1. Italy – Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, artists and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France, Spain and Austria. Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military, cultural and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, Italia, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern worldItaly – The Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70 – 80 AD, is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history.
2. Sachs Motorcycles – It is one of the worlds oldest motorcycle manufacturers, and manufactured their first motorcycle in 1904. Peugeot, the oldest extant, began manufacture in 1898, triumph produced bikes in 1902 and Harley-Davidson and Husqvarna both in 1903. The company produced ball bearings, motorcycle engines and bicycle parts, Sachs Motorcycles was a subsidiary producing motorcycles, mopeds, motorised bicycles and all-terrain vehicles. The manufacturing of motorcycles was broken out of Sachs into its own company, Sachs took over Victoria, Express and DKW in the 1960s. Fichtel & Sachs became a maker of automotive parts. Their moped motors continued to be used by many brands until the mid-90s, the company began to supply motorcycles for the German Federal Armed Forces in 1992. At this time Sachs was reduced to local assembly of small, cheap, Chinese-sourced scooters, the distinctive Sachs MadAss was the only Sachs-engineered motorcycle made at the time. In 2007 the company moved to new locations in Nürnberg / Katzwang and 2008 changed its name from SACHS Fahrzeug- und Motorentechnik GmbH to SFM GmbHSachs Motorcycles – Sachs scooter
3. Two-stroke engine – A two-stroke, or two-cycle, engine is a type of internal combustion engine which completes a power cycle with two strokes of the piston during only one crankshaft revolution. This is in contrast to an engine, which requires four strokes of the piston to complete a power cycle. In a two-stroke engine, the end of the combustion stroke, two-stroke engines often have a high power-to-weight ratio, power being available in a narrow range of rotational speeds called the power band. Compared to four-stroke engines, two-stroke engines have a reduced number of moving parts. The first commercial two-stroke engine involving in-cylinder compression is attributed to Scottish engineer Dugald Clerk, however, unlike most later two-stroke engines, his had a separate charging cylinder. The crankcase-scavenged engine, employing the area below the piston as a pump, is generally credited to Englishman Joseph Day. The first truly practical two-stroke engine is attributed to Yorkshireman Alfred Angas Scott, gasoline versions are particularly useful in lightweight or portable applications such as chainsaws and motorcycles. In a two-stroke engine, the transfer from the engine to the cooling system is less than in a four-stroke. Two-stroke petrol engines are preferred when mechanical simplicity, light weight, the Japanese manufacturer Suzuki did the same in the 1970s. Production of two-stroke cars ended in the 1980s in the West, eastern Bloc countries continued until around 1991, with the Trabant and Wartburg in East Germany. They are also common in power tools used outdoors, such as lawnmowers, chainsaws, with direct fuel injection and a sump-based lubrication system, a two-stroke engine produces air pollution no worse than a four-stroke, and it can achieve higher thermodynamic efficiency. Therefore, the cycle has also been used in large diesel engines, most notably large industrial and marine engines, as well as some trucks. Although the principles remain the same, the details of various two-stroke engines differ depending on the type. The design types vary according to the method of introducing the charge to the cylinder, the method of scavenging the cylinder, piston port is the simplest of the designs and the most common in small two-stroke engines. All functions are controlled solely by the covering and uncovering the ports as it moves up. In the 1970s, Yamaha worked out some principles for this system. They found that, in general, widening an exhaust port increases the power by the amount as raising the port. However, there is a limit to the width of a single exhaust portTwo-stroke engine – A two-stroke minibike
4. International Standard Book Number – The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces. Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-BowkerInternational Standard Book Number – A 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar code
5. Brand – A brand is a name, term, design, symbol, or other feature that distinguishes one seller’s product from those of others. Brands are used in business, marketing, and advertising, however, the term has been extended to mean a strategic personality for a product or company, so that ‘brand’ now suggests the values and promises that a consumer may perceive and buy into. Branding is a set of marketing and communication methods that help to distinguish a company from competitors, the key components that form a brands toolbox include a brand’s identity, brand communication, brand awareness, brand loyalty, and various branding strategies. Brand equity is the totality of a brands worth and is validated by assessing the effectiveness of these branding components. To reach such an invaluable brand prestige requires a commitment to a way of doing business. A corporation who exhibits a strong brand culture is dedicated on producing intangible outputs such as customer satisfaction, reduced price sensitivity and customer loyalty. A brand is in essence a promise to its customers that they can expect long-term security, when a customer is familiar with a brand or favours it incomparably to its competitors, this is when a corporation has reached a high level of brand equity. Many companies are beginning to understand there is often little to differentiate between products in the 21st century. Branding remains the last bastion for differentiation, in accounting, a brand defined as an intangible asset is often the most valuable asset on a corporation’s balance sheet. The word ‘brand’ is often used as a referring to the company that is strongly identified with a brand. Marque or make are often used to denote a brand of motor vehicle, a concept brand is a brand that is associated with an abstract concept, like breast cancer awareness or environmentalism, rather than a specific product, service, or business. A commodity brand is a associated with a commodity. The word, brand, derives from Dutch brand meaning to burn and this product was developed at Dhosi Hill, an extinct volcano in northern India. Roman glassmakers branded their works, with Ennion being the most prominent, the Italians used brands in the form of watermarks on paper in the 13th century. Blind Stamps, hallmarks, and silver-makers marks are all types of brand, industrialization moved the production of many household items, such as soap, from local communities to centralized factories. When shipping their items, the factories would literally brand their logo or insignia on the barrels used, Bass & Company, the British brewery, claims their red-triangle brand as the worlds first trademark. Another example comes from Antiche Fornaci Giorgi in Italy, which has stamped or carved its bricks with the same proto-logo since 1731, cattle-branding has been used since Ancient Egypt. The term, maverick, originally meaning an un-branded calf, came from a Texas pioneer rancher, Sam Maverick, use of the word maverick spread among cowboys and came to apply to unbranded calves found wandering aloneBrand – Ferrari is the world's most powerful brand according to Brand Finance.
6. Aprilia – Aprilia is an Italian motorcycle company, one of the marques owned by Piaggio. Having started as a manufacturer of bicycles it moved on to manufacture scooters, in more recent times Aprilia has produced large sportbikes such as the 1,000 cc V-twin RSV Mille and the V4 RSV4. Aprilia has enjoyed success in road-racing. Aprilia was founded after the Second World War by Cavaliere Alberto Beggio, as a production factory at Noale. Alberto’s son, Ivano Beggio, took over the helm of the company in 1968, the first production Aprilia mopeds were named Colibrì, Daniela and Packi. Aprilia later produced a motocross bike in 1970 called the Scarabeo, produced until the end of the 1970s, the Scarabeo came in 50 and 125 cc versions. In 1977 Ivan Alborghetti from Milan, Italy won the Italian 125 and 250 cc motorcross championships on Aprilias, in 1978 Alborghetti closed the season with two third places in individual races and sixth place in the World Championship. In the 1980s Aprilia added enduro, trials and road bikes of between 50 and 600 cc, in 1981 Aprilia introduced the TL320 trials machine. In 1983 Aprilia launched to St 125 road bike, in 1984 Aprilia launched an improved model called STX, and an enduro, called the ET50. In 1985, Aprilia started outsourcing engines for some models to the Austrian company Rotax, in 1985 Aprilia launched a 125 STX and 350 STX. In 1986 Aprilia launched the AF1, a sports model, and the Tuareg. Two seasons later, on August 30,1987, at San Marino Grand Prix in Misano Loris Reggianis AF1 won the first World Speed Championship, in 1990 Aprilia launched the Pegaso 600, a road bike derived from off-road mechanics. Later, in 1992 Aprilia rider Alessandro Gramigni won the World 125 Road Racing Championship title, also in 1992, Tommy Ahvala won the World Trials Championship on an Aprilia Climber. Since then, Aprilia has 124 times won 125 and 250 cc class Grand Prix,15 Road Racing World Championship titles, many world champions started on Aprilia such as Biaggi, Capirossi, Gramigni, Locatelli, Sakata and Rossi. Also in the 1990s, Aprilia entered the market starting in 1990 with Italy’s first all-plastic scooter. In 1992, Aprilia introduced the Amico LK and the two stroke Pegaso 125, both with catalytic converters, in 1993 Aprilia launched a large diameter wheel scooter reusing the name Scarabeo with a four-stroke, four-valve engine. Later Aprilia launched more scooters such as the Leonardo, the SR, in 1995, Aprilia commissioned Philippe Starck to design the Motò which was shown in New York’s Modern Art Museum. Also in 1995 Aprilia launched the two stroke RS125 and RS250 sports bikes, in 1998 Aprilia launched what is its current flagship model the RSV Mille, a 1000cc V-Twin Superbike, and the Falco, a 1000cc V-Twin sport tourer with emphasis on sportAprilia – Gábor Talmácsi, 2007 125 cc World Championship winner, aboard his Aprilia RS125 racebike.
