Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola is an American film director, producer and film composer. He was a central figure in the New Hollywood filmmaking movement of the 1970s. After directing The Rain People in 1969, Coppola co-wrote Patton, earning the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay along with Edmund H. North. Coppola's reputation as a filmmaker was cemented with the release of The Godfather; the film revolutionized movie-making in the gangster genre, was adored by the public and critics alike. The Godfather won three Academy Awards: Best Picture, Best Actor, Best Adapted Screenplay; the Godfather Part II, which followed in 1974, became the first sequel to win the Academy Award for Best Picture. Regarded by critics, the film brought Coppola three more Academy Awards: Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Director, Best Picture, made him the second director to be so honored three times for the same film; the Conversation, which Coppola directed and wrote, was released that same year, winning the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival.
His next film, Apocalypse Now, which notoriously had a lengthy and strenuous production, was acclaimed for its vivid depiction of the Vietnam War. The film won the Palme d'Or, making Coppola one of only eight filmmakers to have won that award twice. While a number of Coppola's ventures in the 1980s and 1990s were critically lauded, he has never quite achieved the same commercial success with films as in the 1970s, his best-known films released since the start of the 1980s are the dramas The Outsiders and Rumble Fish, the crime dramas The Cotton Club and The Godfather Part III, the horror film Bram Stoker's Dracula. A number of Coppola's relatives and children have become famous actors and filmmakers in their own right: his sister is the actress Talia Shire. Coppola was born in Detroit, Michigan, to father Carmine Coppola, a flautist with the Detroit Symphony Orchestra, mother Italia Coppola. Coppola is the middle of three children: his older brother was August Coppola, his younger sister is actress Talia Shire.
Born into a family of Italian immigrant ancestry, his paternal grandparents came to the United States from Bernalda, Basilicata. His maternal grandfather, popular Italian composer Francesco Pennino, immigrated from Italy. Coppola received his middle name in honor of Henry Ford, not only because he was born in the Henry Ford Hospital but because of his father's association with the automobile manufacturer. At the time of Coppola's birth, his father was a flautist as well as arranger and assistant orchestra director for The Ford Sunday Evening Hour, an hour-long concert music radio series sponsored by the Ford Motor Company. Two years after Coppola's birth, his father was named principal flautist for the NBC Symphony Orchestra, the family moved to New York, settling in Woodside, where Coppola spent the remainder of his childhood. Having contracted polio as a boy, Coppola was bedridden for large periods of his childhood, allowing him to indulge his imagination with homemade puppet theater productions.
Reading A Streetcar Named Desire at age 15 was instrumental in developing his interest in theater. Eager to be involved in film-craft, he created 8mm features edited from home movies with such titles as The Rich Millionaire and The Lost Wallet; as a child, Coppola was a mediocre student, but he was so interested in technology and engineering that his friends nicknamed him "Science". Trained for a career in music, he became proficient on the tuba and won a music scholarship to the New York Military Academy. Overall, Coppola attended 23 other schools before he graduated from Great Neck High School, he entered Hofstra College in 1955 with a major in theater arts. There he was awarded a scholarship in playwriting; this furthered his interest in directing theater despite the disapproval of his father, who wanted him to study engineering. Coppola was profoundly impressed after seeing Sergei Eisenstein's October: Ten Days That Shook the World with the movie's quality of editing, it was at this time rather than theater.
Coppola says he was tremendously influenced to become a writer early on by his brother, August, in whose footsteps he would follow by attending both of his brother's alma maters: Hofstra and UCLA. Coppola gives credit to the work of Elia Kazan and for its influence on him as a director. Amongst Coppola's classmates at Hofstra were Lainie Kazan and radio artist Joe Frank, he cast Lainie Kazan in One from the Heart and Caan in The Rain People and The Godfather. While pursuing his bachelor's degree, Coppola was elected president of the university's drama group, The Green Wig, its musical comedy club, the Kaleidoscopians, he merged the two into The Spectrum Players and under his leadership, they staged a new production each week. Coppola founded the cinema workshop at Hofstra and contributed prolifically to the campus literary magazine, he won three D. H. Lawrence Awards for theatrical production and direction and received a Beckerman Award for his outstanding contributions to the school's theater arts division.
