A hospital ship is a ship designated for primary function as a floating medical treatment facility or hospital. Most are operated by the military forces of various countries, as they are intended to be used in or near war zones. Although attacking a hospital ship is a war crime, belligerent navies have the right to board such ships for inspections. In the nineteenth century redundant warships were used as moored hospitals for seamen. Hospital ships existed in ancient times; the Athenian Navy had a ship named Therapia, the Roman Navy had a ship named Aesculapius, their names indicating that they may have been hospital ships. The earliest British hospital ship may have been the vessel Goodwill, which accompanied a Royal Navy squadron in the Mediterranean in 1608 and was used to house the sick sent aboard from other ships; however this experiment in medical care was short-lived, with Goodwill assigned to other tasks within a year and her complement of convalescents left behind at the nearest port.
It was not until the mid-seventeenth century that any Royal Navy vessels were formally designated as hospital ships, only two throughout the fleet. These were either hired merchant ship or elderly sixth rates, with the internal bulkheads removed to create more room, additional ports cut through the deck and hull to increase internal ventilation. In addition to their sailing crew, these seventeenth century hospital ships were staffed by a surgeon and four surgeon's mates; the standard issue of medical supplies were bandages, soap and bedpans. Patients were offered a bed or rug to rest upon, given a clean pair of sheets; these early hospital ships were for the care of the sick rather than the wounded, with patients quartered according to their symptoms and infectious cases quarantined from the general population behind a sheet of canvas. The quality of food was poor. In the 1690s the surgeon aboard Siam complained that the meat was in an advanced state of putrefaction, the biscuits were weevil-ridden and bitter, the bread was so hard that it stripped the skin off patient's mouths.
Hospital ships were used for the treatment of wounded soldiers fighting on land. An early example of this was during an English operation to evacuate English Tangier in 1683. An account of this evacuation was written by an eyewitness. One of the main concerns was the evacuation of sick soldiers "and the many families and their effects to be brought off"; the hospital ships Unity and Welcome sailed for England on 18 October 1683 with 114 invalid soldiers and 104 women and children, arriving at The Downs on 14 December 1683. The number of medical personnel aboard Royal Navy hospital ships was increased, with regulations issued in 1703 requiring that each vessel carry six landsmen to act surgical assistants, four washerwomen. A 1705 amendment provided for a further five male nurses, requisitions from the era suggest the number of sheets per patient was increased from one to two pairs. On 8 December 1798, unfit for service as a warship, HMS Victory was ordered to be converted to a hospital ship to hold wounded French and Spanish prisoners of war.
According to Edward Hasted in 1798, two large hospital ships, were moored in Halstow Creek in Kent. The creek is an inlet from the River Thames; the crew of these vessels watched over ships coming to England, which were forced to stay in the creek under quarantine to protect the country from infectious diseases including the plague. From 1821 to 1870 the Seamen's Hospital Society provided HMS Grampus, HMS Dreadnought and HMS Caledonia as successive hospital ships moored at Deptford in London. In 1866 HMS Hamadryad was moored in Cardiff as a seamen's hospital, replaced in 1905 by the Royal Hamadryad Seamen's Hospital. Other redundant warships were used as hospitals for prisoners of war; the institutionalization of the use of hospital ships by the Royal Navy occurred during the first half of the nineteenth century. By the standard of the medical provision available at the time for convalescent soldiers, hospital ships were superior in their standard of service and sanitation, it was during the Crimean War in the 1850s.
The only military hospital available to the British forces fighting on the Crimean Peninsula was at Scutari near the Dardanelles. Over the course of the Siege of Sevastopol 15,000 wounded troops were transported there from the port at Balaklava by a squadron of converted hospital ships; the first ships to be equipped with genuine medical facilities were the steamships HMS Melbourne and HMS Mauritius. These hospitals were manned by the Medical Staff Corps and provided services to the British expedition to China in 1860; the ships provided spacious accommodation for the patients and were equipped with an operating theatre. Another early example of a hospital ship was USS Red Rover in the 1860s, which aided the wounded soldiers of both sides during the American Civil War. During the Russo-Turkish War, the British Red Cross supplied a steel-hulled ship, equipped with modern surgery equipment including chloroform and other anaesthetics and carbolic acid for antisepsis. Similar vessels accompanied the 1882 invasion of Egypt and aided American personnel during the Spanish–American War.