7. Benelli (motorcycles) – Established in 1911, Benelli is one of the oldest Italian motorcycle manufacturers. It once manufactured shotguns, although part of the business is now a separate company. Benelli was established in Pesaro, Italy in 1911, which makes it the oldest of all European motorcycle factories in operation. She also sent Giuseppe and Giovanni to study Engineering in Switzerland, during World War I, Benelli worked hard fixing parts for the Italian machines in war and in 1919 the first motorcycle was presented to the public. In 1920 the company built its first complete engine in-house, a single-cylinder two-stroke 75 cc model, a year later in 1921, Benelli built its first motorcycle, using their own engine which had by then become a 98 cc model. Two years after that, using a specially designed for competitions. He displayed a natural talent as a rider and embarked on a very successful career which confirmed the companys exceptional capacity for development. Unfortunately, a bad crash during a race in 1932 cut short his brilliant career, as World War II loomed, the Benelli company debuted their four-cylinder supercharged 250cc racing bike. This was intended to compete in the 1940 season, building on Benellis success in the 1939 Isle of Man TT Lightweight 250 cc race, with the start of the war, the Benelli Four was limited to competition in a handful of Italian domestic races. Wartime destruction caused Benelli to remain out of production until 1949, unsold war motorcycles to be used by the Italian army were adapted to become civil motorcycles and generate income to restart operations. When production resumed, designs were largely based on those of the pre-war period. In 1949, Giuseppe Benelli left the family concern to found the Motobi marque, by 1951 Benelli was offering a range consisting of 98cc and 125cc lightweights and 350cc and 500cc singles. The Leoncino was available in both two-stroke and four-stroke forms, the need for cheap transport in post-war Italy meant that these lightweight models became immensely successful. Similar models were offered by Moto Guzzi, Ducati and Laverda, Benelli also sold motorcycles to American retailer Montgomery Ward, who rebranded them as Riverside and marketed them through their catalog. In 1962, when Motobi was not in good conditions, it was acquired by Benelli. Motobi designs continued in production under the Benelli name, in 1969, Benelli introduced the Benelli Tornado 650, a vertical twin designed primarily for sale in Great Britain and the US. The Tornado earned a reputation for reliability and high performance, despite its somewhat hefty weight at 480 pounds, Benelli claimed at the time of launch that the Tornado was capable of 57 hp at 7, 400rpm for a top speed of 117 mph. The Tornado was discontinued after 1974, when Benelli introduced a series of multis intended to compete with Japanese triples, towards the end of the 1960s, the arrival of Japanese manufacturers caused a crisis in the European motorcycle industryBenelli (motorcycles) – Benelli Monalbero Sport 500 cc 1935
8. Beta (motorcycle manufacturer) – Beta is an Italian motorcycle manufacturer, specialising in off-road motorcycles. Beta are best known for their trials bikes. In 2005, they launched a range of enduro motorcycles using KTM engines, in 2010 they launched the new RR series, with a new engine made in-house. Beta motorcycles have been used by world champions such as Jordi Tarrés, Dougie Lampkin. Beta has its origins in 1904 as a manufacturing company named Società Giuseppe Bianchi. The company started making motorcycles in 1948, the name Beta comes from the initials of Enzo Bianchi and Arrigo Tosi, who ran the company at that time. Focusing on two-stroke bikes through the 1950s and 1960s, the company started focusing development, Beta have produced motorcycles for observed trials since the early 1980s and are now one of the leading manufacturers. Unlike the Trail and Enduro models, the bike have used Betas own engines. TR240 First trials model, twinshock suspension 125cc, 200cc engines, the Beta Enduro bikes have used KTM engines since their return in 2004, though 2009 sees the launch of bikes with Betas own power units. The Alp trail motorcycle models have used air-cooled Suzuki DR-model engines and have a reputation at commuters. With a low height and a reputation as an easy to ride motorcycle. Alp, 125cc, 200cc and 350cc models, motorcycle List of scooters Scooter List of scooter manufacturers List of Italian companies List of motorcycle manufacturers Beta Official site. Beta Racing UK Uk based Beta Trials site, www. BetaBikes. de German Site, Information, Forum, Gallery, Vids and more, all about Betamotorcycles] www. betarider. org Beta Riders Club www. betarider. org/forum Beta Discussion ForumBeta (motorcycle manufacturer) – A 2000 Beta Rev 3
9. Bimota – Bimota is a small Italian manufacturer of custom and production motorcycles. It was founded in 1973 in Rimini, Italy by Valerio Bianchi, Giuseppe Morri, the company name is a portmanteau derived from the first two letters of each of the three founders surnames, Bianchi Morri Tamburini. Because the state of design and overall packaging was poor. From the beginning they customised the top models of Suzuki, Honda, during the late 1970s, Bimota also helped develop and build motorcycles branded as Lamborghinis. In the 1980s they also customised Yamaha and Ducati motorcycles, Bimota models currently in production include the DB5, DB6, DB7, DB9 and the Tesi, with a DB8 featuring the Ducati 1198 engine in development. The latest model features the Tesi 3D which along with the co-designed Vyrus is said to be the only bike on production to house Hub Steering. Bimota first experienced international racing success in 1980 when Jon Ekerold and they also experienced success in the early years of the Superbike World Championship. Virginio Ferrari won the 1987 Formula TT title aboard a YB4 EI, Tardozzi won five races in the inaugural 1988 world superbike championship, more than any other competitor, but inconsistent results relegated him to third place in the final standings. After many years without success, the Australian rider Anthony Gobert caused a shock in 2000 by winning a wet race at Philip Island on a Bimota SB8R. As a compromise, the bikes were allowed to enter from round 2, the V Due, introduced in 1997, had a design flaw with its engine. Bimota was forced to ditch the novel fuel injection system and re-engineer the entire engine, Bimota ultimately recalled the entire run of the motorcycle. While this was occurring, during the 2000 World Superbike season, one of Bimotas main sponsors disappeared, the combination of events forced Bimota to file for bankruptcy and close their doors. In 2003, a new group of investors purchased the rights to the Bimota name and designs, Bimota DB1 Bimota SB8K List of Italian companies Official websiteBimota – Bimota Honda HB1 at Imola racetrack in 1973
10. Cagiva – Cagiva is an Italian motorcycle manufacturer. It was founded in 1950 by Giovanni Castiglioni in Varese, originally producing small metal components, giovannis sons, Claudio and Gianfranco Castiglioni went into the motorcycle industry in 1978. The name is a derived from the founders name Giovanni Castiglioni. In its history, Cagiva won races in Dakar and Motocross competitions, in 1978 Cagiva entered the motorcycle business with two racing motorcycles ridden by Gianfranco Bonera and Marco Lucchinelli. In the same year it bought a factory in Schiranna, Varese from Aermacchi/AMF-Harley-Davidson, by 1979 the company reached an annual production of 40,000 motorbikes, with eight models powered by two-stroke engines ranging from 125 cc to 350 cc. In 1983 Cagiva also sourced Ducati four stroke engines from 350 cc to 1000 cc. Cagiva bought Ducati in 1985, but kept the Ducati brand that was recognized outside Italy. Ducati motorcycle production continued in Bologna, while the Varese-built Cagiva Ala Azzurra and Elefant were introduced, Cagiva continued with strategic buyouts of Moto Morini in 1985 and Husqvarna in 1987. In 1991 Cagiva also bought the trademarks for the MV Agusta brand, in 1996, Cagiva accepted the offer by the Texas Pacific Group and sold the Ducati and Moto Morini brands. In 1999, for strategic purposes, the company was restructured, MV Agusta Motor become the main brand comprising Cagiva and Husqvarna. In 2000, production of the Cagiva roadster ended, in 2008, Harley-Davidson bought MV Agusta Motor, the parent company of Cagiva, thereby regaining some control of its old Aermacchi factory. In October 2009, Harley-Davidson informed that it would put Cagiva up for sale, in the August of the following year, Cagiva was bought back by the son of the founder and former owner Claudio Castiglioni. In 2012, production of new high engine capacity Mitos ended, increasingly stringent environmental emission requirements and the concentration of resources on MV Agustas F3 were cited as reasons. The last few Mito SP525s produced were white in colour, and personally signed by MV Agusta CEO Giovanni Castiglioni, thus ended the legacy of the Mito, Cagiva currently produces Raptor 125cc and Mito 50cc and 125cc. In the early 1980s Cagiva began to manufacture dirt bikes and started a public relations program with the opening of its North American branch. It hired Ron Turner and Duane Summers to test and develop its bikes, at the end of the 1970s the company began campaigning the Grand Prix motorcycle racing circuit. Randy Mamola was its lead rider from 1988 to 1990, and it would also have some technical assistance from Yamaha. In 1991 it signed former world champion Eddie Lawson to its team, Lawson would claim the companys first victory when he won the 1992 Hungarian Grand PrixCagiva – Cagiva Elefant 650, a dual-sport motorcycle using a Ducati engine
