click links in text for more info

Gasa (crater)

Gasa is an impact rayed crater in the Eridania quadrangle on Mars at 35.68° S and 230.72° W. and is 6.5 km in diameter. Its name was approved in 2009, it was named after a place in Bhutan. Gullies are evident in the images, it is now believed that the impact that created Gasa happened in a larger crater whose floor was covered with debris-covered glaciers. The larger crater is known as Cilaos, it is located at 35.71° S and 230.52° W. and is 21.4 km in diameter. Its name was approved on 15 August 2016, it was named after a place in the island of Réunion. Gasa Crater contains many gullies. Gullies occur on steep slopes on the walls of craters. Gullies are believed to be young because they have few, if any craters. Moreover, they lie on top of sand dunes; each gully has an alcove and apron. Some studies have found that gullies occur on slopes that face all directions, others have found that the greater number of gullies are found on poleward facing slopes from 30-44 S. For years, many believed that gullies were formed by running water, but further observations demonstrate that they may be formed by frozen carbon dioxide.

Recent studies describe using the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera on MRO to examine gullies at 356 sites, starting in 2006. Thirty-eight of the sites showed active gully formation. Before-and-after images demonstrated the timing of this activity coincided with seasonal carbon dioxide frost and temperatures that would not have allowed for liquid water; when dry ice frost changes to a gas, it may lubricate dry material to flow on steep slopes. In some years frost as thick as 1 meter, triggers avalanches; this frost contains dry ice, but has tiny amounts of water ice. List of craters on Mars Media related to Gasa at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Cilaos at Wikimedia Commons

Gayle J. Fritz

Gayle J. Fritz is an American paleoethnobotanist working out of Washington University in St. Louis and is a world expert on ancient crops, she runs the Paleoethnobotany Lab at Washington University in St. Louis under the auspices of the Anthropology Department, her work focuses on crops other than maize, such as chenopodium and amaranth, emphasizes the importance of direct radiocarbon dating when establishing the models of early agriculture. She proposes a diversity of pathways from hunting-gathering to agriculture dependent on regional variations and the intricacies of local cultures, explores the role of women in early societies challenging a "Big Chief" model of hierarchical dominance, her research interests include grain amaranth, maygrass and hickory nuts. DegreesPh. D University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,1986. M. A University of Texas at Austin, 1975. Browman, D. L. Fritz, G. J. and Watson, P. J.: "Origins of Food-Producing Economies in the Americas." In The Human Past, edited by Christopher Scarre, pp. 306–349.

Thames and Hudson, London. Fritz, G. J.: "Paleoethnobotanical Methods and Applications." In Handbook of Archaeological Methods, edited by Herbert D. G. Maschner and Christopher Chippindale, pp. 771–832. Altamira Press, Walnut Creek, California. Fritz, G. J. and Lopinot, N. H.: "Native Crops at Early Cahokia: Comparing Domestic and Ceremonial Contexts". Illinois Archaeology 14, in press. Gayle J. Fritz home page at WUSTL

Bob Sellers (footballer)

Miles Alfred "Bob" Sellers was an Australian rules footballer who played with Hawthorn in the Victorian Football League. Sellers was born in the eldest child of Alfred Thomas Sellers and Florence Pearce. After commencing his football career with Ferntree Gully he joined Box Hill for a season before playing with Hawthorn from their inaugural VFL season in 1925 until 1934, as a follower and forward, he made a total of 98 league appearances. He played district cricket for the Hawthorn-East Melbourne club. In 1944 he officiated in 131 games; until Mark Fraser's umpiring debut in 2005, Sellers was the last former player to officiate in a league fixture. Miles Sellers remained an active member of the Hawthorn Football Club throughout his life, receiving a Life Membership and remaining timekeeper for the club until his death in 1971

Unguja Ukuu

Unguja Ukuu is a small settlement on Unguja island, in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Unguja Ukuu is an archaeological site on the island of Zanzibar; this site has yielded evidence that play out the long history of Unguja Ukuu. Artifacts found at Unguja Ukuu came from all over the world: pottery from the Far East, Near East and the Southern Mediterranean region. Other items such as rings, coins, iron artifacts and ivory have been found along with a variety of animal remains. Visitors to Unguja Ukuu, centrally located off the east coast of Africa and at the edge of the Indian Ocean, left behind evidence that this place was a central trading port. Unlike the mainland this site was influenced by foreign merchants from around the world, each left a mark on this site. Due to the trade activity here early urbanism is evident in one of the first east African trading posts. Unguja Ukuu’s location was key to pursue an unconventional settlement strategy by which its inhabitants survived on foods and goods that came from elsewhere since agriculture was not a main source of subsistence.