Hospital ships were used by both sides in the Russo-Japanese War. It was the sighting by the Japanese of the Russian hospital ship Orel illuminated in accordance with regulations, that led to the decisive naval Battle of Tsushima. Orel was retained as a prize of war by the Japanese after the battle. During World War I and World War II, hospital sh
Asian Highway Network
The Asian Highway Network known as the Great Asian Highway, is a cooperative project among countries in Asia and Europe and the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, to improve the highway systems in Asia. It is one of the three pillars of the Asian Land Transport Infrastructure Development project, endorsed by the ESCAP commission at its 48th session in 1992, comprising Asian Highway, Trans-Asian Railway and facilitation of land transport projects. Agreements have been signed by 32 countries to allow the highway to cross the continent and reach to Europe; some of the countries taking part in the highway project are India, Sri Lanka, China, Japan, South Korea and Bangladesh. Most of the funding comes from the larger, more advanced Asian nations like Japan, Taiwan, South Korea and China as well as international agencies such as the Asian Development Bank; the project aims to make maximum use of the continent's existing highways to avoid the construction of newer ones, except in cases where missing routes necessitate their construction.
Project Monitor, an Asian infrastructure news website, has commented that "early beneficiaries of the Asian Highway project are the planners within the national land transport department of the participating countries it assists them in planning the most cost-effective and efficient routes to promote domestic and international trade. Non-coastal areas, which are negligible, are the other beneficiaries."However, in the mid-2000s some transportation experts were sceptical about the viability of the project given the economic and political climate in both South and Southeast Asia. The Asian Highway Network is going to take over 2 projects, one is the AH 45 and the other is the new AH 45A. AH 45A is the new highway all over Asia from Tonghua to Sana'a; the AH project was initiated by the United Nations in 1959 with the aim of promoting the development of international road transport in the region. During the first phase of the project considerable progress was achieved, progress slowed down when financial assistance was suspended in 1975.
ESCAP has conducted several projects in cooperation with AH member countries step by step after the endorsement of ALTID in 1992. The Intergovernmental Agreement on the Asian Highway Network was adopted on November 18, 2003, by the Intergovernmental Meeting. During the 60th session of the ESCAP Commission at Shanghai, China, in April 2004, the IGA treaty was signed by 23 countries. By 2013, 29 countries had ratified the agreement; the advanced highway network would provide for greater trade and social interactions between Asian countries, including personal contacts, project capitalizations, connections of major container terminals with transportation points, promotion of tourism via the new roadways. According to Om Prakash, "It's an excellent step taken by ESCAP to gather all the Asian countries under one crown but the problem with this project is political disputes between some countries, notably Pakistan and Myanmar, delaying the project". Route AH1 is proposed to extend from Tokyo to the border with Bulgaria west of Istanbul and Edirne, passing through both Koreas and other countries in Southeast and South Asia.
The corridor is expected to improve trade links between East Asian countries and Russia. To complete the route, existing roads will be upgraded and new roads constructed to link the network. US$25 billion has been spent or committed as of 2007, with additional US$18 billion needed for upgrades and improvements to 26,000 km of highway; the project new highway route numbers begin with "AH", standing for "Asian Highway", followed by one, two or three digits. Single-digit route numbers from 1 to 9 are assigned to major Asian Highway routes which cross more than one subregion. Two- and three-digit route numbers are assigned to indicate the routes within subregions, including those connecting to neighbouring subregions, self-contained highway routes within the participating countries. Route numbers are printed in the Latin script and Hindu-Arabic numerals and may be added to existing signage, like the E-road network; the actual design of the signs has not been standardized, only that the letters and digits are in white or black, but the color and size of the sign being flexible.