11. Ducati – Ducati Motor Holding S. p. A. is an Italian company that designs and manufactures motorcycles. Headquartered in Bologna, Italy, Ducati is owned by German automotive manufacturer Audi through its Italian subsidiary Lamborghini, in 1935 they had become successful enough to enable construction of a new factory in the Borgo Panigale area of the city. Production was maintained during World War II, despite the Ducati factory being a target of Allied bombing. Meanwhile, at the small Turinese firm SIATA, Aldo Farinelli began developing a small engine for mounting on bicycles. Barely a month after the liberation of Italy in 1944, SIATA announced its intention to sell this engine. In 1950, after more than 200,000 Cucciolos had been sold, in collaboration with SIATA and this first Ducati motorcycle was a 48 cc bike weighing 98 pounds, with a top speed of 40 mph, and had a 15 mm carburetor giving just under 200 mpg‑US. Ducati soon dropped the Cucciolo name in favor of 55M and 65TL, when the market moved toward larger motorcycles, Ducati management decided to respond, making an impression at an early-1952 Milan show, introducing their 65TS cycle and Cruiser. In 1953, management split the company into two entities, Ducati Meccanica SpA and Ducati Elettronica, in acknowledgment of its diverging motorcycle. Ducati Elettronica became Ducati Energia SpA in the eighties, dr. Giuseppe Montano took over as head of Ducati Meccanica SpA and the Borgo Panigale factory was modernized with government assistance. By 1954, Ducati Meccanica SpA had increased production to 120 bikes a day, in the 1960s, Ducati earned its place in motorcycling history by producing the fastest 250 cc road bike then available, the Mach 1. In the 1970s Ducati began producing large-displacement V-twin motorcycles and in 1973, in 1985, Cagiva bought Ducati and planned to rebadge Ducati motorcycles with the Cagiva name. By the time the purchase was completed, Cagiva kept the Ducati name on its motorcycles, in 1999, TPG issued an initial public offering of Ducati stock and renamed the company Ducati Motor Holding SpA. TPG sold over 65% of its shares in Ducati, leaving TPG the majority shareholder, in December 2005, Ducati returned to Italian ownership with the sale of Texas Pacifics stake to Investindustrial Holdings, the investment fund of Carlo and Andrea Bonomi. In April 2012, Volkswagen Groups Audi subsidiary announced its intention to buy Ducati for €860 million, Volkswagen chairman Ferdinand Piëch, a motorcycle enthusiast, had long coveted Ducati, and had regretted that he passed up an opportunity to buy the company from the Italian government in 1984. Italian luxury car brand Lamborghini was strengthened under VW ownership, AUDI AGs Automobili Lamborghini S. p. A. subsidiary acquired 100 percent of the shares of Ducati Motor Holding S. p. A. on 19 July 2012 for €747 million. Since 1926, Ducati has been owned by a number of groups, AUDI AG acquired 100% of the voting rights of Ducati Motor Holding S. p. A. via Audis Automobili Lamborghini S. p. A. MotoTranss most notable machine was the 250 cc 24 Horas, Ducati is best known for high-performance motorcycles characterized by large-capacity four-stroke, 90° V-twin engines, with a desmodromic valve design. Ducati refers to this configuration as L-twin because one cylinder is vertical while the other is horizontal, modern Ducatis remain among the dominant performance motorcycles available today partly because of the desmodromic valve design, which is nearing its 50th year of useDucati – The first Ducati logo, 1926–1930s
12. Fantic Motor – Fantic Motor is an Italian manufacturer of motorcycles. The company began in 1968, manufacturing and exporting enduro motorcycles, mini-bikes, today they continue in the same genre, though the names have changed to dual-sport and motard, and they have not returned to the US market. As a result, European and Japananese manufacturers exported their sporty and lightweight below-50cc engines, which had been common in Europe, to England also. Fantic produced a sensational chopper moped and a TI, both of which very popular quickly, with the reputation of being some of the fastest mopeds on the market. In the 1980s, Fantic enjoyed success in the Observed trials world championships, List of Italian companies List of motorcycle manufacturers Fantic Motor 2009 range Fantic History, Netherlands Fantic Motor, Italy Fantic Motor, PortugalFantic Motor – Fantic Motor 200 of 1982
13. Gilera – Gilera is an Italian motorcycle manufacturer founded in Arcore in 1909 by Giuseppe Gilera. In 1969, the company was purchased by Piaggio, in 1935, Gilera acquired rights to the Rondine four-cylinder engine. This formed the basis for Gilera s racing machines for nearly forty years, from the mid-thirties, Gilera developed a range of four-stroke engine machines. The engines ranged from 100 to 500 cc, the most famous being the 1939 Saturno, designed by Giuseppe Salmaggi, the Saturno was inspired by the pre-war Gilera VTEGS 500cc “Otto Bulloni” yet was quite different due to its unit construction. In 1969, Gilera became part of the Piaggio group, in 1992, Gilera made a return to the Grand Prix arena and Piaggio continues to produce small-displacement motorcycles with the Gilera name. The famous factory of Arcore was closed in 1993 and now the motorcycles bearing the name Gilera are produced by Piaggio in Pontedera, after World War II, Gilera dominated Grand Prix motorcycle racing, winning the 500 cc road racing world championship six times in eight years. In May 1963 Minter suffered serious injuries when racing a Norton at Brands Hatch, and his place in the team for the TT races was taken by Phil Read, the team only raced for one season in selected races. The bikes were raced at Brands Hatch later in the year, intended for use with a sidecar, the Marte had a shaft drive and hand-operated transmission. Saturno Produced after World War II until 1959 as a 498 cc OHV single with 22 bhp @5,000 rpm and swinging-arm rear suspension using parallel, twin horizontal coil springs. It is a supermotard which means it is an offroad moped fit for the big city and it has 17-inch rims with broad tires, six gears and a 50 cc engine producing 8.5 hp. List of Italian companies List of motorcycle manufacturers The Gilera Historical RegisterGilera – Gilera exhibit
14. Italjet – Italjet Moto Srl is an Italian manufacturer of motorcycles, headquartered in Castel San Pietro Terme, Bologna, Italy. The company was founded in 1959 in San Lazzaro, Bologna by Leopoldo Tartarini, the company has a history of producing light motorcycles, scooters and more recently quadbikes. In the 1990s, it launched the Dragster, Formula and Velocifero models, in 1998 an Italjet Formula was exhibited as part of The Art of the Motorcycle show at the Guggenheim Museum of Modern Art in New York City. In 1999, the business launched the Grifone, powered by a 900 cc three-cylinder Triumph engine, a completely new factory in Roseto was built to manufacture the Grifone, but in 2002 the company went bust. In 2005 it was taken over by Massimo Tartarini, the son of the original owner, under his direction the company has developed lightweight touring motorcycles based on the Korean Hyosung 650s frame and engine. From 2000 to 2002 Italjet competed in the 125 cc MotoGP race series with the Italjet F125, List of Italian companies List of motorcycle manufacturers Official websiteItaljet – Italjet Dragster 180
15. Minarelli – Minarelli is an Italian motorcycle engine manufacturer which was founded by Vittorio Minarelli. It is now part of the Yamaha group, Minarelli was founded in Bologna in 1951 as a motorcycle manufacturer. In 1956 Minarelli switched to exclusively manufacturing two-stroke engines, in a 2000 square metre purpose-built factory and it employed 20 technical staff and produced 70 engines a day. These were sold to companies in Italy, other parts of Europe, in 1967 the company changed its name to Motori Minarelli and opened a new plant in Calderara di Reno. By the 1970s engine production had reached 250,000 units a year, Minarelli successfully competed in Grand Prix motorcycle racing with Spanish rider Ángel Nieto winning 125cc world championships in 1979 and 1981. In 1990 the company began a relationship with Yamaha. Five years later it employed 350 people and engine production had reached 450,000 units a year, in 2002, following changes in the world motorcycle market, Motori Minarelli became a member of the Yamaha Group. List of Italian companies List of motorcycle manufacturers Motori Minarelli web siteMinarelli – Minarelli 50 GP of 1972
16. Mondial (motorcycle manufacturer) – FB-Mondial was a motorcycle manufacturer from Bologna, Italy between 1948 and 1979, known for its Grand Prix motorcycle racing successes during the 1950s. Prior to World War II, it manufactured delivery tricycles, the firm produced some of the most advanced and successful Grand Prix road racers of the time, winning 5 World Championships. The F. B. in the name stood for Fratelli Boselli, after the owners, the Counts Boselli, during a time when MV Agusta and Ducati produced economy lightweight two-stroke motorcycles, mopeds and scooters, Mondial produced high-quality sporting motorcycles. Much of the production of each motorcycle was done by hand, in 1949, when MV Agusta decided to produce a four-stroke motorcycle, they purchased a Mondial four-stroke motorcycle to use as an example. Mondial had prepared a bike with desmodromic valve actuation but did not produce it, the last all-Mondial motorcycle left the factory in 1960. After this, Mondial purchased engines from proprietary makers, in this hybrid form, motorcycles with Mondial frames and ancillary parts, but non-Mondial engines, were produced by the factory for the next 19 years. In 1957, Soichiro Honda approached Mondial owner Count Boselli for purchase of a Mondial racebike, Count Boselli gave Mr. Honda a racing Mondial, Honda used this bike as a standard to which he aspired, in order to compete on a world-scale. An original Mondial 125 cc racebike is the first bike on display when entering Honda’s Motegi Collection Hall, the rights to Mondial were purchased by newspaper tycoon Roberto Ziletti in 1999. Ziletti was an avid motorcyclist in his youth, and his dream was to own a motorcycle company. In 2000 Ziletti asked Honda to supply engines for the new Mondial from their race-winning RC51 superbikes, a deal was made because Mondial had supplied Soichiro Honda with that 1957 racebike. This was the first time Honda has ever allowed a firm to use its engines for their production vehicles, in 1999 Roberto Ziletti attempted to revive the marque. Zilettis father died, leaving him in charge of the Lastra Group, mondials difficulties occurred when Lastra acquired Mitsubishi Corp. ’s worldwide graphic arts division, leaving Roberto Ziletti insufficient time to resolve Mondial’s problems. To place this in perspective, Lastra Group had a turnover exceeding 500 million Euros in 2004Mondial (motorcycle manufacturer) – Mondial Moto
