The Cahto are an indigenous Californian group of Native Americans. Today most descendants are enrolled as the federally recognized tribe, the Cahto Indian Tribe of the Laytonville Rancheria, a small group of Cahto are enrolled in the Round Valley Indian Tribes of the Round Valley Reservation. Cahto is a Northern Pomo word, meaning "lake", which referred to an important Cahto village site, called Djilbi; the Cahto are sometimes referred to as the Kato people. The tribe controls the Laytonville Rancheria known as the Cahto Rancheria, a federal Indian reservation of Cahto and Pomo people; the rancheria is 264 acres large and located three miles west of Laytonville in Mendocino County. It was founded in 1906; the reservation's population is about 188. The Cahto flag, representing their sovereign nation, features a stylized bear claw outlined in white and centered on a black pictograph representing the Cahto ancestral lake home; the pictograph is centered on a red field surrounded with a red border.
The Words "CAHTO TRIBE" is written in white block letters above the lake pictograph. The bear claw is placed to indicate the importance of the bear as one of their most important tribal totems; the lake symbol denotes their ancestral lands, the color red indicates the blood of their people, white is for the purity of their spirit, the black is for the rich lake bottomland that sustained their ancestors. This flag is of modern creation and not traditional, it was adopted in 2013. The Cahto Indian Tribe is run by a democratically elected tribal council; the current tribal executive committee is: Aimie Lucas, Chairwoman Tasheena Sloan, Vice-Chair, Kendra Campbell, Secretary-Treasurer Karen Wilson, Member at Large. The tribe operates its own housing authority, tribal police, EPA office. Economic development comes from revenues generated by the tribe's Red Fox Casino, located in Laytonville; the Kato language is one of four Athabaskan languages. The others were Eel River Athabaskan, Mattole-Bear River, Hupa-Chilula.
Most Kato speakers were bilingual in Northern Pomo. The Kato lived farthest south of all the Athapascans in California, occupying Cahto Valley and Long Valley, in general the country south of Blue Rock and between the headwaters of the two main branches of Eel River; this region is veined with streams. Most of these are torrential during the rainy winters. In the early 18th century, the Cahto lived in 50 village sites. Traditionally, the Cahto made such articles of stone, horn and skin, as were made in northern California; the primitive costume for both men and women was a tanned deer-skin, wrapped about the waist, a close-fitting knitted cap, which kept in place the knot of hair at the back of the head. At a period, the Cahto garment included a shirt made of two deer-skins, laced down the front and reaching to the knees. Both men and women had tattoos on their faces and the chest: designs consisted of upright lines, both broken and straight. In constructing a Cahto house, a circular excavation about two feet deep was prepared, in it, at the corners of a square were erected four forked posts.
The front pair were a little taller than the other, so that the roof would have a slight pitch to the rear. The roof was so small that it was of much less importance in determining the final shape of the house than was the circularity of the base; the space between the posts were stuffed with bunches of long grasses, slabs of wood and bark. An opening in the roof served to carry off smoke, the doorway was a narrow opening in front from ground to roof; as many as three families occupied one of these little houses, with all persons cooking at the same fire. For summer camps, brush lean-tos were set up; the dog was the only domesticated animal. A favorite pastime for the females was to assemble early in the evening for singing in chorus. One of the best singers would lead, two others kept time by striking one bone with another; the men took no part but listened. Each village had its chief, dog sled, some villages, a second chief; the chief’s son succeeded to the office, but if a headman died without sons, the people, by common consent and without formal voting, selected from among themselves the man whom they regarded as best fitted for the place.
The duty of a chief was to be the adviser of his people. When anything of great importance was to be decided, the village chief summoned the council, which comprised all the elder men; each expressed his opinion, the chief would go along with the consensus. Many of the social practices of the Kato tribe show how they were influenced by the culture of northern-central California. Children of both sexes were required to observe certain rites at the age of puberty. Annually in midsummer, a group of boys, ranging from 12 to 16 years old, were led out to a solitary place by two men, one of whom was the teacher. Here, they received instructions in mythology and the supposed origin of customs, such as the mortuary rites, shamanistic practices and puberty observances. In the winter, these boys assembled again in the ceremonial house and remained there during the four winter months for instructions on tribal folklore. At puberty, a girl began to live a quiet and abstemious life for five months, remaining always in or near the house, abstaining from meat, drinking little water.