As excavations continue a more diverse collection of artifacts emerge adding to the complex history of this place. The artifacts recovered show evidence that this place had experienced a long history of trade along the east coast of Africa and the Indian Ocean. Unguja Ukuu was the oldest of the earliest trading posts along the coast. Unguja Ukuu has the oldest artifacts of all of the islands in this region dating back to the sixth century, it is a site where early Islamic influence came ashore as evident by the ruins of a mosque. There is international trade taking place; as its name implies, Unguja Ukuu is a Bantu phrase for “central place” recognizing its importance in trade. This site is able to provide insight to the early contact between the Swahili and the Indian Ocean world. Unguja Ukuu is an archeological site on the island of Zanzibar. Zanzibar is located south of central along the east coast of the African continent, it is positioned 25 miles from land and separated from the African continent by the Zanzibar channel.

Zanzibar is the largest island of the Zanzibar archipelago. The site of Unguja Ukuu is located between a village and a creek, it lies on the southwestern side of the island. The coordinates for this site are: -6.2987° N, 39.358° E. Unguja Ukuu is one of two sites that had evidence of early coastal pottery, Sassanian-Islamic pottery, ceramic bead grinders recovered from the 9th century. Unguja Ukuu takes it place along with Koma and Mafia as having a presence of Early Iron Working pottery; this predates Traditional Tana Ware. In addition, this site provided artifacts that date back to 500 to 700 A. D. including items imported from India, the Middle East, the Roman state. In 1920 Pearce noted a mosque ruin at Unguja Ukuu. In addition to what he found he conducted informant interviews and was told of 500 pieces of gold, discovered and taken many years earlier by Arabs; these coins dated to 798-9 AD minted in Baghdad. This was the first definable date, attached to any artifact in this area. A stone well is one of the handful of monuments along the eastern African coast.

Some scholars attribute Arab decedents from India for the architecture here. In 1966 Neville Chittick made his second visit to Unguja Ukuu, he recounts that he was able to collect artifacts from the surface, no digging was required. Most of what was recovered were pottery sherds. Among the sherds one stood out, Chinese stoneware with a green glaze and ornamentation. Much of what he found was Sassanian-Islamaic pottery most coming from Iran form the eighth and ninth century. In 1984 Horton & Clark surveyed the site, 15 hectares across. Over two meters of middens were discovered providing evidence of animal bones, iron slag, daub and bead-grinders along with domestic and imported pottery. While imported pottery only constituted under five percent of the sherds recovered, they did include Sasanian-Islamic & unglazed wares, Chinese Chansha stoneware, Zhejiang Zueh Yao greenwares and Dusun jars from Guangdong. In addition to these, they recovered one piece of Islamic white-glazed ware, they estimated.

Juma and Syse recovered Islamic pottery, Chinese stoneware, two shell middens, a possible stone fort on the east of the site. In 1991 Chami was able to excavate deep enough to reach a level that revealed the presence of Early Iron Age sherds at this site. Dating is consistent with the 6th century. Items included pottery from African Red Slip ware from the late Roman Empire. Jeffrey Fleisher & Stephanie Wynne-Jones complied radiocarbon data on sherds found at Unguja Ukuu and other surrounding islands. Based on their findings the ceramic wares date back to the beginning of the 6th century; this new dating has pushed original dates back and give Unguja Ukuu a deeper and longer history than considered. This area of the island’s landscape comprises coral limestone but there are some areas that have deep soft soil, where most of the settlement artifacts were unearthed; the site is surrounded by eclectic landscape features such as ridges, a creek, the peninsula point, flat areas. As time and technology roll on more aggressive recovery methods were used like coring, but core drilling is in some cases considered questionable due to irregularities in topography to suggest general chrono-stratigraphy of the site on soil coloration.

A large excavation project was initiated and


Fruängen is a district of the Hägersten-Liljeholmen borough in Söderort, the southern suburban part of Stockholm. It was built in the early 1950s. All the streets are named after famous Swedish women like Agnes Lagerstedt, Anna Sandström, Karolina Widerström, Ellen Fries, Ellen Key, Elsa Beskow, Elin Wägner, Elsa Borg, Elsa Brändström, Eva Bonnier, Fredrika Bremer, Hanna Pauli, Hanna Rydh, Jenny Nyström, Karin Boye, Kata Dalström, Kerstin Hesselgren, Lina Sandell and Jenny Lind. A number of famous Swedes come from Fruängen. Examples include Gunnel Fred, Rolf Ridderwall, Fredde Granberg, Tomas Andersson Wij, Pontus Enhörning, Susanne Ljung and script writer Lars Lundström; the name Fruängen translates as lady's or ladies' meadow or Our Lady's meadow. According to one source, Fruängen was the name of a torp, while another source states the name is constructed as an analogy to the city borough Härrängen, named after another croft. Fruängen metro station