While a graduate student, one of his teachers was Dorothy Arzner, whose encouragement Coppola acknowledged as pivotal to his film career. After earning his theater arts degree from Hofstra in 1960, Coppola enrolled in UCLA Film School for graduate work in film. There he directed a short horror film called The Two Chr
Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American film studio based in Hollywood, a subsidiary of the American media conglomerate Viacom since 1994. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world, the second oldest in the United States, the sole member of the "Big Five" film studios still located in the Los Angeles neighborhood of Hollywood. In 1916, film producer Adolph Zukor put 22 actors and actresses under contract and honored each with a star on the logo. In 2014, Paramount Pictures became the first major Hollywood studio to distribute all of its films in digital form only; the company's headquarters and studios are located at 5555 Melrose Avenue, California, United States. Paramount Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world after the French studios Gaumont Film Company and Pathé, followed by the Nordisk Film company, Universal Studios, it is the last major film studio still headquartered in the Hollywood district of Los Angeles.
Paramount Pictures dates its existence from the 1912 founding date of the Famous Players Film Company. Hungarian-born founder Adolph Zukor, an early investor in nickelodeons, saw that movies appealed to working-class immigrants. With partners Daniel Frohman and Charles Frohman he planned to offer feature-length films that would appeal to the middle class by featuring the leading theatrical players of the time. By mid-1913, Famous Players had completed five films, Zukor was on his way to success, its first film was Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth. That same year, another aspiring producer, Jesse L. Lasky, opened his Lasky Feature Play Company with money borrowed from his brother-in-law, Samuel Goldfish known as Samuel Goldwyn; the Lasky company hired as their first employee a stage director with no film experience, Cecil B. DeMille, who would find a suitable site in Hollywood, near Los Angeles, for his first feature film, The Squaw Man. Starting in 1914, both Lasky and Famous Players released their films through a start-up company, Paramount Pictures Corporation, organized early that year by a Utah theatre owner, W. W. Hodkinson, who had bought and merged several smaller firms.
Hodkinson and actor, producer Hobart Bosworth had started production of a series of Jack London movies. Paramount was the first successful nationwide distributor. Famous Players and Lasky were owned while Paramount was a corporation. In 1916, Zukor maneuvered a three-way merger of his Famous Players, the Lasky Company, Paramount. Zukor and Lasky bought Hodkinson out of Paramount, merged the three companies into one; the new company Lasky and Zukor founded, Famous Players-Lasky Corporation, grew with Lasky and his partners Goldwyn and DeMille running the production side, Hiram Abrams in charge of distribution, Zukor making great plans. With only the exhibitor-owned First National as a rival, Famous Players-Lasky and its "Paramount Pictures" soon dominated the business; because Zukor believed in stars, he signed and developed many of the leading early stars, including Mary Pickford, Marguerite Clark, Pauline Frederick, Douglas Fairbanks, Gloria Swanson, Rudolph Valentino, Wallace Reid. With so many important players, Paramount was able to introduce "block booking", which meant that an exhibitor who wanted a particular star's films had to buy a year's worth of other Paramount productions.
It was this system that gave Paramount a leading position in the 1920s and 1930s, but which led the government to pursue it on antitrust grounds for more than twenty years. The driving force behind Paramount's rise was Zukor. Through the teens and twenties, he built the Publix Theatres Corporation, a chain of nearly 2,000 screens, ran two production studios, became an early investor in radio, taking a 50% interest in the new Columbia Broadcasting System in 1928. In 1926, Zukor hired independent producer B. P. Schulberg, an unerring eye for new talent, to run the new West Coast operations, they purchased the Robert Brunton Studios, a 26-acre facility at 5451 Marathon Street for US$1 million. In 1927, Famous Players-Lasky took the name Paramount Famous Lasky Corporation. Three years because of the importance of the Publix Theatres, it became Paramount Publix Corporation. In 1928, Paramount began releasing Inkwell Imps, animated cartoons produced by Max and Dave Fleischer's Fleischer Studios in New York City.