17. Motobi – Motobi was an Italian motorcycle manufacturer in production between 1950 and 1977. The brand was revived by Austrian company Michael Leeb Trading GmbH in partnership with Demharter GmbH in 2010, in 2010, as well as selling a range of 50 cc scooters, the brand provides sponsorship for the JiR motorcycle racing team in the Moto2 class. Motobi was established in Pesaro, Italy in 1949, by Giuseppe Benelli and this was shortened to Motobi in the 1950s. After a family disagreement in 1948, Giuseppe Benelli, one of the six brothers and he stayed in Pesaro, but moved to separate premises. Giuseppe launched the Moto B marque selling small two-stroke motorcycles and scooters, in 1953, Motobi introduced a 200cc horizontal two-stroke twin called the B200 Spring Lasting. Its innovative pressed steel frame and horizontal cylinder layout were to become the trademark for many future Motobi bikes, the B200 motor was a clean, streamlined, very modern appearing unit, which was soon nicknamed the egg for its distinctive shape. Giuseppe and his sons Luigi and Marco continued to work on improving Motobi products, in late 1955, the two-stroke twin cylinder B200 was abandoned entirely, and two different new models, both called Catria were introduced, one at 125cc and the other at 175cc. Both were four-stroke four speed singles, designed by freelance engineer Piero Prampolini and these improved singles became the focus of Motobi production, beating Moto Aermacchis 175cc Chimera to market by a year. Not long afterward, Giuseppe Benelli died, leaving the company in the hands of his two heirs, once in charge of the company, they hired a young former racer and tuner named Primo Zanzani to develop the new Catria machine into a factory racing machine. Italian semi-professional road racing and road hill climbing races were popular, and the tough little motorbike was soon earning a reputation among the Italian riders, bright decals lauding Motobis racing championships started appearing on the little bikes gas tanks, each version more colorful than the last. In America, where the Eisenhower-era economy was good, sales of motorcycles, the Benelli company saw opportunity in the New World, and also right next door, under the roof of their little cousin, Motobi. Many of these machines were exported to the United States badged as Benelli models, List of Italian companies List of motorcycle manufacturers Official website Motobi history website OfficineBenelli-Mototeca Storica Marchigiana, Storia della MotoBiMotobi – 1970 Motobi 125cc Sport Special
18. Moto Guzzi – Moto Guzzi is an Italian motorcycle manufacturer and the oldest European manufacturer in continuous motorcycle production. Since 2004, Moto Guzzi has been a unico azionista, an owned subsidiary. SpA, Europes largest motorcycle manufacturer and the fourth largest motorcycle manufacturer by unit sales. Moto Guzzi was conceived by two pilots and their mechanic serving in the Corpo Aeronautico Militare during World War I, Carlo Guzzi, Giovanni Ravelli. Assigned to the same Miraglia Squadron based outside Venice, the three became close, despite coming from different socio-economic backgrounds, the trio envisioned creating a motorcycle company after the war. Guzzi would engineer the motor bikes, Parodi would finance the venture, Guzzi and Parodi formed Moto Guzzi in 1921. Ravelli, ironically, had died just days after the end in an aircraft crash and is commemorated by the eagles wings that form the Moto Guzzi logo. Although with the condition that the sum, under no circumstances, likewise, I reserve the right to supervise your progress before giving my agreement to this project. The company was based in Genoa, Italy, with its headquarters in Mandello. The very earliest motorcycles bore the name G. P. though the marque quickly changed to Moto Guzzi, as the only actual shareholders, the Parodis wanted to shield their shipping fortunes by avoiding confusion of name G. P. with Giorgio Parodis initials. Carlo Guzzi initially received royalties for each motorcycle produced, holding no ownership in the company that bore his name, in 1946 Moto Guzzi formally incorporated as Moto Guzzi S. p. A. with Giorgio Parodi as chairman. Carlo Guzzis first engine design was a single that dominated the first 45 years of the companys history in various configurations. Through 1934, each bore the signature of the mechanic who built it. As originally envisioned, the company used racing to promote the brand, in the 1935 Isle of Man TT, Moto Guzzi factory rider Stanley Woods performed an impressive double victory with wins in the Lightweight TT as well as the Senior TT. Also unusual was the adoption of only one hairspring to close the exhaust valve and these were the highest performance engines Moto Guzzi sold to the general public. By contrast, the company supplied the official racing team and private racers with higher performance racing machines with varying overhead cam, multi-valve configurations, in the 1950s, Moto Guzzi, along with the Italian factories of Gilera and Mondial, led the world of Grand Prix motorcycle racing. With durable and lightweight 250 cc and 350 cc bikes designed by Giulio Carcano, the factory won five consecutive 350 cc world championships between 1953 and 1957. In realizing that low weight alone might not continue to win races for the company, despite the bikes having led many races and frequently posted the fastest lap time, it often failed to complete races because of mechanical problemsMoto Guzzi – Moto Guzzi
19. Moto Morini – Moto Morini is an Italian maker of motorcycles. It was founded by Alfonso Morini in Bologna, in 1937, earlier, Morini had also manufactured motorcycles together with Mario Mazzetti under the name MM. After building large v-twin motorcycles early in the 21st century the company went into liquidation in late 2010, Moto Morini restarted the production of motorcycles in 2012. Alfonso Morini was born on 22 January 1898, before he was 16 he was repairing motorcycles, and at the age of sixteen, opened a workshop. This was just before World War I broke out, during the war he was with the 8th Motorcycles Unit, stationed at Padova. In 1925 Mario Mazzetti, impressed by Alfonso’s work, asked him to build a single-cylinder 120 cc two-stroke racing bike, making Alfonso the designer, constructor, and racer. They were successful racing, under the MM name, and Alfonso’s finest racing moment came in 1927 when his MM125 took six world records at Monza, in 1933 he set a new world speed record for 175 cc motorcycles of 162 km/h. In 1937 Alfonso and Mario parted ways, and Alfonso Morini went into the production of 350 cc and 500 cc three wheelers, under the Moto Morini name. The government regulations favoured these lighter fuel efficient machines, and the successful Moto Morini M610 had advanced features and this was interrupted by World War II, and Moto Morini was converted to produce aeronautical components. In 1943 the factory was bombed, undeterred, in 1946, a new three-speed transmission, single cylinder, two-stroke T125 emerged from the new Bologna factory, Via Berti. In 1947 a Sport version appeared, in 1953 a 175 cc pushrod OHV four-stroke model appeared in production. Models like Gran Turismo, Settebello, Rebello, Supersport, Briscola, Tresette, in 1956 Moto Morini moved to a larger production facility at Via Bergami. In 1958 Alfonso Morini, Dante Lambertini, and Nerio Biavati designed the 250 GP Double Camshaft, on 30 June 1969 Alfonso Morini died. His daughter, Gabriella Morini, took over management, and would remain in control until 1986, in 1970 Franco Lambertini left Ferrari works and joined Moto Morini. In 1948, Raffaele Alberti won the Italian Championship for Lightweight Motorcycles on a two-stroke 125 Competition, umberto Masetti won the Italian Championship for Lightweight Motorcycles in 1949, on a 125 SOHC four-stroke that produced 12 hp @10000 rpm, and could exceed 140 km/h. In 1952 Moto Morini won races outside of Italy with the 125 SOHC four-stroke, the 250 GP put out 37 hp @11,000 rpm and had a maximum speed of 225 km/h. In 1961, Giacomo Agostini began his career on a Moto Morini Settebello “Short Rods”. Agostini was Italian Cadet Champion in 1962, and Italian Junior Champion in 1963, tarquinio Provini, riding a Moto Morini 250 GP, won the Italian Championship in 1961 and 1962Moto Morini – Moto Morini
20. MV Agusta – MV Agusta, originally Meccanica Verghera Agusta, is a motorcycle manufacturer founded on 12 February 1945 near Milan in Cascina Costa, Italy. The company began as an offshoot of the Agusta aviation company formed by Count Giovanni Agusta in 1923, the Count died in 1927, leaving the company in the hands of his wife and sons, Domenico, Vincenzo, Mario and Corrado. The acronym MV stands for Meccanica Verghera, the hamlet where the first MVs were made, the company manufactured small-displacement, café racer-style motorcycles through the 1950s and 1960s. In the 1960s, small motorcycle sales declined, and MV started producing larger displacement cycles in more limited quantities. A250 cc, and later a 350 cc twin were produced, much like Enzo Ferrari, they produced and sold motorcycles almost exclusively to fund their racing efforts. They were determined to have the best Grand Prix motorcycle racing team in the world, MV Agusta produced their first prototype, called Vespa 98, in 1945. After learning that the name had already registered by Piaggio for its Vespa motorscooter. In 1948, the built an 125 cc two-stroke single. Bertoni won the event held in Monza and instantly put the new motorcycle manufacturer on the map, in the 1949 season, the 125 cc, or ultra light weight class, gained new prestige. More motorcycle manufacturers were competing in the world championships that were held in Switzerland, Netherlands. The Mondial 125 cc DOHC design dominated the 1949 season, the MV riders placed ninth and tenth in the final standings. In 1950, Arturo Magni and Piero Remor joined the company working with Gilera. Magni was the mechanic and Remor was chief designer. The 1950 season and 1951 season were development years, as the company adopted the 125 Dohc four-stroke engine, Racing efforts only produced a fifth-place finish at the Dutch TT in 1950. The 1951 results were slightly better. The 1952 season saw the introduction of telescopic forks, full width alloy brake hubs, power was 15 bhp @10800 rpm. Britains Cecil Sandford piloted the new MV125 to a 1952 Isle of Man TT victory, with the success of the 1952 season, independent or privateer riders could now purchase a catalog version of the 125 DOHC, now available through the company. The Sport Competizione racer had many of the features as the factory bikeMV Agusta – 1954 MV Agusta CSTL 175 Turismo Lusso