Most examples feature a blue rectangular shield with a white inscription with further examples of white on green and black on white rectangular shields. What is believed to be the first car crossing of the full extent of the new Asian Highway was achieved by Britons Richard Meredith and Phil Colley in 2007 driving an Aston Martin. Following the AH1 and the AH5 from Tokyo to Istanbul, they drove a total of 12089 km before joining the European motorway network for another 3259 km to London. Including ferry trips and customs clearance delays, the journey took 49 days and crossed 18 countries; the completed route was verified by Aston Martin and the UN's Asian Commission in Bangkok, whose director of transport and tourism Barry Cable confirmed "I can warrant that, to my best knowledge, this was the first car to undertake this journey". Eurowatch in London provided independent corroboration by tracking the car's location from satellite position reports and plotting the vehicle's location throughout the journey.
Meredith, a travel author and veteran of distance-driving events, agreed to make the attem
Avalon Hill Games Inc. is a game company that specializes in wargames and strategic board games. Its logo contains its initials "AH", the company is now referred to by this abbreviation. Before its takeover by Hasbro, it was known as The Avalon Hill Game Company and the initials TAHGC, it has published miniature wargaming rules, role-playing games and sports simulations. It is now a subsidiary of the game company Wizards of the Coast, itself a subsidiary of Hasbro. Avalon Hill pioneered many of the concepts of modern recreational wargaming; these include elements such as the use of a hexagonal grid overlaid on a flat folding board, zones of control, stacking of multiple units at a location, an odds-based combat results table, terrain effects on movement, troop strength and board games based upon historical events. Complex games could and did take days or weeks, AH set up a system for people to play games by mail. Avalon Hill was started in 1952 in Baltimore, Maryland by Charles S. Roberts under the name of "The Avalon Game Company" for the publication of his game Tactics, considered the first of a new type of board game, the wargame.
Roberts sold Tactics on a mail order basis from his home in the Avalon neighborhood of Baltimore. Following the success of Tactics, Roberts changed the name upon incorporation from "The Avalon Game Company" to "Avalon Hill" in 1958 because of an argument with another company; the number of games released per year was erratic until 1964 as the company released anywhere from 1 to 7 games.5-8The first game published by the company under the name of "Avalon Hill" was the second edition of Tactics, titled Tactics II, published in 1958. AH published two other games that year and the railroad game Dispatcher. In 1959, Roberts moved Avalon into an office space on Gay Street in Baltimore and took on its first outside designed game, Verdict, by two corporate lawyers. After another office move, in August 1960 Thomas N. Shaw, a high school friend of Roberts, was hired to design games.6In 1960, Avalon published the first dice-less sports game in Football Strategy designed by Thomas N. Shaw, followed by two sister games, Baseball Strategy and Basketball Strategy.
Of this sports strategy line, the football and baseball versions were privately published by Shaw in 1959.7 With a recession occurring, debt began to pile up starting in 1961. Avalon launched a pre-school children's line in 1963 with four games, What Time Is It?, Doll House and Trucks, Boats & Planes, which flopped. Roberts gave up and planned to file bankruptcy on December 13, 1963.p7 Instead his creditors, Monarch Office Services and J. E. Smith & Co. took over. Monarch had printed all but the boxes, which were done by J. E. Smith; the company was reorganized by retaining only one staff member, moved, cut costs and appointed J. E. Sparling as president.p7,8 In 1964, AH set a two-game per year release schedule.5-8Avalon Hill published Blitzkrieg in 1965. This game was an abstract combat game, featuring some neutral countries. Many rules variants were created for Blitzkrieg; the company published simulations of actual battles and campaigns, such as Midway, Afrika Korps, The Battle of the Bulge. Avalon Hill published PanzerBlitz in 1970, designed for the company by Jim Dunnigan's Simulations Publications, Inc. on a royalty basis from SPI's Tac Force 3 game.p9 Monarch bought out J.