The Fleischers, veterans in the animation industry, were among the few animation producers capable of challenging the prominence of Walt Disney. The Paramount newsreel series Paramount News ran from 1927 to 1957. Paramount was one of the first Hollywood studios to release what were known at that time as "talkies", in 1929, released their first musical, Innocents of Paris. Richard A. Whiting and Leo Robin composed the score for the film. By acquiring the successful Balaban & Katz chain in 1926, Zukor gained the services of Barney Balaban, his brother A. J. Balaban, their partner Sam Katz (who would run the Paramount-Publix theatre chain in New York City from the thirty-five-stor
Vertigo is a 1958 American film noir psychological thriller film directed and produced by Alfred Hitchcock. The story was based on the 1954 novel D'entre les morts by Boileau-Narcejac; the screenplay was written by Samuel A. Taylor; the film stars James Stewart as former police detective John "Scottie" Ferguson. Scottie is forced into early retirement because an incident in the line of duty has caused him to develop acrophobia and vertigo. Scottie is hired by an acquaintance, Gavin Elster, as a private investigator to follow Gavin's wife Madeleine, behaving strangely; the film was shot on location in San Francisco, at Paramount Studios in Hollywood. It is the first film to use the dolly zoom, an in-camera effect that distorts perspective to create disorientation, to convey Scottie's acrophobia; as a result of its use in this film, the effect is referred to as "the Vertigo effect". Vertigo received mixed reviews upon initial release, but is now cited as a classic Hitchcock film and one of the defining works of his career.
Attracting significant scholarly criticism, it replaced Citizen Kane as the greatest film made in the 2012 British Film Institute's Sight & Sound critics' poll. In 1996, the film underwent a major restoration to create DTS soundtrack, it has appeared in polls of the best films by the American Film Institute, including a 2007 ranking as the ninth-greatest American movie of all time. After a rooftop chase, where his fear of heights and vertigo result in the death of a policeman, San Francisco detective John "Scottie" Ferguson retires. Scottie tries to conquer his fear, but his friend and ex-fiancée Midge Wood says that another severe emotional shock may be the only cure. An acquaintance from college, Gavin Elster, asks Scottie to follow his wife, claiming that she is in some sort of danger. Scottie reluctantly agrees, follows Madeleine to a florist where she buys a bouquet of flowers, to the Mission San Francisco de Asís and the grave of one Carlotta Valdes, to the Legion of Honor art museum where she gazes at the Portrait of Carlotta.
He watches her enter the McKittrick Hotel. A local historian explains that Carlotta Valdes committed suicide: she had been the mistress of a wealthy married man and bore his child. Gavin reveals that Carlotta is Madeleine's great-grandmother, although Madeleine has no knowledge of this, does not remember the places she has visited. Scottie tails Madeleine to Fort Point and, when she leaps into the bay, he rescues her; the next day Scottie follows Madeleine. They travel to Muir Woods and Cypress Point on 17-Mile Drive, where Madeleine runs down towards the ocean. Scottie grabs they embrace. Madeleine recounts a nightmare and Scottie identifies its setting as Mission San Juan Bautista, childhood home of Carlotta, he drives her there and they express their love for each other. Madeleine runs into the church and up the bell tower. Scottie, halted on the steps by his acrophobia, sees Madeleine plunge to her death; the death is declared a suicide. Gavin does not fault Scottie, but Scottie breaks down, becomes clinically depressed and is in a sanatorium catatonic.
After release, Scottie frequents the places that Madeleine visited imagining that he sees her. One day, he notices a woman. Scottie follows her and she identifies herself as Judy Barton, from Salina, Kansas. A flashback reveals that Judy was the person Scottie knew as "Madeleine Elster". Judy drafts a letter to Scottie explaining her involvement: Gavin had deliberately taken advantage of Scottie's acrophobia to substitute his wife's freshly killed body in the apparent "suicide jump", but Judy continues the charade, because she loves Scottie. They begin seeing each other, but Scottie remains obsessed with "Madeleine", asks Judy to change her clothes and hair so that she resembles Madeleine. After Judy complies, hoping that they may find happiness together, he notices her wearing the necklace portrayed in the painting of Carlotta, realizes the truth, that Judy had been Elster's mistress, before being cast aside just as Carlotta was. Scottie insists on driving Judy to the Mission. There, he tells her he must re-enact the event that led to his madness, admitting he now understands that "Madeleine" and Judy are the same person.