She was not permitted to work. Marriage was arranged between the two persons concerned, without consulting a
Barona Group of Capitan Grande Band of Mission Indians
The Barona Group of Capitan Grande Band of Mission Indians of the Barona Reservation is a federally recognized tribe of Kumeyaay Indians, who are sometimes known as Mission Indians. In 1875, the tribe along with the Viejas Group of Capitan Grande Band of Mission Indians, controls the Capitan Grande Reservation, which consisted of barren, uninhabitable mountain lands; the El Capitan Reservoir, forcibly purchased from the two tribes to provide water for San Diego, submerged what habitable land existed on the reservation. The two tribes jointly control this reservation, it serves as an ecological preserve. The Barona Reservation is a federal Indian reservation located in San Diego County, near Lakeside and the Cleveland National Forest, it takes its name from the Mexican land grant Cañada de San Vicente y Mesa del Padre Barona, named in turn after Padre José Barona, a friar at Mission San Diego de Alcalá from 1798 until he transferred to Mission San Juan Capistrano in 1811. Founded in 1932, the reservation covers 5,181 acres.
Much of the highland valley has good farmland, the reservation hosts several ranches, a chapel, tribal offices, community center, ball park, created by the tribe. In 1973, 125 of the 156 enrolled members lived on the reservation; the nearest community is San Diego Country Estates. The Barona Band is headquartered in California, they are governed by a democratically elected, seven-person tribal council, who serve four-year terms. As of January 2017, the council members are: The tribe owns and operates the Barona Resort and Casino, AmBience Day Spa, Barona Creek Golf Club, Barona Steakhouse, Sage Café, Seasons Fresh Buffet, HoWan Noodle Shop, several other restaurants, all in Lakeside. Eargle, Jr. Dolan H.. Northern California Guide: Weaving the Past and Present. San Francisco: Tree Company Press. ISBN 0-937401-10-2. Fetzer, Leland. San Diego County Place Names A to Z. San Diego, California: Sunbelt Publications. ISBN 978-0-932653-73-4. Pritzker, Barry M.. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples.
Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Shipek, Florence C.. "History of Southern California Mission Indians". In Heizer, Robert F. Handbook of North American Indians. Volume 8: California. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. Pp. 610–618. ISBN 0-87474-187-4. Barona Band of Mission Indians, official website
Fort Bidwell Indian Community of the Fort Bidwell Reservation of California
The Fort Bidwell Indian Community of the Fort Bidwell Reservation of California is a federally recognized tribe of Northern Paiute Indians in Modoc County in the northeast corner of California. The population as of 1969 was 112; the agency is the Northern California agency. The principal tribe is Paiute, they had laws and regulations, in order to establish a legal community organization and secure certain privileges and powers offered to us by the Indian Reorganization Act, they established a constitution and by-laws for the Fort Bidwell Indian Community. There were various laws placed on membership, land as well as amendments; the Fort Bidwell Indian Community has a federal reservation, the Fort Bidwell Reservation, in Modoc County, near the town of Fort Bidwell, California. The reservation is 3,335 acres large. 108 tribal members live on the reservation. The reservation was established in 1897. In 1990 only 6 tribal members lived on the reservation. In 1992, 22 people were enrolled in the tribe.
The tribal members are members the Northern Paiute Kidütökadö band. The Fort Bidwell Indian Community traditionally spoke the Northern Paiute language, part of the Western Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family; the language family is Numic, the language phylum is Aztec-Tanoan. The word Numic comes from the cognate word in all Numic languages for "person"; this language is still in use and spoken fluently by the people of Fort Bidwell. This language is most related to the Mono language of California. For this tribe the activities include occasional marksmanship, which sometimes was played as competition, they have large areas of land which are used for farming, so, another activity for the people of Fort Bidwell, California. Drumming, family fun were the highlights of the celebrations held at the Fort Bidwell Indian reservation; the vendors sold food items, art work, beading supplies at these celebrations. Dancing was a common activity, in which women wore fancy shawls when dancing. In the state legislature, Fort Bidwell is in the 1st Senate District, represented by Republican Ted Gaines, the 1st Assembly District, represented by Republican Brian Dahle.