E. Smith & Co. Avalon Hill's co-owner, on November 30, 1971, thus the company became a division of a renamed Monarch Office Services, Monarch Avalon.p10The company acquired several successful games including Acquire, TwixT and Feudal from the purchase of 3M Games in February 1976.p5,12 Sports Illustrated line of sports games were purchased in December 1976. Both lines increased the retail outlets; the Aladdin Industries game line was another acquisition in March 1977. With the SI line, the company started a sports game division in May 1977 with Bruce Milligan hired to head the division and launch All Star Replay sport games magazine. While from the 3M line, Facts in Five became its top selling game.p5,12During the 1970s, the company's golden years, Avalon Hill published a number of popular games such as Outdoor Survival, Panzer Blitz, Squad Leader, the Statis Pro sports line. Avalon Hill purchased many games from smaller companies and republished them. Heritage Models sold AH its Battleline Publications in October 1979.p5,15 Much of the Battleline line, including Wooden Ships and Iron Men and Machiavelli, was republished by Avalon Hill, along with the popular Diplomacy.
AH acquired Jedko Games' The Russian Campaign and War at Sea, Hartland Trefoil's Civilization. 1830 was developed by Avalon Hill, but based on Francis Tresham's 1829. The company entered the role-playing game market by publishing Powers and Perils in 1983 and Lords of Creation in 1984; the licenses to RuneQuest and the board games White Bear & Red Moon and Elric, were acquired in a complex agreement in 1983 with Chaosium, Avalon Hill published the 3rd Edition in 1984. None of these role-playing games achieved the popularity of the long-established competitor, Dungeons & Dragons. Avalon Hill became an early publisher of computer games in 1980 with its video game division Microcomputer Games, adapting some of its boardgame titles to various computer platforms on several data formats. Sales of these products were decent, but the only outstanding success was Achtung Spitfire!, published relat
X86 is a family of instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 microprocessor and its 8088 variant. The 8086 was introduced in 1978 as a 16-bit extension of Intel's 8-bit 8080 microprocessor, with memory segmentation as a solution for addressing more memory than can be covered by a plain 16-bit address; the term "x86" came into being because the names of several successors to Intel's 8086 processor end in "86", including the 80186, 80286, 80386 and 80486 processors. Many additions and extensions have been added to the x86 instruction set over the years consistently with full backward compatibility; the architecture has been implemented in processors from Intel, Cyrix, AMD, VIA and many other companies. Of those, only Intel, AMD, VIA hold x86 architectural licenses, are producing modern 64-bit designs; the term is not synonymous with IBM PC compatibility, as this implies a multitude of other computer hardware. As of 2018, the majority of personal computers and laptops sold are based on the x86 architecture, while other categories—especially high-volume mobile categories such as smartphones or tablets—are dominated by ARM.
In the 1980s and early 1990s, when the 8088 and 80286 were still in common use, the term x86 represented any 8086 compatible CPU. Today, however, x86 implies a binary compatibility with the 32-bit instruction set of the 80386; this is due to the fact that this instruction set has become something of a lowest common denominator for many modern operating systems and also because the term became common after the introduction of the 80386 in 1985. A few years after the introduction of the 8086 and 8088, Intel added some complexity to its naming scheme and terminology as the "iAPX" of the ambitious but ill-fated Intel iAPX 432 processor was tried on the more successful 8086 family of chips, applied as a kind of system-level prefix. An 8086 system, including coprocessors such as 8087 and 8089, as well as simpler Intel-specific system chips, was thereby described as an iAPX 86 system. There were terms iRMX, iSBC, iSBX – all together under the heading Microsystem 80. However, this naming scheme was quite temporary.