Scottie makes her admit her deceit. Scottie reaches the top conquering his acrophobia. Judy confesses. Judy begs Scottie to forgive her, he embraces her, but a shadowed figure rises from the trapdoor of the tower, startling Judy, who steps backward and falls to her death. Scottie, bereaved again, stands on the ledge, while the figure, a nun investigating the noise, rings the mission bell. James Stewart as John "Scottie" Ferguson Kim Novak as Judy Barton Barbara Bel Geddes as Marjorie "Midge" Wood Tom Helmore as Gavin Elster Henry Jones as the coroner Raymond Bailey as Scottie's doctor Ellen Corby as the manager of the McKittrick Hotel Konstantin Shayne as bookstore owner Pop Leibel Lee Patrick as the car owner mistaken for MadeleineUncredited Margaret Brayton as the Ransohoff's saleslady Paul Bryar as Capt. Hansen (accompanies Scottie
Citizen Kane is a 1941 American mystery drama film by Orson Welles, its producer, co-screenwriter and star. The picture was Welles's first feature film. Nominated for Academy Awards in nine categories, it won an Academy Award for Best Writing by Herman J. Mankiewicz and Welles. Considered by many critics and fans to be the greatest film made, Citizen Kane was voted as such in five consecutive British Film Institute Sight & Sound polls of critics, it topped the American Film Institute's 100 Years... 100 Movies list in 1998, as well as its 2007 update. Citizen Kane is praised for Gregg Toland's cinematography, Robert Wise's editing, its music, its narrative structure, all of which have been considered innovative and precedent-setting; the quasi-biographical film examines the life and legacy of Charles Foster Kane, played by Welles, a character based in part upon the American newspaper magnates William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer, Chicago tycoons Samuel Insull and Harold McCormick, aspects of the screenwriters' own lives.
Upon its release, Hearst prohibited mention of the film in any of his newspapers. Kane's career in the publishing world is born of idealistic social service, but evolves into a ruthless pursuit of power. Narrated principally through flashbacks, the story is told through the research of a newsreel reporter seeking to solve the mystery of the newspaper magnate's dying word: "Rosebud". After the Broadway successes of Welles's Mercury Theatre and the controversial 1938 radio broadcast "The War of the Worlds" on The Mercury Theatre on the Air, Welles was courted by Hollywood, he signed a contract with RKO Pictures in 1939. Unusually for an untried director, he was given the freedom to develop his own story, to use his own cast and crew, to have final cut privilege. Following two abortive attempts to get a project off the ground, he wrote the screenplay for Citizen Kane, collaborating on the effort with Herman Mankiewicz. Principal photography took place in 1940 and the film received its American release in 1941.
While a critical success, Citizen Kane failed to recoup its costs at the box office. The film faded from view after its release, but was subsequently returned to the public's attention when it was praised by such French critics as André Bazin and given an American revival in 1956; the film was released on Blu-ray on September 2011, for a special 70th anniversary edition. In a mansion in Xanadu, a vast palatial estate in Florida, the elderly Charles Foster Kane is on his deathbed. Holding a snow globe, he utters a word, "Rosebud", dies. A newsreel obituary tells the life story of an enormously wealthy newspaper publisher. Kane's death becomes sensational news around the world, the newsreel's producer tasks reporter Jerry Thompson with discovering the meaning of "Rosebud". Thompson sets out to interview associates, he tries to approach Susan Alexander Kane, now an alcoholic who runs her own nightclub, but she refuses to talk to him. Thompson goes to the private archive of the late banker Walter Parks Thatcher.