Federally, Fort Bidwell is in California's 1st congressional district, represented by Republican Doug LaMalfa. Fort Bidwell is now registered as California Historical Landmark #430; the tribal affiliation is Paiute Reservation. The Fort Bidwell Reservation Population within the reservation is around 124. Adjacent to the reservation there about 39 people; the land base is 1350 ha. The tribal office is at PO Box 129, Fort Bidwell, CA 96112. A joint resolution of January 30, 1879, authorized the secretary of the interior to use the abandoned Fort Bidwell Military Reserve for an Indian Training School. An act of January 27, 1913, granted land to the People's Church for a cemetery and right-of-way over the Fort Bidwell Indian School Reservation, the Indians to have right of interment therein; the Reservation was established by Executive Order on October 9, 1866. The Fort Bidwell community is of the Modoc California; the Tribal government was established on January 28, 1936 under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934.
The Tribe has 350 members, although only about 160 reside on the Reservation. The tribe's headquarters is located in California; the tribe is governed by a nine tribal council members as well as a chairman, vice chairman and secretary. Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Manzanita Band of Diegueno Mission Indians
The Manzanita Band of Diegueño Mission Indians of the Manzanita Reservation is a federally recognized tribe of Kumeyaay Indians, who are sometimes known as part of the Mission Indians. Because the Manzanita Band is one of the Kumeyaay band of Indians, their culture has everything to do with the Kumeyaays. For example, Kumeyaay customs are passed through generations and they gather in both times of celebration and griefs. Kumeyaay Culture deals a lot with songs. Song contains the collective wisdom of the Kumeyaay; some popular songs include the Eagle Dance. The social structure of the bands included the shiimull, an ancestral descent group, governed by a hierarchy of kwaaypaays. In 1769, when the Spanish arrived, there were around 50 and 75 shiimull; each one of these bands included 5 to 15 family groups. Kumeyaay Indians foraged for flora that they can use and hunt for animals depending on the season. Besides hunting for food, the Kumeyaay planted trees and fields of grain,squash and corn gathered and grew medicinal herbs and plants, ate floras like fresh fruits, pine nuts and acorn.
They are known for their basket weaving. The people had sophisticated practices of agriculture and animal husbandry. Another thing was they controlled erosion and overgrowth; the Manzanita Reservation is a federal Indian reservation located in the southern Laguna Mountains near Boulevard, in southeastern San Diego County, California. It is in the Dieguno Region; the reservation is 67 miles east of the city San Diego on Interstate 8. Through the authority of the Executive Order of 1891, the reservation was built on 640 acres of reserved land in 1893. In 1907 the reserve land was increased; the reservation is now 3,579 acres large with a population of 67-69 and is held in a trust by the U. S. Government which meant the land is still technically owned by the US Government, it was established in 1893. In 1973, 6 out of 69 enrolled; the reservation lies adjacent to both the Campo Indian Reservation and the La Posta Indian Reservation. The nearest off-reservation communities are Campo. In the present day there are 13 small Kumeyaay Indian reservations in California.
The Manzanita Band is headquartered in Boulevard. Members of the Manzanita Band belongs to the Kumeyaay Nation, they are governed by a democratically elected tribal council. All tribal members that are 18 year are on the council; the council votes for who can be on the executive community, which includes the tribal chairman, two regular members, a secretary-treasurer. Leroy J. Elliott was formally their tribal chairperson. Now the current acting Chairwoman is Angela Elliott Santos; the tribe itself is organized under the IRA constitution, approved in 1976. Besides the executive council, the tribe includes a housing community and management offices. Eargle, Jr. Dolan H. California Indian Country: The Land and the People. San Francisco: Tree Company Press, 1992. ISBN 0-937401-20-X. Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Shipek, Florence C. "History of Southern California Mission Indians." Handbook of North American Indians.