Although the 8086 was developed for embedded systems and small multi-user or single-user computers as a response to the successful 8080-compatible Zilog Z80, the x86 line soon grew in features and processing power. Today, x86 is ubiquitous in both stationary and portable personal computers, is used in midrange computers, workstations and most new supercomputer clusters of the TOP500 list. A large amount of software, including a large list of x86 operating systems are using x86-based hardware. Modern x86 is uncommon in embedded systems and small low power applications as well as low-cost microprocessor markets, such as home appliances and toys, lack any significant x86 presence. Simple 8-bit and 16-bit based architectures are common here, although the x86-compatible VIA C7, VIA Nano, AMD's Geode, Athlon Neo and Intel Atom are examples of 32- and 64-bit designs used in some low power and low cost segments. There have been several attempts, including by Intel itself, to end the market dominance of the "inelegant" x86 architecture designed directly from the first simple 8-bit microprocessors.
Examples of this are the iAPX 432, the Intel 960, Intel 860 and the Intel/Hewlett-Packard Itanium architecture. However, the continuous refinement of x86 microarchitectures and semiconductor manufacturing would make it hard to replace x86 in many segments. AMD's 64-bit extension of x86 and the scalability of x86 chips such as the eight-core Intel Xeon and 12-core AMD Opteron is underlining x86 as an example of how continuous refinement of established industry standards can resist the competition from new architectures; the table below lists processor models and model series implementing variations of the x86 instruction set, in chronological order. Each line item is characterized by improved or commercially successful processor microarchitecture designs. At various times, companies such as IBM, NEC, AMD, TI, STM, Fujitsu, OKI, Cyrix, Intersil, C&T, NexGen, UMC, DM&P started to design or manufacture x86 processors intended for personal computers as well as embedded systems; such x86 implementations are simple copies but employ different internal microarchitectures as well as different solutions at the electronic and physical levels.
Quite early compatible microprocessors were 16-bit, while 32-bit designs were developed much later. For the personal computer market, real quantities started to appear around 1990 with i386 and i486 compatible processors named to Intel's original chips. Other companies, which designed or manufactured x86 or x87 processors, include ITT Corporation, National Semiconductor, ULSI System Technology, Weitek. Following the pipelined i486, Intel introduced the Pentium brand name for their new set of superscalar x86 designs.
Charles Aznavour was a French-Armenian singer and diplomat. Aznavour was known for his distinctive tenor voice: clear and ringing in its upper reaches, with gravelly and profound low notes. In a composer/singer/songwriter career spanning over 70 years, he recorded more than 1,200 songs interpreted in nine languages. Moreover, he co-wrote more than 1,000 songs for himself and others. Aznavour was one of France's most enduring singers, he sold 180 million records during his lifetime and was dubbed France's Frank Sinatra, while music critic Stephen Holden described Aznavour as a "French pop deity". He was arguably the most famous Armenian of his time. In 1998, Aznavour was named Entertainer of the Century by CNN and users of Time Online from around the globe, he was recognized as the century's outstanding performer, with nearly 18% of the total vote, edging out Elvis Presley and Bob Dylan. Jean Cocteau said: "Before Aznavour, despair was unpopular". Aznavour sang for presidents and royalty, as well as at humanitarian events.
In response to the 1988 Armenian earthquake, he founded the charitable organization Aznavour for Armenia along with his long-time friend impresario Levon Sayan. In 2009, he was appointed ambassador of Armenia to Switzerland, as well as Armenia's permanent delegate to the United Nations at Geneva, he started his last world tour in 2014. On 24 August 2017, Aznavour was awarded the 2,618th star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame; that year, he and his sister were awarded the Raoul Wallenberg Award for sheltering Jews during World War II. His last concert took place in NHK Hall in Osaka on 19 September 2018. Aznavour was born at the clinic Tarnier at 89, rue d'Assas in Saint-Germain-des-Prés, 6th arrondissement of Paris, into a family of artists living on rue Monsieur-le-Prince, he was named Shahnour Vaghinag Aznavourian, by his parents, Armenian immigrants Michael Aznavourian and Knar Baghdasarian, an Armenian from Smyrna. His father sang in restaurants in France before establishing a Caucasian restaurant called Le Caucase.