Through Thatcher's written memoirs, Thompson learns that Kane's childhood began in poverty in Colorado. In 1871, after a gold mine is discovered on her property, Kane's mother Mary Kane sends Charles away to live with Thatcher so that he would be properly educated, it is implied that Kane's father could be violent towards his son and, another reason she wants to send him away. While Thatcher and Charles' parents discuss arrangements inside, the young Kane plays with a sled in the snow outside his parents' boarding-house and protests being sent to live with Thatcher. Furious at the prospect of exile from his own family to live with a man he does not know, the boy strikes Thatcher with his sled and attempts to run away. Years after gaining full control over his trust fund at the age of 25, Kane enters the newspaper business and embarks on a career of yellow journalism, he takes control of the New York Inquirer and starts publishing scandalous articles that attack Thatcher's business interests.
After the stock market crash in 1929, Kane is forced to sell controlling interest of his newspaper empire to Thatcher. Back in the present, Thompson interviews Mr. Bernstein. Bernstein recalls. Kane rose to power by manipulating public opinion regarding the Spanish–American War and marrying Emily Norton, the niece of a President of the United States. Thompson interviews Jedediah Leland, in a retirement home. Leland recalls how Kane's marriage to Emily disintegrates more and more over the years, he begins an affair with amateur singer Susan Alexander while he is running for Governor of New York. Both his wife and his political opponent discover the affair and the public scandal ends his political career. Leland asks to be transferred to a newspaper in Chicago. Kane marries Susan and forces her into a humiliating operatic career for which she has neither the talent nor the ambition building a large opera house for her. Leland begins to write a negative review of Susan's opera debut. Back in the present, Susan now consents to an interview with Thompson and recalls her failed opera career.
Kane allows her to abandon her singing career after she attempts suicide. After years spent dominated by Kane and living in isolation at Xanadu, Susan leaves Kane. Kane's butler Raymond recounts that, after Susan leaves him, Kane begins violently destroying the contents of her bedroom, he calms down when he sees a snow globe and says, "R
Gone with the Wind (film)
Gone with the Wind is a 1939 American epic historical romance film, adapted from Margaret Mitchell's 1936 novel of the same name. The film was produced by David O. Selznick of Selznick International Pictures and directed by Victor Fleming. Set in the American South against the backdrop of the American Civil War and the Reconstruction era, the film tells the story of Scarlett O'Hara, the strong-willed daughter of a Georgia plantation owner, it follows her romantic pursuit of Ashley Wilkes, married to his cousin, Melanie Hamilton, her subsequent marriage to Rhett Butler. The leading roles are played by Vivien Leigh, Clark Gable, Leslie Howard, Olivia de Havilland. Production was difficult from the start. Filming was delayed for two years because of Selznick's determination to secure Gable for the role of Rhett Butler, the "search for Scarlett" led to 1,400 women being interviewed for the part; the original screenplay was written by Sidney Howard and underwent many revisions by several writers in an attempt to get it down to a suitable length.
The original director, George Cukor, was fired shortly after filming began and was replaced by Fleming, who in turn was replaced by Sam Wood while Fleming took some time off due to exhaustion. The film received positive reviews upon its release in December 1939, although some reviewers found it overlong; the casting was praised, many reviewers found Leigh suited to her role as Scarlett. At the 12th Academy Awards, it received ten Academy Awards from thirteen nominations, including wins for Best Picture, Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Actress, Best Supporting Actress, it set records for the total number of nominations at the time. Gone with the Wind was immensely popular when first released, it became the highest-earning film made up to that point, held the record for over a quarter of a century. When adjusted for monetary inflation, it is still the most successful film in box-office history, it became ingrained in popular culture. The film is regarded as one of the greatest films of all time.