Volume ed. Heizer, Robert F. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978. 610-618. ISBN 0-87474-187-4.` Southern California Tribal Chairman's Association—SCTCA.net: Manzanita Band of the Kumeyaay Nation webpage Kumeyaay.info: The Kumeyaay Tribes Guide — Tribal Bands of the Kumeyaay Nation — in San Diego County, California + Baja California state, México
Dry Creek Rancheria Band of Pomo Indians
The Dry Creek Rancheria Band of Pomo Indians is a federally recognized tribe of Pomo people, an indigenous people of California. It has a reservation near Geyserville, California, in Sonoma County, where it operates the River Rock Casino Resort; the Pomo people are indigenous to northern California and formed about 21 autonomous communities, speaking seven Pomoan languages. The Dry Creek Band are Southern Pomo, descended from the Makahmo bands. Sustained European contact began with the Russian fur trappers in the 18th century, they were followed in the 19th century by American gold prospectors and settlers, who outnumbered the native populations. In 1915, the federal government purchased and held in fee, land for the "Dry Creek Rancheria", Dry Creek Valley being the name of the area, for use by both the "Dry Creek" Indians and the Geyserville Indians; the Dry Creek area, in what is now the Alexander Valley and still is prime agricultural land. The purchase was part of the U. S. rancheria program, which began in 1893 and ended around 1922, when 58 tracts of land were purchased in California on which "homeless" Indians could live rent- and tax-free.
Most of the land was selected and purchased by Special Indian Agent John Terrell, who took much care in finding good plots of land. Adults were to be given assigned plots of land, but in actuality, most Indians moved onto the rancherias with no assignments. No one was forced to live on a rancheria; the tribe was reorganized via Articles of Association adopted on September 13, 1972. The Articles were approved by the Secretary of the Interior on April 16, 1973; the tribe's name was changed from "Dry Creek Rancheria" to "Dry Creek Rancheria Band of Pomo Indians". In 2002, the tribe established River Rock Casino on its reservation near Geyserville; the casino includes the Quail Run Restaurant, the Oak Bar, Lounge 128. The tribe's reservation is the Dry Creek Rancheria, situated near the town of Geyserville in Sonoma County, California; the reservation has an area of 75 acres – a remnant of the 86,400 acres the tribe once owned. Much of the original reservation lands were inundated by the waters of Lake Sonoma after the construction of the Warm Springs Dam.
The tribe owns 277 acres south of Petaluma, for which it applied to be taken into federal trust, before suspending its application. In October 2013, the tribe added a 60-room hotel to its plan for the land, but the tribe's leader continued to insist that there were no plans for a casino; the Dry Creek Pomo conduct business out of Healdsburg, California. In 2001 the tribe had a Coup d'état. Members of the tribe, without notice, attempted to replace the government; the tribe resolved the problem internally. However, appeals were made to the BIA. On May 22, 2010 the tribe had a Coup d'état. Two special meetings were called - one by the Chairman and one by two other Board members - to attempt recall of three Board members. No recall was successful but by a "force of numbers" the Chairman was removed, or removed himself to allow a "cooling off" or "de-escalation" period before "normal" operations could resume in the summer. In the fall of 2010 the government had worked to hold regular Board elections.
The 2010–2012 Board is: Harvey Hopkins, Chairman. The current population of the Dry Creek Pomo is a matter of some controversy. At the beginning of 2009, there were 970 enrolled members; that year, tribal leadership proposed to disenroll members, resulting in protests in March 2009. In March 2014, the tribe notified another 75 members. Chris Wright is the elected Chairman of the Board of Directors, has served as such since 2014; the other members of the Tribal Board of Directors are Betty Arterberry, Margie Rojes, Jim Silva and Tieraney Giron. Official website River Rock Casino
Fort Yuma Indian Reservation
The Fort Yuma Indian Reservation is a part of the traditional lands of the Quechan people. Established in 1884 from the former Fort Yuma, the reservation, at 32°47′04″N 114°38′43″W, has a land area of 178.197 km2 in southeastern Imperial County and western Yuma County, near the city of Yuma, Arizona. Both the county and city are named for the tribe; as of the 2010 Census the population was 2,189. In 1910, the community of Bard, California was created after the eastern part of the reservation was declared surplus under the Dawes Act. In 2009, the Quechan Tribe opened a large gaming resort, the Quechan Casino Resort, on their reservation land