Charles's parents introduced him to performing at an early age, he dropped out of school at age nine, took the stage name "Aznavour". During the German occupation of France during World War II, Aznavour and his family hid “a number of people who were persecuted by the Nazis, while Charles and his sister Aida were involved in rescue activities.” Their work was recognized in a statement issued in 2017 by President of Israel. That year and Aida received the Raoul Wallenberg Award for their wartime activities. "The Aznavours were linked to the Missak Manouchian Resistance Group and in this context they have offered shelter to Armenians and others at their own Paris flat, risking their own lives." Aznavour was familiar with performing on stage by the time he began his career as a musician. At the age of nine, he had roles in a play called Un Petit Diable à Paris and a film entitled La Guerre des Gosses. Aznavour turned to professional dancing and performed in several nightclubs. In 1944, he and actor Pierre Roche began a partnership and in collaborative efforts performed in numerous nightclubs.
It was through this partnership that Aznavour began to sing. The partnership's first successes were in Canada in 1948-1950. Meanwhile, Aznavour wrote his first song entitled J'ai Bu in 1950. During the early stages of his career, Aznavour opened for Edith Piaf at the Moulin Rouge. Piaf advised him to pursue a career in singing. Piaf helped Aznavour develop a distinctive voice. Sometimes described as "France's Frank Sinatra", Aznavour sang about love, he wrote or co-wrote musicals, more than one thousand songs, recorded ninety-one studio albums. Aznavour's voice was shaded towards the tenor range, but possessed the low range and coloration more typical of a baritone, contributing to his unique sound. Aznavour spoke and sang in many languages, which helped him perform at Carnegie Hall, in the US, other major venues around the world, he recorded at least one song from the 18th-century Armenian poet Sayat-Nova, a popular song, Im Yare in Armenian. "Que C'est Triste Venise", sung in French, Spanish and German, was successful the mid 1960s.1972 saw the release of his 23rd studio album, "Idiote je t'aime...", which contained among others, two of his classics - Les plaisirs démodés et Comme ils disent, the latter dealing with homosexuality, which at the time, was revolutionary.
In 1974, Aznavour became a major success in the United Kingdom when his song "She" was number 1 on the UK Singles Chart for four weeks during a fourteen-week run. His other well-known song in the UK was the 1973 "The Old Fashioned Way", on UK charts for 15 weeks. Artists who have recorded his songs and collaborated with Aznavour include Édith Piaf, Fred Astaire, Frank Sinatra, Andrea Bocelli, Bing Crosby, Ray Charles, Bob Dylan, Dusty Springfield, Liza Minnelli, Mia Martini, Elton John, Serge Gainsbourg, Josh Groban, Petula Clark, Tom Jones, Shirley Bassey, José Carreras, Laura Pausini, Nana Mouskouri and Julio Iglesias. Fellow French pop singer Mireille Mathieu sang an
Achievement Hunter is an American video gaming division of Rooster Teeth Productions. Founded by Geoff Ramsey and Jack Pattillo on July 6, 2008, the website is based on the achievement mechanic found in seventh and eighth generation video game consoles. Since its founding, Achievement Hunter has grown to become a core component of Rooster Teeth, hosting a wide variety of videos related to video games. Achievement Hunter videos are hosted by six main members: Geoff Ramsey, Jack Pattillo, Gavin Free, Michael Jones, Ryan Haywood, Jeremy Dooley. While most videos feature these six'core' members of Achievement Hunter, others from the "main room" and the editing room show up regularly. Achievement Hunter has a large presence on YouTube – where it runs the Achievement Hunter and LetsPlay channels – garnering more than 5.3 million subscribers and 2.5 billion video views. In 2008, Geoff Ramsey's interest in gaming achievements resulted in the realization that no community-based website related to achievements existed.