In 1989, the United States Library of Congress selected it for preservation in the National Film Registry. Part 1On the eve of the American Civil War in 1861, Scarlett O'Hara lives at Tara, her family's cotton plantation in Georgia, with her parents and two sisters and their many slaves. Scarlett learns that Ashley Wilkes—whom she secretly loves—is to be married to his cousin, Melanie Hamilton, the engagement is to be announced the next day at a barbecue at Ashley's home, the nearby plantation Twelve Oaks. At the Twelve Oaks party, Scarlett declares her feelings to Ashley, but he rebuffs her by responding that he and Melanie are more compatible. Scarlett is incensed when she discovers another guest, Rhett Butler, has overheard their conversation; the barbecue is disrupted by the declaration of war and the men rush to enlist. As Scarlett watches Ashley kiss Melanie goodbye, Melanie's younger brother Charles proposes to her. Although she does not love him, Scarlett consents and they are married.
Scarlett is widowed when Charles dies from a bout of pneumonia and measles while serving in the Confederate Army. Scarlett's mother sends her to the Hamilton home in Atlanta to cheer her up, although the O'Haras' outspoken house slave Mammy tells Scarlett she knows she is going there only to wait for Ashley's return. Scarlett, who should not attend a party while in mourning, attends a charity bazaar in Atlanta with Melanie where she meets Rhett again, now a blockade runner for the Confederacy. Celebrating a Confederate victory and to raise money for the Confederate war effort, gentlemen are invited to bid for ladies to dance with them. Rhett makes an inordinately large bid for Scarlett and, to the disapproval of the guests, she agrees to dance with him; the tide of war turns against the Confederacy after the Battle of Gettysburg in which many of the men of Scarlett's town are killed. Scarlett makes another unsuccessful appeal to Ashley while he is visiting on Christmas furlough, although they do share a private and passionate kiss in the parlor on Christmas Day, just before he returns to war.
Eight months as the city is besieged by the Union Army in the Atlanta Campaign and her young house slave Prissy must deliver Melanie's baby without medical assistance after she goes into premature labor. Afterwards, Scarlett calls upon Rhett to take her home to Tara with Melanie, her baby, Prissy. Upon her return home, Scarlett finds Tara deserted, except for her father, her sisters, two former slaves: Mammy and Pork. Scarlett learns that her mother has just died of typhoid fever and her father has become incompetent. With Tara pillaged by Union troops and the fields untended, Scarlett vows she will do anything for the survival of her family and herself. Part 2As the O'Haras work in the cotton fields, Scarlett's father is killed after he is thrown from his horse in an attempt to chase away a scalawag from his land. With the defeat of the Confederacy, Ashley returns, but finds he is of little help at Tara; when Scarlett begs him to run away with her, he confesses his desire for her and kisses her passionately, but says he cannot leave Melanie.
Unable to pay the taxes on Tara implemented b
Lawrence of Arabia (film)
Lawrence of Arabia is a 1962 British epic historical drama film based on the life of T. E. Lawrence, it was directed by David Lean and produced by Sam Spiegel through his British company Horizon Pictures, with the screenplay by Robert Bolt and Michael Wilson and starring Peter O'Toole in the title role. The film depicts Lawrence's experiences in the Arabian Peninsula during World War I, in particular his attacks on Aqaba and Damascus and his involvement in the Arab National Council, its themes include Lawrence's emotional struggles with the personal violence inherent in war, his own identity, his divided allegiance between his native Britain and its army, his new-found comrades within the Arabian desert tribes. The film stars Alec Guinness, Jack Hawkins, Anthony Quinn, Omar Sharif, Anthony Quayle, Claude Rains, Arthur Kennedy. Lawrence of Arabia was nominated for ten Oscars at the 35th Academy Awards in 1963, it won the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama and the BAFTA Awards for Best Film and Outstanding British Film.
In the years since, it has been recognised as one of the greatest and most influential films in the history of cinema. The dramatic score by Maurice Jarre and the Super Panavision 70 cinematography by Freddie Young are highly acclaimed. In 1991, Lawrence of Arabia was deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant" and selected for preservation in the US Library of Congress National Film Registry. In 1998, the American Film Institute placed it 5th on their 100 Years...100 Movies list, 7th on their 2007 updated list. In 1999, the British Film Institute named the film the third-greatest British film of all time; the film is presented in two parts, divided by an intermission. The film opens in 1935. At his memorial service at St Paul's Cathedral, a reporter tries to gain insights into this remarkable, enigmatic man from those who knew him; the story moves backward to the First World War, where Lawrence is a misfit British Army lieutenant, notable for his insolence and education. Over the objections of General Murray, Mr. Dryden of the Arab Bureau sends him to assess the prospects of Prince Faisal in his revolt against the Turks.