21. Piaggio – SpA via its subsidiaries designs, engineers, manufactures and distributes two wheeled motor vehicles and compact commercial vehicles under seven brands. SpA corporate headquarters are located in Pontedera, Italy, Piaggios various subsidiaries employ a total of 7,053 employees who produced a total of 519,700 vehicles in 2014. Piaggio operates six research and development centers and operates in over 50 countries, in 1882, Enrico Piaggio completes the purchase of land in Sestri Ponente to set up a timber yard. Two years later, in 1884, the company was founded by Rinaldo Piaggio, Piaggio initially produced locomotives and railway carriages. During 1917, in the wake of the World War, Rinaldo converts the company to the aeronautical, Italys crippled economy and the disastrous state of the roads did not assist in the redevelopment of the automobile markets. Enrico Piaggio decided to leave the field in order to address Italys urgent need for a modern. The idea was to design a vehicle for the masses. The aeronautical designer didnt like motorcycles and he found them uncomfortable and bulky, with wheels that were difficult to change after a puncture. Corradino DAscanios drawings had nothing to do with the Paperino, his design was absolutely original, the vehicle had to be easy to drive for both men and women, be able to carry a passenger, and not get its drivers clothes dirty. Piaggio launched the Vespa scooter and within ten years over a million units had been produced, the Italian language gained a new word, vespare, meaning to go somewhere on a Vespa. In 1956 the millionth Vespa is produced, Italy sees its first mass motorised mobility, with strong cash flow from the success of the Vespa, Piaggio developed other products, including the 1957 Vespa 400, a tiny passenger car. In 1959, Piaggio came under the control of the Agnelli family, in 1960 Vespa reaches 4 million units produced and sold worldwide. In 1964 the two divisions, aeronautical and motorcycle, split to two independent companies as a result of the wide ownership by Fiat in Italian industry. The aeronautical division was named IAM Rinaldo Piaggio, the aircraft company Piaggio Aero is controlled by the family of Piero Ferrari, who still hold 10% of Ferrari. In 1971 Ape gets a steering wheel and becomes Ape Car, in 1988 Vespa reaches 10 million units produced. Vespa thrived, until 1992, when Gianni Agnelli became CEO, in 1999 Morgan Grenfell Private Equity acquired Piaggio, but hopes for a quick sale were dashed by a failed joint venture in China. In Italy, Piaggio invested 15 million euros in a new motorcycle, by the end of 2002, the company had run up 577 million Euros in debt on revenues of 945 million Euros, and booked a loss of 129 million Euros. Then came Roberto Colaninno, who said, A lot of people told me I was crazy and it just needed to be treated betterPiaggio – Vespa a Todi
22. Polini – Polini S. p. A. is an Italian manufacturer of tuning parts for motorcycles, mopeds and scooters. Among other products, they produce cylinders and variators for both racing and road use. They also produce pocket bikes with 50cc up to 15 hp. The company was founded when the Italian soldier Battista Polini returned from his service in World War II and started making bicycles, the first logo of the company was a ram, which was the coat of arms of Battistas battalion. When the first Vespa and Lambretta scooters started to emerge in the 1940s, today, Polini is owned by Battista Polinis three sons, Carlo, Franco and Piero. Tuning parts are manufactured for all brands of scooters and motorcycles. Polini also produces miniature folding scooters called SkAtE, Polinis main competitor is Malossi, which is also based in Italy. List of Italian companies Polini USA Polini MinimotoPolini – Polini S.p.A.
23. SWM (motorcycles) – SV. VM was founded in 1971 by Piero Sironi and Fausto Vergani and was based in Milan, Italy. SWM manufactured Observed Trials, Enduro, Motocross and off-road motorcycles in the 1970s and 1980s and they started with small capacity Sachs engined enduro bikes and began making Rotax engined trials bikes in 1977. The other main manufacturers at this time included Fantic Motor, Bultaco, making the announcement during ECIMA2014 show in Milan, SWM are back on the market by introducing six street and off-road bikes with engine size between 300 and 650cc. SWM started making Rotax TL125 and TL320 trials bikes in 1977, Rotax built a special trials version of their rotary valve motor, with development input from Sammy Miller and Charles Coutard. Acerbis made the plastic mouldings, and suspension was by Marzocchi and these first trials machines were red and white. In 1979 yellow and black models appeared, and in 1980 these were fitted with Girling Gas shocks, gilles Burgat won the 1981 Trials world championship on an SWM. In 1982 a 240 model was produced with a blue frame, in 1983 all bikes got alloy swing arms, and the TL350 Jumbo was introduced. This was a new reed valve motor and frame wearing the same yellow, in 1984 the 125 and 320 were put in the new frame, but then production ceased. SWM RSGS and SWM TF1 in capacities 125,175,250,350,370,440,506 Joan Riudalbá, there are still people out there riding SWMs in classic and twinshock trials in the UK. S. Engineer Ampelio Macchi, formerly with Cagiva, Aprilia and Husqvarna, is driving the resurgence of the SWM brand with six new models displayed at EICMA2014, funding for the company has come from China via the entity Shineray Group. SWM will keep manufacturing in Italy, apparently, some of its engines will be acquired from the old Husqvarna. List of Italian companies List of motorcycle manufacturers 2014 Official Website MotoSWM SWM Historical Register Midwest SWMSWM (motorcycles) – A 1981 SWM TL320 with UK specification metal petrol tank
24. Vespa – Vespa is an Italian brand of scooter manufactured by Piaggio. The name means wasp in Italian, the Vespa has evolved from a single model motor scooter manufactured in 1946 by Piaggio & Co. S. p. A. of Pontedera, Italy to a line of scooters. Post World War II Italy, in light of its agreement to cessation of war activities with the Allies, had its aircraft industry severely restricted in capability and capacity. Piaggio emerged from the conflict with its Pontedera fighter plane plant demolished by bombing, italys crippled economy and the disastrous state of the roads did not assist in the re-development of the automobile markets. In 1944, Piaggio engineers Renzo Spolti and Vittorio Casini designed a motorcycle with bodywork fully enclosing the drivetrain, in addition to the bodywork, the design included handlebar-mounted controls, forced air cooling, wheels of small diameter, and a tall central section that had to be straddled. Officially known as the MP5, the prototype was nicknamed Paperino, Piaggio was displeased with the MP5, especially the tall central section. He contracted aeronautical engineer Corradino DAscanio, to redesign the scooter, dAscanios MP6 prototype had its engine mounted beside the rear wheel. The wheel was directly from the transmission, eliminating the drive chain. The prototype had a unit spar frame with stress-bearing steel outer panels and these changes allowed the MP6 to have a step-through design without a centre section like that of the MP5 Paperino. The MP6 design also included a single sided front suspension, interchangeable front and rear mounted on stub axles. Other features of the MP6 were similar to those on the Paperino, including the handlebar-mounted controls, upon seeing the MP6 for the first time, Enrico Piaggio exclaimed, Sembra una vespa. Piaggio effectively named his new scooter on the spot, Vespa is both Latin and Italian for wasp—derived from the vehicles body shape, The thicker rear part connected to the front part by a narrow waist, and the steering rod resembled antennae. On 23 April 1946, at 12 oclock in the office for inventions, models and makes of the Ministry of Industry and Commerce in Florence. S. p. A. took out a patent for a motorcycle of a complexity of organs and elements combined with a frame with mudguards. The basic patented design allowed a series of features to be deployed on the spar-frame that would allow quick development of new models. The original Vespa featured a rear seat for a passenger. The fuel cap was located underneath the seat, which saved the cost of a lock on the fuel cap or need for additional metal work on the smooth skinVespa – Classic Vespas in Perth, Western Australia
25. Vyrus – Vyrus is a small, exclusivist Italian motorcycle manufacturer based in Coriano, Italy. Vyrus initially worked alongside Bimota on the development of Bimotas Tesi motorcycle. The Tesi, meaning Thesis in Italian, had its origins as a university engineering project linked to Massimo Tamburini, the Tesi design was easily distinguished by the use of its Hub-center steering front suspension arrangement. Vyrus split from the Bimota and completed the first evolution of the Tesis development, currently Vyrus have two models,984 C3 2V and 985 C3 4V, both with a displacement of almost 1000 cm3. The 984 has a V-twin 2-valve Ducati engine which develops a claimed 90.5 HP, the 985 has a V-twin 4-valve Ducati engine which develops a claimed 150 HP. The engineers of the company are experienced in exotic motorcycles, many of them having worked for companies like Ducati or Bimota, motorcycle List of Italian companies List of motorcycle manufacturers List of motorcycles by type of engine Official site Review at www. motorcyclistonline. comVyrus
26. Aermacchi – Aermacchi was an Italian aircraft manufacturer. With a factory located on the shores of Lake Varese, the firm manufactured a series of Nieuport designs. After World War II, the company producing motorcycles as a way to fill the post-war need for cheap. The company later specialised in civil and military training aircraft. In July 2003, Aermacchi was integrated into the Finmeccanica Group as Alenia Aermacchi, since the beginning, the design and production of military trainers have been Alenia Aermacchis core business. Alenia Aermacchi develops and manufactures the fuselage forward and rear sections, a Mid-Life Updating program is required by the Italian Air Force to upgrade the aircraft capabilities. Panavia Tornado program, Alenia Aermacchi designs and produces wing pylons and wing tips, roots, trailing edges and flaps, which represents a 5% share in the overall program. C-27J program, After participating in the G-222 transport aircraft program, since the mid-1990s, Alenia Aermacchi has participated in programs for the supply of engine nacelles for civil aircraft. It produces cold parts for engine nacelles, inlets, fan cowls and EBU, in 1960, US business Harley-Davidson motorcycles purchased 50% of Aermacchis motorcycle division. The remaining motorcycle holdings were sold in 1974 to AMF-Harley-Davidson, with continuing to be made at Varese. The business was sold to Cagiva in 1978, list of Italian companies Harley-Davidson Baja 100 off-road motorcycle Leonardo-Finmeccanica websiteAermacchi – Aermacchi SF-260.