Since Ramsey and Burnie Burns Rooster Teeth CEO, were both "huge achievement fans" and dueling each other to get the most achievements in their spare time, Ramsey had an idea to begin developing a website where gamers and fans could look up information on how to get specific achievements. Ramsey approached Burns about creating a website based on achievements. Ramsey elaborated, saying he had grown tired of making Red vs. Blue and enjoyed working on this creative outlet in his spare time. Alongside employee Jack Pattillo, Ramsey released achievement guides and Easter egg videos receiving assistance from select volunteers from the Rooster Teeth community. David Dreger assisted in the founding of the site. In 2011, Achievement Hunter hired Ryan Haywood as an manager. Four new shows were introduced to Achievement Hunter in 2011. One of them, Rage Quit, led to the official hiring of Michael Jones as a full-time staff member in August 2011. In December 2011, Achievement Hunter began creating Let's Play videos.
The success of the videos resulted in a weekly sub-series in 2012, in which the main hosts play Minecraft. Weekly Let's Play videos focusing on Grand Theft Auto games are released. Achievement Hunter hired Gavin Free in 2012. In March 2012, Achievement Hunter debuted Game Night, in which Ramsey and Caleb Denecour play games with community members. Community member Ray Narvaez, Jr. was hired in April 2012, having worked as a contract host for multiple years. In September 2012, contract editor Franco Scarcello created Five Facts, hosted by Pattillo and Ramsey and focused on little-known facts about various video games. In early 2013, Achievement Hunter introduced a competition series titled VS, in which the employees challenge each other to compete in games. In April 2013, Achievement Hunter launched their own channel on YouTube, which hosts a variety of their videos. In 2013, the company retired Achievement HORSE, replacing it with Achievement HUNT, in which a variety of employees challenge each other until the word "HUNT" has been spelled.
In October 2013, Pattillo hosted a 24-hour live stream benefiting Extra Life, a charity benefiting hospitalized children. With appearances from other Achievement Hunter members and various Rooster Teeth employees, the live stream managed to raise $340,000; this charity live stream has become an annual event, with 2014's Extra Life live stream raising over $442,000 for Children's Miracle Network. At RTX in July 2014, community members Matt Bragg and Jeremy Dooley were hired as editors and secondary hosts at Achievement Hunter respectively. On February 5, 2015, Achievement Hunter founded the Let's Play Network YouTube channel; the channel acted as a platform for multiple RoosterTeeth owned and affiliated groups and divisions to upload gameplays. Some of these groups included the likes of Funhaus, ScrewAttack, Cow Chop, Kinda Funny, Sugar Pine 7. Although, a majority of the channel's videos still consisted of Achievement Hunter's content. In early 2015, Achievement Hunter hosted the first Let's Play Live at the Moody Theater in Austin, Texas.
In April 2015, Narvaez departed from the company as a full-time employee to focus on Twitch live-streaming, although he continued to voice his character for the company's X-Ray and Vav animated series until its eventual cancellation. In mid-2015, Achievement Hunter launched a new YouTube channel, named after themselves, thereon they upload series of videos that were uploaded to the Rooster Teeth channel. Additionally, they moved out of Rooster Teeth's Stage 5, Austin Studios office into their own office nearby. Dooley was promoted during an episode of Let's Play Minecraft. A weekly podcast titled Off Topic was announced in early October, hosted by Michael Jones. Four test episodes were only available to "First Members" on their website; the first official episode aired to the public after the initial tests. Jones serves as the main host of the show and makes the most frequent appearances alongside other Achievement Hunter employees and special guests, including Patricia Sommerset, Arin Hanson, Samm Levine.
