time in the Royal Air Force working as an ordinary aircraftman.
He corresponded extensively and was friendly with well-known artists and politicians. For the Royal Air Force, he participated in the development of rescue motorboats. Lawrence's public image resulted in part from the sensationalised reporting of the Arab revolt by American journalist Lowell Thomas, as well as from Seven Pillars of Wisdom. In 1935, Lawrence was fatally injured in a motorcycle accident in Dorset. Thomas Edward Lawrence was born on 16 August 1888 in Tremadog, Wales in a house named Gorphwysfa, now known as Snowdon Lodge, his Anglo-Irish father Thomas Chapman had left his wife Edith after he had a son with Sarah Junner, a young Scotswoman, governess to his daughters. Sarah was Elizabeth Junner, a servant in the Lawrence household. Lawrence's parents lived together under the name Lawrence. In 1914, his father inherited the Chapman baronetcy based at Killua Castle, the ancestral family home in County Westmeath, but he and Sarah continued to live in England, they had five sons, Thomas was the second eldest.
From Wales, the family moved to Kirkcudbright, Galloway in southwestern Scotland to Dinard in Brittany to Jersey. The family lived at Langley Lodge from 1894 to 1896, set in private woods between the eastern borders of the New Forest and Southampton Water in Hampshire; the residence was isolated, young Lawrence had many opportunities for outdoor activities and waterfront visits. Victorian-Edwardian Britain was a conservative society where the majority of people were Christians who considered premarital and extramarital sex to be shameful, children born out of wedlock were born in disgrace. Lawrence was always something of an outsider, a bastard who could never hope to achieve the same level of social acceptance and success that others could expect who were born legitimate, no girl from a respectable family would marry a bastard. In the summer of 1896, the family moved to 2 Polstead Road in Oxford, where they lived until 1921. Lawrence attended the City of Oxford High School for Boys from 1896 until 1907, where one of the four houses was named "Lawrence" in his honour.
Lawrence and one of his brothers became commissioned officers in the Church Lads' Brigade at St Aldate's Church. Lawrence claimed that he ran away from home around 1905 and served for a few weeks as a boy soldier with the Royal Garrison Artillery at St Mawes Castle in Cornwall, from which he was bought out. However, no evidence of this appears in army records. At age 15, Lawrence and his schoolfriend Cyril Beeson cycled around Berkshire and Oxfordshire, visiting every village's parish church, studying their monuments and antiquities, making rubbings of their monumental brasses. Lawrence and Beeson monitored building sites in Oxford and presented the Ashmolean Museum with anything that they found; the Ashmolean's Annual Report for 1906 said that the two teenage boys "by incessant watchfulness secured everything of antiquarian value, found." In the summers of 1906 and 1907, Lawrence and Beeson toured France by bicycle, collecting photographs and measurements of medieval castles. In August 1907, Lawrence wrote home: "The Chaigno
High Noon is a 1952 American Western film produced by Stanley Kramer from a screenplay by Carl Foreman, directed by Fred Zinnemann, starring Gary Cooper. The plot, depicted in real time, centres on a town marshal, torn between his sense of duty and love for his new bride and who must face a gang of killers alone. Though mired in controversy with political overtones at the time of its release, the film was nominated for seven Academy Awards and won four as well as four Golden Globe Awards; the award-winning score was written by Russian-born composer Dimitri Tiomkin. High Noon was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as "culturally or aesthetically significant" in 1989, the NFR's first year of existence. An iconic film whose story has been or repeated in film productions, the ending scenes inspired a next-to-endless number of films, including but not just limited to westerns. In Hadleyville, a small town in New Mexico Territory, Marshal Will Kane, newly married to Amy Fowler, prepares to retire.
The happy couple will soon depart for a new life to run a store in another town. However, word arrives that Frank Miller, a vicious outlaw whom Kane sent to jail, has been released and will arrive on the noon train. Miller's gang—his younger brother Ben, Jack Colby, Jim Pierce —await his arrival at the train station. For Amy, a devout Quaker and pacifist, the solution is simple—leave town before Miller arrives, but Kane's sense of duty and honor are strong. "They're making me run," he tells her. "I've never run from anybody before." Besides, he says and his gang will hunt him down anyway. Amy gives Kane an ultimatum: She is leaving on the noon train, without him. While waiting at the hotel for the train, she meets Helen Ramírez, once Miller's lover, Kane's, is leaving as well. Amy understands why Helen is fleeing, but the reverse is not true: Helen tells Amy that if Kane were her man, she would not abandon him in his hour of need. Kane's efforts to round up a posse at the tavern, the church, are met with fear and hostility.
Some townspeople, worried that a gunfight would damage the town's reputation, urge Kane to avoid the confrontation entirely. Others are Miller's friends, resent that Kane cleaned up the town in the first place. Kane's young deputy Harvey Pell, bitter that Kane did not recommend him as his successor, says he will stand with Kane only if Kane goes to the city fathers and "puts the word in" for him. Kane rejects the quid pro quo, Pell turns in his badge. Kane visits a series of old friends and allies, but none can help: his predecessor, Marshal Howe is old and arthritic. Jimmy is a good person and genuinely offers to help Will, but he is vision impaired, drunk and to get himself killed; the other offer of aid comes from a fourteen-year-old boy. At the stables, Pell tries to persuade Kane to take it and leave town, their conversation becomes an argument, a fist fight. Kane knocks his former deputy senseless, returns to his office to write out his will as the clock ticks toward high noon, he goes into the street to face Miller and his gang alone.
The gunfight begins. Kane is wounded in the process; as the train is about to leave the station, Amy hears the gunfire, leaps off, runs back to town. Choosing her husband's life over her religious beliefs, she picks up the handgun hanging inside Kane's office and shoots Pierce from behind, leaving only Frank Miller, who grabs Amy as a shield to force Kane into the open. Amy claws Miller's face and he pushes her to the ground, giving Kane a clear shot, he shoots Miller dead. Kane helps his bride to her feet and they embrace; as the townspeople emerge and cluster around him, Kane throws his marshal's star in the dirt and departs with Amy on their wagon. Gary Cooper as Marshal Will Kane Thomas Mitchell as Mayor Jonas Henderson Lloyd Bridges as Deputy Marshal Harvey Pell Katy Jurado as Helen Ramírez Grace Kelly as Amy Fowler Kane Otto Kruger as Judge Percy Mettrick Lon Chaney Jr. as Martin Howe, the former marshal Ian MacDonald as Frank Miller Eve McVeagh as Mildred Fuller Harry Morgan as Sam Fuller Morgan Farley as Dr. Mahin, minister Harry Shannon as Cooper Lee Van Cleef as Jack Colby Robert J. Wilke as Jim Pierce Sheb Wooley as Ben Miller James Millican as Herb Baker Howland Chamberlain as the hotel receptionist Tom London as Sam, Helen's attendant William Newell as Jimmy the Gimp Larry J. Blake as Gillis the saloon owner Lucien Prival as Joe the Bartender Jack Elam as Charlie, the town drunk John Doucette as Trumbull Tom Greenway as Ezra Dick Elliott as Kibbee Merrill McCormick as Fletcher Virginia Farmer as Mrs. Fletcher Virginia Christine as Mrs. Simpson Harry Harvey as Coy Paul Dubov as Scott The creation and release of High Noon intersected with the second Red Scare and the Korean War.
In 1951, during production of the film, Carl Foreman was called before the House Un-American