27. Bianchi (motorcycles) – Bianchi motorcycles were made from 1897 to 1967 by F. I. V. Edoardo Bianchi S. p. A, a company today is a major Italian bicycle manufacturer. Edoardo Bianchi started his bicycle manufacturing business in a shop on Milan’s Via Nirone in 1885. Bianchi was a prominent name in the racing world from 1925 to 1930. Edoardo Bianchi was an Italian motorcycling pioneer who began by building bicycles in 1885 and he built a motorised bicycle in 1897, and a car in 1900. In 1903 he fitted engines in the centre of strengthened bicycle frames, in 1910 Bianchi built a 498 cc single that was very successful and established the Bianchi motorcycle name. In 1916 a 650 cc V-twin was made, and was enlarged to 741 cc in 1920, in 1921 a smaller 598 cc V-twin, and a new 498 cc single with all chain drive was released. There was a 348 cc side valve single for 1923, in 1924 a 173 cc overhead valve single was added to the range. In 1925 a 348 cc overhead valve single was introduced, there was also a 348 cc dual overhead cam works racer, designed by Albino Baldi, Bianchi chief engineer and these Bianchis were the most successful Italian racing bikes for the next five years. During this time the bike was ridden by riders as Tazio Nuvolari, Amilcare Moretti, Mario Ghersi, Karl Kodric, Gino Zanchetta. In the 1930s Baldi designed another racing bike, a 498cc ohc single and this bike was ridden by such riders as Giordano Aldrighetti, Aldo Pigarini, Terzo Bandini, Dorino Serafini, Guido Cerato and Alberto Ascari. In 1938 a supercharged four cylinder 498 cc DOHC racer was built, after World War II Bianchi produced 123 cc and 248 cc ohc single racers, and in the late 1950s released new 248 cc and 348 cc dohc twins, designed by Colombo and Lino Tonti. There were a few over-bored 498 cc works versions for the 500 cc class races, in 1946 Edoardo died, and control of the firm passed to his son Giuseppe. Bianchi production motorcycles included 49, the 75 Gardena,122, some 49 cc two stroke engines were built under licence from Puch, and fitted into the innovative Falco, one or two seat moped. This sprightly ride featured a one piece, pressed girder frame, in 1961, Bob McIntyre rode a Bianchi 350 cc in the Motorcycle Grand Prix World Championships. Motorcycle production ceased in 1967, when all rights passed to Innocenti, small mopeds made by Bianchi were imported by American retailer Montgomery Ward and sold via catalog under the Riverside captive import brand. Autobianchi Bianchi List of motorcycles of the 1910s List of motorcycles of the 1920s Bianchi Corporate site Bianchi USA US siteBianchi (motorcycles) – Bianchi ES 250 of 1937
28. Caproni – Caproni was an Italian aircraft manufacturer founded in 1908 by Giovanni Battista Gianni Caproni. It was initially named, from 1911, Società de Agostini e Caproni, Caproni made the first aircraft of Italian construction in 1911. The manufacturing facilities were based in Taliedo, a district of Milan, close to Linate Airport. During World War I, Caproni developed a series of heavy bombers, used by the Italian, French, British. Between the world wars, Caproni evolved into a large syndicate named Società Italiana Caproni, Milano, the main subdivisions were Caproni Bergamasca, Caproni Vizzola, Reggiane and engine manufacturer Isotta-Fraschini. Between the world wars, Caproni produced mostly bombers and light transport planes, the Società Italiana Caproni ceased to exist in 1950, although one of its divisions, Caproni Vizzola endured until 1983 when it was bought by AgustaCaproni – Caproni Ca.316 seaplane at its moorings.
29. Garelli Motorcycles – Garelli Motorcycles was an Italian moped and motorcycle manufacturer. It was founded in 1919 by Alberto Garelli, at age 22, Adalberto Garelli received a degree in engineering and dedicated his work to developing and perfecting the two-stroke engine for Fiat. Garelli quit in 1911 due to Fiats lack of enthusiasm for the two-stroke engine and he continued his own engine design between 1911 and 1914 which resulted in the 350 cc split-single cylinder engine. In 1919, Garelli constructed a 350 cc motorcycle which set a distance record from Milan to Naples. Rider Ettore Girardi covered the 840 km with an average of 38.29 km/h, many famous Italian racers such as Ernesto Gnesa, Tazio Nuvolari and Achille Varzi began their racing careers on Garelli bikes. The Garelli 350 cc split-single stayed in production until 1926 and made an impact in racing. The company also produced motorcycles for the Royal Italian Army, after World War II, Garelli concentrated on producing smaller bikes and mopeds for the European market. In the early 1980s, Garelli dominated the 125 class in Grand Prix motorcycle racing winning six consecutive world championships between 1982 and 1987. Garelli won the following World Titles,125 cc class,125 cc class 1982,1983,1984,1985,1986,1987 List of Italian companies List of motorcycle manufacturersGarelli Motorcycles – Garelli Capri 1968
30. Innocenti – Innocenti was an Italian machinery works originally established by Ferdinando Innocenti in 1920. Over the years they produced Lambretta scooters as well as a range of automobiles, the brand was retired in 1996, six years after a takeover by Fiat. After World War II, the company was famous for years for Lambretta scooters models such as LI125, LI150, TV175, TV200, SX125, SX150, SX200, GP125, GP150. From 1961 to 1976 Innocenti built under licence the BMC Mini, with 848,998 cc and 1,275 cc engines, followed by models, including the Regent. The company of this era is commonly called Leyland Innocenti, the Innocenti Spyder was a rebodied version of the Austin-Healey MKII Sprite. The car was produced by OSI, near Milan, in 1972 BLMC took over control of the company. In 1972 the companys land, buildings and equipment were purchased by British Leyland in a deal involving approximately £3 million. However, the production under BLMC was 62,834 in 1972. Demonstrating their ambitions, the British company installed as Managing Director one of their youngest UK based senior executives, three years later BLMC ran out of money and was nationalised by the UK government. In February 1976, the passed to Alejandro de Tomaso and was reorganised by the De Tomaso Group under the name Nuova Innocenti. Benelli had a share and British Leyland retained five percent, with De Tomaso owning forty-four percent with the aid of a plan from GEPI. Management was entirely De Tomasos responsibility, however, and later in 1976 GEPI, however, with the loss of the original Mini, the Austin I5, and the Regent, sales were in freefall. Production was nearly halved in 1975 and was down to about a fifth of the 1974 levels in 1976, after this crisis, however, the new Bertone-bodied Mini began selling more strongly and production climbed to a steady 40,000 per annum by the end of the 70s. The first model had Bertone-designed five-seater bodywork and was available with Leylands 998 cc and 1275 cc engines. Exports, which had carried out mainly by British Leylands local concessionaires. Sales to France ended in 1980, with German sales coming to a halt in 1982, around the same time, the engine deal with Leyland ended, and production soon dropped into the low twenty thousands. Later models, from model year 1983 on, used 993 cc three-cylinder engines made by Daihatsu of Japan, De Tomaso developed a turbocharged version of this engine for Daihatsu which found use in both Innocenti and Daihatsu cars. As production kept decreasing, and prices vis-à-vis competing Fiat products increased, Innocenti attempted to stay relevant by adding ever higher, Innocenti kept building their own cars until early 1993Innocenti – Innocenti I4
31. Iso Rivolta – For the Iso-Malboro Formula One cars, see Frank Williams Racing Cars. Iso was an automobile and motorcycle maker, the product of Iso Autoveicoli S. p. A of Italy, the company was predominantly active from the late 1940s through the early 1970s. Iso are known for the iconic Isetta bubble car of the 1950s, Iso was initially named Isothermos and manufactured refrigeration units before World War II. The company was founded in Genoa in 1939, but was transferred to Bresso in 1942 by Renzo Rivolta, an engineer, the business was refounded as Iso Autoveicoli S. p. A. in 1953 to reflect the production of motorized transport. Renzo Rivolta died in 1966, and his son, Piero, two prototypes were shown in the 1990s, however, neither reached production. After the Second World War, the company reopened its doors, in 1948 it began to build motorcycles, scooters and motocarries. Among the most famous are the Furetto, Isoscooter, Isocarro, Isomoto, the last Iso motorcycle was presented as the Iso 500 in 1961. Isomotos were known as expensive, but durable and well-built, in the mid-1950s, he started to develop a miniature car for two persons and front entrance, initially with only three wheels, later, for reasons of stability, with four wheels, the Isetta Bubble Car. About 20,000 of the cars were built at the Iso works near Milan. Starting in 1954, Isetta was licensed to manufacturers in several countries, France, Spain, Great Britain. The most successful, however, was the German Isetta built by BMW, the BMW-Isetta went on to dwarf the production volumes of Iso and become one of the best-selling German microcars in the 1950s and 1960s. About 130,000 had been sold by 1962 and it was an elegant 2 +2 Coupé with well-balanced technical components and outstanding driving performance. This concept was maintained for almost all cars of Iso. Starting in 1971, Ford 351 Cleveland engines replaced the GM small block, isos most well-known Gran Turismo automobile was the Iso Grifo which featured a low-slung, sporty berlinetta body by Bertone. After Bizzarrini left the project, this formed the basis for his own Bizzarini 5300 GT. The Grifo Prototype was further refined by Iso, receiving a reworked, less aggressive and more body in the process. The Grifo was powered by Chevrolet´s 327 cubic inch V-8 producing either 300 or 350 hp, in 1966 a convertible version of the Grifo was shown, but never reached production. Starting in 1968 the Grifo was also available with Chevrolets 427 cubic inch big-block V-8, later-day Grifos, the Series II, featured concealed headlights and a slightly modified front areaIso Rivolta – Iso Autoveicoli S.p.A.