He hosts the after show Last Call available for First Members only. From 2015, Achievement Hunter would feature celebrities as guest collaborators in some of their Let's Play videos such as Watsky, iZombie's Rahul Kohli, Dan Campbell from
An air handler, or air handling unit, is a device used to regulate and circulate air as part of a heating and air-conditioning system. An air handler is a large metal box containing a blower, heating or cooling elements, filter racks or chambers, sound attenuators, dampers. Air handlers connect to a ductwork ventilation system that distributes the conditioned air through the building and returns it to the AHU. Sometimes AHUs admit air directly to and from the space served without ductwork. Small air handlers, for local use, are called terminal units, may only include an air filter and blower. A larger air handler that conditions 100% outside air, no recirculated air, is known as a makeup air unit. An air handler designed for outdoor use on roofs, is known as a packaged unit or rooftop unit; the air handler is constructed around a framing system with metal infill panels as required to suit the configuration of the components. In its simplest form the frame may be made from metal channels or sections, with single skin metal infill panels.
The metalwork is galvanized for long term protection. For outdoor units some form of weatherproof lid and additional sealing around joints is provided. Larger air handlers will be manufactured from a square section steel framing system with double skinned and insulated infill panels; such constructions reduce heat loss or heat gain from the air handler, as well as providing acoustic attenuation. Larger air handlers may be several meters long and are manufactured in a sectional manner and therefore, for strength and rigidity, steel section base rails are provided under the unit. Where supply and extract air is required in equal proportions for a balanced ventilation system, it is common for the supply and extract air handlers to be joined together, either in a side-by-side or a stacked configuration; the major types of components are described here in approximate order, from the return duct, through the unit, to the supply duct. Air filtration is always present in order to provide clean dust-free air to the building occupants.
It may be via HEPA, electrostatic, or a combination of techniques. Gas-phase and ultraviolet air treatments may be employed as well. Filtration is placed first in the AHU in order to keep all the downstream components clean. Depending upon the grade of filtration required filters will be arranged in two successive banks with a coarse-grade panel filter provided in front of a fine-grade bag filter, or other "final" filtration medium; the panel filter is cheaper to replace and maintain, thus protects the more expensive bag filters. The life of a filter may be assessed by monitoring the pressure drop through the filter medium at design air volume flow rate; this may be done by means of a visual display using a pressure gauge, or by a pressure switch linked to an alarm point on the building control system. Failure to replace a filter may lead to its collapse, as the forces exerted upon it by the fan overcome its inherent strength, resulting in collapse and thus contamination of the air handler and downstream ductwork.
Air handlers may need to provide heating, cooling, or both to change the supply air temperature, humidity level depending on the location and the application. Such conditioning is provided by heat exchanger coil within the air handling unit air stream, such coils may be direct or indirect in relation to the medium providing the heating or cooling effect. Direct heat exchangers include those for gas-fired fuel-burning heaters or a refrigeration evaporator, placed directly in the air stream. Electric resistance heaters and heat pumps can be used as well. Evaporative cooling is possible in dry climates. Indirect coils use hot water or steam for heating, chilled water for cooling. Coils are manufactured from copper for the tubes, with copper or aluminium fins to aid heat transfer. Cooling coils will employ eliminator plates to remove and drain condensate; the hot water or steam is provided by a central boiler, the chilled water is provided by a central chiller. Downstream temperature sensors are used to monitor and control "off coil" temperatures, in conjunction with an appropriate motorized control valve prior to the coil.
If dehumidification is required the cooling coil is employed to over-cool to that the dew point is reached and condensation occurs. A heater coil placed; this process has the effect of reducing the relative humidity level of the supply air. In colder climates, where winter temperatures drop below freezing frost coils or pre-heat coils are employed as a first stage of air treatment to ensure that downstream filters or chilled water coils are protected against freezing; the control of the frost coil is such that if a certain off-coil air temperature is not reached the entire air handler is shut down for protection. Humidification is necessary in colder climates where continuous heating will make the air drier, resulting in uncomfortable air quality and increased static electricity. Various types of humidification may be used: Evaporative: dry air blown over a reservoir will evaporate some of the water; the rate of evaporation can be increased by spraying the water onto baffles in the air stream.
Vaporizer: steam or vapor from a boiler is blown directly into the air stream. Spray mist: water