On the journey, his Bedouin guide, Tafas, is killed by Sherif Ali for drinking from his well without permission. Lawrence meets Colonel Brighton, who orders him to keep quiet, make his assessment, leave. Lawrence ignores Brighton's orders, his outspokenness piques the prince's interest. Brighton advises Faisal to retreat after a major defeat, but Lawrence proposes a daring surprise attack on Aqaba; the town is fortified against a naval assault but only defended on the landward side. He convinces Faisal to provide fifty men, led by a sceptical Sherif Ali. Teenage orphans Daud and Farraj attach themselves to Lawrence as servants, they cross the Nefud Desert, considered impassable by the Bedouins, travelling day and night on the last stage to reach water. One of Ali's men, succumbs to fatigue and falls off his camel unnoticed during the night; when Lawrence discovers him missing, he turns back and rescues Gasim—and Sherif Ali is won over. He gives Lawrence Arab robes to wear. Lawrence persuades Auda abu Tayi, the leader of the powerful local Howeitat tribe, to turn against the Turks.
Lawrence's scheme is derailed when one of Ali's men kills one of Auda's because of a blood feud. Howeitat retaliation would shatter the fragile alliance, so Lawrence declares that he will execute the murderer himself, he is stunned to discover that the culprit is Gasim, the man whom he risked his own life to save in the desert, but he shoots him anyway. The next morning, the Arabs overrun the Turkish garrison. Lawrence heads to Cairo to inform the new commander, General Allenby, of his victory. While crossing the Sinai Desert, Daud dies. Lawrence is promoted to given arms and money for the Arabs, he is disturbed, confessing that he enjoyed executing Gasim, but Allenby brushes aside his qualms. He asks Allenby whether there is any basis for the Arabs' suspicions that the British have designs on Arabia; when pressed, the general states. Lawrence launches a guerrilla war, harassing the Turks at every turn. American war correspondent Jackson Bentley publicises Lawrence's exploits. On one raid, Farraj is badly injured.
Unwilling to leave him to be tortured by the enemy, Lawrence shoots him dead before fleeing. When Lawrence scouts the enemy-held city of Deraa with Ali, he is taken, along with several Arab residents, to the Turkish Bey. Lawrence is stripped and prodded. For striking out at the Bey, he is flogged before being thrown into the street; the experience leaves Lawrence shaken. He does not fit in. A short time in Jerusalem, General Allenby urges him to support the "big push" on Damascus. Lawrence hesitates to return but relents. Lawrence recruits an army, motivated more by money than by the Arab cause, they sight a column of retreating Turkish soldiers. One of Lawrence's men is from Tafas; when Lawrence hesitates, the man is killed. Lawrence takes up the dead man's battle cry. Afterwards, he regrets his actions. Lawrence's men take Damascus ahead of Allenby's forces; the Arabs set up a council to administer the city, but the dese
George Walton Lucas Jr. is an American filmmaker and entrepreneur. Lucas is known for creating the Star Wars and Indiana Jones franchises and founding Lucasfilm, LucasArts and Industrial Light & Magic, he was the chairman and CEO of Lucasfilm before selling it to The Walt Disney Company in 2012. After graduating from the University of Southern California in 1967, Lucas co-founded American Zoetrope with filmmaker Francis Ford Coppola. Lucas wrote and directed THX 1138, based on his earlier student short Electronic Labyrinth: THX 1138 4EB, a critical success but a financial failure, his next work as a writer-director was the film American Graffiti, inspired by his youth in early 1960s Modesto and produced through the newly founded Lucasfilm. The film was critically and commercially successful, received five Academy Award nominations including Best Picture. Lucas' next film, the epic space opera Star Wars, had a troubled production but was a surprise hit, becoming the highest-grossing film at the time, winning six Academy Awards and sparking a cultural phenomenon.