32. Lamborghini – Automobili Lamborghini S. p. A. is an Italian brand and manufacturer of luxury sports cars and SUVs based in SantAgata Bolognese, Italy. The company is owned by the Volkswagen Group through its subsidiary Audi, Ferruccio Lamborghini, an Italian manufacturing magnate, founded Automobili Ferruccio Lamborghini S. p. A. in 1963 to compete with established marques, including Ferrari. The company gained wide acclaim in 1966 for the Miura sports coupé, Lamborghini grew rapidly during its first decade, but sales plunged in the wake of the 1973 worldwide financial downturn and the oil crisis. The firms ownership changed three times after 1973, including a bankruptcy in 1978, American Chrysler Corporation took control of Lamborghini in 1987 and sold it to Malaysian investment group Mycom Setdco and Indonesian group VPower Corporation in 1994. In 1998, Mycom Setdco and VPower sold Lamborghini to the Volkswagen Group where it was placed under the control of the groups Audi division, New products and model lines were introduced to the brands portfolio and brought to the market and saw an increased productivity for the brand Lamborghini. In the late 2000s, during the financial crisis and the subsequent economic crisis, Lamborghinis sales saw a drop of nearly 50 percent. Lamborghini produces sports cars and V12 engines for powerboat racing. Lamborghini currently produces the V12-powered Aventador and the V10-powered Huracán, the companys first models, such as the 350 GT, were released in the mid-1960s and were noted for their refinement, power and comfort. Lamborghini gained wide acclaim in 1966 for the Miura sports coupé, Lamborghini grew rapidly during its first ten years, but sales plunged in the wake of the 1973 worldwide financial downturn and the oil crisis. Ferruccio Lamborghini sold ownership of the company to Georges-Henri Rossetti and René Leimer, the company went bankrupt in 1978, and was placed in the receivership of brothers Jean-Claude and Patrick Mimran in 1980. The Mimrans purchased the company out of receivership by 1984 and invested heavily in the companys expansion, under the Mimrans management, Lamborghinis model line was expanded from the Countach to include the Jalpa sports car and the LM002 high performance off-road vehicle. The Mimrans sold Lamborghini to the Chrysler Corporation in 1987, in 1998, Mycom Setdco and VPower sold Lamborghini to the Volkswagen Group where it was placed under the control of the groups Audi division. New products and model lines were introduced to the portfolio and brought to the market. In the late 2000s, during the financial crisis and the subsequent economic crisis, Lamborghinis sales saw a drop of nearly 50 percent. As of the 2015 model year, Lamborghinis automobile product range consists of two lines, both of which are mid-engine two-seat sports cars. The V12-powered Aventador line consists of the LP 700–4 coupé and roadster, the V10-powered Huracán line currently includes the all-wheel-drive LP 610-4 coupé and roadster, as well as the less powerful rear-wheel-drive LP 580-2 coupé. Lamborghini intends to double its car production by producing as many SUVs by 2018 as sports cars, motori Marini Lamborghini produces a large V12 marine engine block for use in World Offshore Series Class 1 powerboats. A Lamborghini branded marine engine displaces approximately 8,171 cc, in the mid-1980s, Lamborghini produced a limited-production run of a 1,000 cc sports motorcycleLamborghini – Huracán
33. Lambretta – Lambretta is the brand name of a line of motor scooters initially manufactured in Milan, Italy, by Innocenti. The name is derived from the word Lambrate, the suburb of Milan named after the river flows through the area. Lambretta was the name of a mythical water-sprite associated with the river runs adjacent to the former production site. Innocenti S. A. based in Lugano, Switzerland is the owner of the international trademark Lambretta and has licensed the brand throughout the world, in 1922, Ferdinando Innocenti of Pescia built a steel-tubing factory in Rome. In 1931, he took the business to Milan where he built a factory producing seamless steel tubing and employing about 6,000. The factory was bombed and destroyed during World War II. The main stimulus for the style of the Lambretta and Vespa dates back to pre-World War II Cushman scooters made in Nebraska. These olive green scooters were in Italy in large numbers, ordered originally by the United States military as field transport for the paratroops, the United States military had used them to get around German defence tactics of destroying roads and bridges in the Dolomites and the Austrian border areas. It had to be easy to drive for both men and women, be able to carry a passenger and not get its drivers clothes soiled, DAscanio, who hated motorbikes, designed a revolutionary vehicle. It was built on a frame with a handlebar gear change. The front protection shield kept the rider dry and clean in comparison to the front end on motorcycles. The pass-through leg area design was geared towards women, as wearing dresses or skirts made riding conventional motorcycles a challenge, the front fork, like an aircrafts landing gear, allowed for easy wheel changing. The internal mesh transmission eliminated the standard chain, a source of oil. This basic design allowed a series of features to be deployed on the frame which would allow quick development of new models. However, DAscanio fell out with Innocenti, who rather than a spar frame wanted to produce his frame from rolled tubing, allowing him to revive both parts of his pre-war company. DAscanio disassociated himself from Innocenti and took his design to Enrico Piaggio who produced the spar-framed Vespa from 1946 on, the final design of the Lambretta was done by aeronautical engineers Cesare Pallavicino and Pier Luigi Torre. Pallavicino had been Technical Director at the Caproni airplane factory during World War II before working on the Lambretta design, Torre was an engine designer at Italo Balbos Idros, he designed the engine and organized Innocentis factory for mass production. Arriving on the market the year, the 1947 Lambretta featured a rear pillion seat for a passenger or optionally a storage compartmentLambretta – Innocenti Lambretta 125
34. Laverda – Laverda was an Italian manufacturer of high performance motorcycles. The motorcycles in their day gained a reputation for being robust, the Laverda brand was absorbed by Piaggio when, in 2004, Piaggio absorbed Aprilia. Piaggio has elected to close all activities related to the Laverda brand and has publicly stated that they would be willing to sell the rights to the brand if an investor should appear. As of 2015, Laverda. com no longer redirects to Aprilias website, currently, laverda. com shows the history of company between 1873 and 2004. – Dottore Francesco Laverda e fratelli, assisted by Luciano Zen, and after hours of running the normal agricultural business, Francesco had started in 1947 to design a small motorcycle. Word has it, that some parts were cast in Francescos kitchen, confirming that at least initially. What most likely started as an evening pastime garage project of two technical enthusiasts was to one of the most successful motorcycles in history. A simple four stroke 75 cc bike with girder forks and an enclosed drive chain. However, the little bike showed promise and so on October 13,1949, over the next several years, Laverda became well known for building small capacity machines of high quality, durability and relative innovation for the time. To prove this, right from the beginning they modified their bikes in order to them in distance and endurance events like the Milan-Taranto, the Giro dItalia. Inspired by these results, and after once again improving their bikes, in this race which covered a distance of 1410 km they took the first five places. The winner was Nino Castellani, L. Marchi came second, in total they had 16 bikes amongst the first 20 of the classification. Laverda motorcycles thus became a favorite among racing clubmen due to their record for reliable performance. Over the next two decades, Laverda would go on to new models of ever increasing capacity and capability. Off-road, trial and motocross machines were developed in conjunction with manufacturers like Zündapp, BMW and Husqvarna. But the real development came in street models, which began to earn a reputation as classy, low maintenance. From that first 75 cc single, they went on to produce different bikes ranging from scooters. By the late 1960s, Francesco and brothers began sketching out a new breed of large motorcycles that would be built around an all new 650 cc parallel twin engineLaverda – Laverda 750 SF (1972)
35. Malaguti – Malaguti is an Italian scooter and motorcycle company based in San Lazzaro di Savena, founded by Antonino Malaguti in 1930. F15 Firefox — a 50 cc sport scooter with digital dash, liquid-cooled engine, unlike the European version, for the US only limited number of units were imported and they featured limited numbers, certificates, and gold plated numbers in the Ben Bostrom US edition. Both the 50 and 150cc version have 16 inch wheels F10 Jet Line — fit with a Minarelli Italian motor, features include an under-the-seat storage box, optional rear rack, body extension passenger foot-rests, center stand, electric start, and automatic transmission. F12 Phantom — includes Paioli shocks, Grimeca brakes, alloy wheels, the Madison was only purchased for limited release in US and was never sold for general distribution. List of Italian companies List of motorcycle manufacturers Official websiteMalaguti – Phantom F12
36. Maserati (motorcycle) – Fabbrica Candele Accumulatori Maserati S. p. A. was an Italian manufacturer of motoring components, as well as mopeds and motorcycles. It was part of Adolfo Orsis large industrial corporation, that was divided among siblings and his sister Ida Orsi received over the component branch that was not doing well at the time. By purchasing the Bologna-based motorcycle manufacturer Italmoto, the company entered a new market and sold locally and had an export line to South Africa, Europe. The products were allowed to continue the use of the well-known Maserati name, the first Maserati motorcycles were the Tipo 125/T2, based on a DKW design, and the Tipo 160/T4, based on the Italmoto 160 tourer. Maserati motorcycles were produced in 125cc, 160cc, 175cc and 250cc models with two-stroke and four-stroke engine configurations, Maserati mopeds were offered in 50cc and 75cc versions. Production ended due increased competition from manufacturers, as well as financial troubles that also hit the car manufacturer. 160/T4, a redesign of Italmoto using an 158 cc, an 160/T4/TL was also made 125/L/T2 DKW-inspired engine, later T2/TV and T2/GTS. 50/T2/u, a moped for men or T2/d for women, sport models T2/S and T2/SS minor prototypes and series were based on 75 cc,175 and 250 cc engines. List of Italian companies List of motorcycle manufacturersMaserati (motorcycle) – Maserati motorcycle.