Lucas cowrote the sequels The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi. With director Steven Spielberg, he created the Indiana Jones films Raiders of the Lost Ark, Temple of Doom, The Last Crusade, he produced and wrote a variety of films through Lucasfilm in the 1980s and 1990s and during this same period Lucas' LucasArts developed high-impact video games, including Maniac Mansion, The Secret of Monkey Island and Grim Fandango alongside many video games based on the Star Wars universe. In 1997, Lucas rereleased the Star Wars trilogy as part of a Special Edition, featuring several alterations, he returned to directing with the Star Wars prequel trilogy, comprising The Phantom Menace, Attack of the Clones, Revenge of the Sith. He collaborated on served as executive producer for the war film Red Tails and wrote the CGI film Strange Magic. Lucas is one of the American film industry's most financially successful filmmakers and has been nominated for four Academy Awards, his films are among the 100 highest-grossing movies at the North American box office, adjusted for ticket-price inflation.
Lucas is considered a significant figure in the New Hollywood era. Lucas was born and raised in Modesto, the son of Dorothy Ellinore Lucas and George Walton Lucas Sr. and is of German, Swiss-German, English and distant Dutch and French descent. He was interested including TV shows such as Flash Gordon. Long before Lucas began making films, he yearned to be a racecar driver, he spent most of his high school years racing on the underground circuit at fairgrounds and hanging out at garages. On June 12, 1962, at age eighteen, while driving his souped-up Autobianchi Bianchina, another driver broadsided him, flipping over his car, nearly killing him, causing him to lose interest in racing as a career. Lucas's father owned a stationery store, wanted George to work for him when he turned 18. Lucas had been planning to go to art school, declared upon leaving home that he would be a millionaire by the age of 30, he attended Modesto Junior College, where he studied anthropology and literature, amongst other subjects.
He began shooting with an 8 mm camera, including filming car races. At this time and his friend John Plummer became interested in Canyon Cinema: screenings of underground, avant-garde 16 mm filmmakers like Jordan Belson, Stan Brakhage, Bruce Conner. Lucas and Plummer saw classic European films of the time, including Jean-Luc Godard's Breathless, François Truffaut's Jules et Jim, Federico Fellini's 8½. "That's when George started exploring," Plummer said. Through his interest in autocross racing, Lucas met renowned cinematographer Haskell Wexler, another race enthusiast. Wexler to work with Lucas on several occasions, was impressed by Lucas' talent. "George had a good eye, he thought visually," he recalled. Lucas transferred to the University of Southern California School of Cinematic Arts. USC was one of the earliest universities to have a school devoted to motion picture film. During the years at USC, Lucas shared a dorm room with Randal Kleiser. Along with classmates such as Walter Murch, Hal Barwood, John Milius, they became a clique of film students known as The Dirty Dozen.
He became good friends with fellow acclaimed student filmmaker and future Indiana Jones collaborator, Steven Spielberg. Lucas was influenced by the Filmic Expression course taught at the school by filmmaker Lester Novros which concentrated on the non-narrative elements of Film Form like color, movement and time. Another inspiration was the Serbian montagist Slavko Vorkapić, a film theoretician who made stunning montage sequences for Hollywood studio features at MGM, RKO, Paramount. Vorkapich taught the autonomous nature of the cinematic art form, emphasizing kinetic energy inherent in motion pictures. Lucas saw many inspiring films in class the visual films coming out of the National Film Board of Canada like Arthur Lipsett's 21-87, the French-Canadian cameraman Jean-Claude Labrecque's cinéma vérité 60 Cycles, the work of Norman McLaren, the documentaries of Claude Jutra. Lucas fell madly in love with pure cinema and became prolific at making 16 mm nonstory noncharacter visual tone poems and cinéma vérité with such titles as Look at Life, Herbie, 1:42.08, The Emperor, Anyone Lived in a Pretty Town, 6-18-67.
He was passionate and interested in camerawork an