37. Morbidelli – Morbidelli was an Italian motorcycle manufacturer founded by Giancarlo Morbidelli in Pesaro. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, the company was successful in Grand Prix motorcycle racing. The team won the 125 cc world championship in 1975,1976 and 1977, the firm began as a woodworking shop building furniture and wooden coach bodies for automobiles. Morbidellis business grew to have 300 employees, however his passion lay in motorcycles. He used the business to finance his racing interests. In 1969, he entered a team in the Grand Prix motorcycle racing Italian championships with a 50 cc machine, in 1971, he also commissioned the construction of a water-cooled disc valve 125 cc two-stroke of Ringhini design, inspired by the engine of an ex-works Suzuki 125cc. The team won two 125 cc Grand Prix races with Italian rider Gilberto Parlotti at the beginning of the 1972 season, despite Parlottis death, Morbidelli persevered with his racing effort. Starting in 1974 Jorg Muller, previously the designer for Van Veen Kreidler, in 1975, he was rewarded with his first World Championship when Paolo Pileri won the 125 cc crown. His Morbidelli team-mate, Pier Paolo Bianchi finished in second, Bianchi won the 125 cc championship a year later. The 1977 Grand Prix season would mark the height of Morbidellis accomplishments when the team won both the 125 and 250 classes, mario Lega won the 250 crown and Pier Paolo Bianchi would take the 125 honors. Up until 1976 Morbidellis were not available for sale to private racers - only the teams own works riders could race on them. A new factory was built with help from Benelli Armi in Pesaro, called the MBA factory and these were raced successfully for several more years. The MBA team won the 125 cc World Championship in year 1978 with Eugenio Lazzarini, Morbidelli continued in Grand Prix competition until the 1982 season. Giancarlo Morbidellis son, Gianni Morbidelli became a racecar driver. The Guinness Book of World Records listed it in 2001 as the worlds most expensive motorcycle, because of the bikes exotic design, it was displayed in The Art of the Motorcycle at the Guggenheim Museums in New York, Bilbao and Las Vegas. An example can also be seen at the Barber Vintage Motorsports Museum in Birmingham, Alabama, today the former Morbidelli factory in Pesaro houses a classic motorcycle museum that reminds visitors of the Companys former glory. The complete world championship story is represented among the exhibits as well as many antique motorcycles, List of Italian companies List of motorcycle manufacturers List of motorcycles by type of engine Museo Morbidelli Official site Morbidelli Official siteMorbidelli – Morbidelli
38. Moretti Motor Company – Moretti Motor Company is a former automobile manufacturer that was based in Italy. It was founded in 1925 and ceased production in 1989. Today, many of its sports car models can still be found at various European auto shows, Moretti Motors produced a variety of models at various times including motorcycles, microcars, and several commercial vehicles. Moretti Motor Company was founded in 1925 by Giovanni Moretti in order to design and build motorcycles, using the same motorcycle engines, Giovanni Moretti also dabbled in microcars in the late 1920s and early 1930s. During World War II, Moretti found success constructing various commercial vehicles, most notably a range of electric powered small trucks, in 1946, with the war over and thus demand for their commercial vehicles wavering, Moretti began production of conventional cars. The first conventional car model released by Moretti Motors was the Cita, shortly afterwards Moretti came out with the 600. Then, in 1953, the 750 was released, various versions of the 750 were built during the 1950s including estates, taxis, berlinas, coupes, single seat racing cars and commercial vehicles. Some competitive success was achieved in the 1950s with the 600 and 750 models, a major shift in Moretti Motors operations came in the latter part of the 1950s when they ceased designing and building complete cars. In an effort to reduce costs and overhead, the company switched to using Fiat mechanicals, mass production of all models were subsequently slashed due to continued low sales and financial struggles. Sporty-looking coupés with very similar bodywork utilizing 127,128,124, in 1967 Moretti produced only 2,600 cars, in 1973 only 3,292 were produced, and by 1974 production was down to only 1,071. In the seventies, Moretti switched to building mini-offroaders on Fiat-basis, the Fiat 500-based Minimaxi first appeared in 1970, and was later adapted to take 126 underpinnings. The 127-based Midimaxi appeared in 1971, there was also a stretched pickup and van on 127-basis, called the Paguro, which arrived 1977. In 1979 the Fiat Campagnola-based Moretti Sporting appeared, with a 2.5 liter diesel engine, the very luxurious 127 Vip and Ritmo Gold arrived in 1980. The Panda Rock, which was presented in 1983, was a roofless, a Midimaxi III serie was also presented in 1983, based on the most recent version of the 127. In a continuing effort to occupy ever narrower niches left vacant by Fiat themselves, Moretti also offered panel van versions of the Uno, later, as production continued to fall, Moretti turned to producing personalised conversions of various Fiats such as the Uno, Panda and Regata. At the 1983 Bologna Motor Show a cabriolet version of the Fiat Uno was presented and it was actually a cabrio coach rather than a full convertible, retaining the door rails and rear side windows. Equipped with series engines, it was directly through select Fiat dealers in Italy. In 1989 Moretti produced the Ital Uno Turbo which was imported in limited numbers to USA by M. I. K Automotive in North Hollywood, CaliforniaMoretti Motor Company – Fiat Moretti Sportiva
39. Italian American Motor Engineering – Italian American Motor Engineering is an Italian company founded in 1968. It is the parent company of the Parilla, Komet and Sirio brand names and is the largest kart engines manufacturer and its factory is located in the province of Bergamo, Italy, near the city of Milan. The company has won 25 Karting World Championships, the manufacturer won the European Formula A championship in 2000 with Lewis Hamilton, in 2001 with Carlo Van Dam and in 2004 with Nick De Bruijn. 2005 and 2006 Formula One World Champion, Fernando Alonso, won the karting Junior World Cup in 1996 with a Parilla engine made by IAME, in 2011, F1 GP winner Max Verstappen won the WSK Euro Series in an Parilla-powered CRG. Aircraft engines produced by the Komet Flight Motor division of IAME include, KFM107 -25 hp two cylinder, two stroke engine KFM 112M -62 hp four cylinder, four stroke engine IAME Official websiteItalian American Motor Engineering – IAME
40. Moto Rumi – The Moto Rumi organisation was formed at the beginning of the twentieth century and originally supplied cast components to the textile machinery industry. At the outbreak of World War II, Rumi became involved in the manufacture of armaments, after the end of the war in 1950, Rumi decided to get involved in the manufacture of lightweight motorcycles. It was also decided to base the powerplant on the horizontal twin two stroke unit of 125 cc capacity, subsequent models had a four speed gearbox and electric starter and were reputed to be the fastest scooters then in production. In 1952, Rumi was producing the sports and super sport motorcycle models, the super sport was superseded by the Competizione or Gobbetto, a pure factory racer. 1954 brought the production of the Formichino or Little Ant scooter, a Competizione won the Italian National Championship in 1954. During 1955, the Competizione was superseded by the Junior Corsa, the entire body was produced in cast aluminium, with the front and rear castings bolted to the engine to form a monocoque which resulted in a light and rigid construction. The rear swinging arm, chaincase and silencer box were constructed in cast aluminium. These models originally HAD8 inch wheels, but by 1958 they reverted to 10 inch which gave a better stability, in 1958, Rumi also produced a sports version called the Tipo Sport which had a 22 mm carburettor, larger exhaust pipes and a higher compression ratio. In 1957/58 and 1960, Rumi won the famous Bol dOr 24-hour races at Montlhery in France, in the UK, it sported dropped handlebars, chrome plated aluminium cylinders and twin carburettors but the French version favoured the Bol dor with a single 22 mm carburettor. Unfortunately, during the 1960s, Rumi went into liquidation and Donnino Rumi, List of Italian companies List of motorcycle manufacturers MotoRumi ForumMoto Rumi – A swarm of Formichini at the Montlhéry autodrome